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  1. 1. The Chemistry of LifeThe Chemistry of LifePresented By:Mrs. Nelson
  2. 2. ““Matter and Elements”Matter and Elements” Everything on earth is made of matter Matter - has mass and takes up space(volume). Matter is made up of atoms. Atom - smallest unit of matter. Element – made of only one type of atom.
  3. 3. Periodic TablePeriodic TableElement Symbols to LearnElement Symbols to Learn Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Sodium Magnesium Silicon Phosphorus Uranium Sulfur Chlorine Potassium Calcium Iron Zinc Iodine Mercury Lead
  4. 4. ““Structure of the Atom”Structure of the Atom” Nucleus: corecontains protonsand neutrons Protons (+) Neutrons (0) Electrons (-) orbitthe nucleus Atoms areelectrically neutral.
  5. 5. ““Element Key”Element Key”Atomic #SymbolAtomic Mass
  6. 6. Mass of an AtomMass of an Atom The mass of an atom is due to the mass of protons,neutrons, electrons. Protons and neutrons are HUGE vs. electrons. Protons and neutrons have essentially the same mass(1 amu). The more protons and neutrons, the heavier theatom. Electrons have essentially no mass (0.00001 amu). Most of the mass of atom located in nucleus.
  7. 7. Atomic Mass vs. Mass NumberAtomic mass- average mass of all theisotopes of an element (listed on theperiodic table)Mass Number- the amount of all theparticles with “significant” mass in an atom(technically not given on the periodic table)-protons + neutrons
  8. 8. ““Element Key”Element Key”Atomic #SymbolAtomic Mass(determines mass number)
  9. 9. IsotopesIsotopesAll atoms of same element have same # ofprotons and electrons.Ex.) Carbon has 6 protons and 6 electrons.Not all atoms have same # of neutrons.Carbon has 3 isotopes: Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carbon-14
  10. 10. Isotopes (cont.)Isotopes (cont.)Carbon has an atomic number of 6.This tells us?Carbon atoms all have 6 protons.Carbon has 3 isotopes: C-12, C-13, C-14.
  11. 11. IsotopesIsotopesHow many neutrons does each have?To determine the number of neutrons –must subtract number protons from massnumberCarbon-12 (6 p, 6 n, 6 e)Carbon-13 (6p, 7 n, 6 e)Carbon-14 (6p, 8n, 6 e)* The atomic mass of an atom is calculated byaveraging the masses of all the isotopes ofan element.
  12. 12. “Happy vs. Sad Atoms” Atoms want tohave full outerlevel of electrons. 2,8,8 Valenceelectrons
  13. 13. “Atomic Bonding”In order for atoms to be “happy,”they must gain, lose, or shareelectrons.Results in “bonding.”When atoms bond, they formcompounds.
  14. 14. “Chemical Formula”
  15. 15. Chemical FormulasChemical FormulasShows …1. The types of atoms in the compound.2. The number of atoms in the molecule.3. The total number of molecules.CO2Subscript2Coefficient
  16. 16. Chemical BondsChemical BondsThe atoms in a compound are held togetherby chemical bonds.There are two general types of chemicalbonds.1. Ionic bonds2. Covalent bonds
  17. 17. ““Ionic Bonding”Ionic Bonding”Ex.) Sodium ChlorideResults in atoms losing orgaining electrons.“Ions” are formed.“Ions” atoms with charges.Charge results from an unequalnumber of protons and electrons.
  18. 18. Ionic BondingIonic Bonding
  19. 19. ““Covalent Bonding”Covalent Bonding”Sometimes atoms don’t like to giveor take electrons.Atoms may “share” electrons.
  20. 20. “Polarity” Sometimes sharing is“unequal.” In water, the oxygenatom “pulls” harderon electrons. Gives oxygen anegative charge andhydrogen positivecharge.
  21. 21. The Chemistry of WaterThe Chemistry of WaterWater is the single mostabundant compound found inliving things.Water is an essential componentto your cells.The inside of every body cellconsists of over 90% water.
  22. 22. The Water MoleculeThe Water MoleculeWater molecules contain“covalent” bonds.The water molecule is“polar.”Negative pole is near theoxygen end.Positive pole is near thehydrogen end.
  23. 23. Hydrogen BondsHydrogen BondsBecause of their partial+ and – charges, watermolecules attract eachother.Remember… Oppositesattract!!!
  24. 24. CohesionCohesionThe hydrogen bonds thatform between watermolecules are what allowsspiders to walk on water.Water is cohesive.Cohesion is the attractionbetween molecules of THESAME substance.Water sticks to itself.
  25. 25. AdhesionAdhesionAdhesion is the attraction between moleculesof DIFFERENT substances.Water sticks to other stuff!
  26. 26. SolutionsSolutionsWater is not always pure.It is often found mixed with other substances.Solutions occur when a substance is dissolved inwater. The substance is evenly distributedthroughout the water.In every solution, there is a solute and solvent.The solvent does the dissolvingThe solute gets dissolved.Ex.) saltwater
  27. 27. SuspensionsSuspensionsA suspension occurs when materials don’tdissolve in a substance.Ex.) Italian salad dressing.Ex.) Blood – actually is a solution and asuspension.