Learn about Birthstones


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Learn about Birthstones

  1. 1. Birthstones<br />Mrs. Denise R. Woolen<br />Moyer Fine Jewelers<br />
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  3. 3. History<br />The first century Jewish historian Josephus proclaimed a connection between the twelve stones in Aaron&apos;s breastplate, the twelve months of the year and the twelve signs of the zodiac. [8] The Breastplate of Aaron, referred to in Exodus 39:10-14:<br />10 Then they mounted four rows of precious stones on it. In the first row there was a ruby, a topaz and a beryl;<br />11 in the second row a turquoise, a sapphire and an emerald;<br />12 in the third row a jacinth, an agate and an amethyst;<br />13 in the fourth row a chrysolite, an onyx and a jasper. They were mounted in gold filigree settings.<br />14 There were twelve stones, one for each of the names of the sons of Israel, each engraved like a seal with the name of one of the twelve tribes.<br />The precise list of birthstones however can be found in Revelation 21:19-20 where the foundation stones of the new Jerusalem are listed, in the order of the Roman calendar:[citation needed]<br />14 And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. . .<br />19 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;<br />20 The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolyte; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst.<br />
  4. 4. History<br />The custom of actually wearing birthstones first gained popularity in Poland in the fifteenth century. Tradition suggested everyone wear the birthstone for each month, since the powers of the gemstone were heightened during its month. For the fullest effect, indivuduals needed to own an entire set of twelve gemstones and rotate them monthly.<br />
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  6. 6. January<br />Garnet<br />Garnet, the birthstone for January,  signifies eternal friendship and trust and is the perfect gift for a friend.  Garnet, derived from the word granatum, means seed, and is called so because of the gemstone&apos;s resemblance to a pomegranate seed.  References to the gemstone dates back to 3100 B.C., when the Egyptians used garnets as inlays jewelry.  Garnet is the name of a group of minerals that comes in a rainbow of colors, from the deep red of the pyrope garnet to the vibrant green of tsavorites.  Today, the most important sources for garnet are Africa, Sri Lanka, and India.<br />
  7. 7. Garnet<br />Garnet is the accepted birthstone for the month of January. It is also the accepted anniversary gemstone for the second year of marriage.<br />When most people think of garnet, they picture the dark red bohemian garnet that was popular in Victorian times. You may be surprised to learn that garnets are found in every color except blue, including brilliant green tsavorite garnet, raspberry pink rhodolite garnet, and orange malaya garnet. Bright red &quot;anthill&quot; garnets are found in Arizona. The Tsars of Russia favored rare green damantoid garnets.<br />Garnets offer enough variety in appearance to suit every taste, as well as an outstanding price range to suit every pocketbook.<br />Legend holds that Noah hung a large garnet in the ark for illumination. It reportedly also gives its wearer guidance in the night, protection from nightmares, and according to the Egyptians, is an antidote for snake bites and food poisoning. It was also thought to have a special affinity with the blood.<br />Garnets are durable and brilliant and will give years of pleasure.<br />As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect it from scratches, sharp blows, and extreme tempera-ture changes.<br />Garnets are found in the U.S., Africa, Sri Lanka, Brazil and India. <br />
  8. 8. February<br />Amethyst<br />Amethyst, the gemstone believed by ancient Greeks and Romans to ward off the intoxicating powers of Bacchus, also is said to keep the wearer clear-headed and quick-witted.  Throughout history, the gemstone has been associated with many myths, legends, religions, and numerous cultures.  English regalia were even decorated with amethysts during the Middle Ages to symbolize royalty. It has been associated with many myths, legends, religions, and numerous cultures. Amethyst is purple quartz, a beautiful blend of violet and red that can found in every corner of the earth. Historically, the finest amethyst were found in Russia and were featured in much royal European jewelry.  Today, while Brazil is the primary source of this gemstone, fine material can be found elsewhere, especially in Zambia. <br />
  9. 9. Amethyst<br />Amethyst is the recognized birthstone for February and the accepted anniversary gemstone for the sixth year of marriage.<br />Amethyst is a variety of quartz, and comes in pale lilac to rich, deep purple shades. Ideally, it is a deep medium purple with rose-colored flashes that give amethyst its beauty and fire.<br />Because of its abundance, it is readily available in all sizes and shapes. It is durable and can be worn every day. Coupled with the folk legend of the Greeks that it will prevent intoxication when worn, it becomes a most desirable gem!<br />Amethyst was said to have a sobering effect on the wearer-not only those who indulged but on those over-excited by love&apos;s passion as well. It has symbolized peace, protection and tranquility. Some say it will<br />prevent baldness and improve the complexion, as well as protect from treason and deceit. Because royalty has always adored the color purple, amethysts abound in the ornaments of ancient Greeks and Egyptians, and in the British Crown Jewels.<br />As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect it from scratches and sharp blows.<br />It is found mainly in Brazil, Uruguay and Zambia. <br />
  10. 10. March<br />Aquamarine or Bloodstone<br />The two birthstones for March are aquamarine and bloodstone.<br />The name aquamarine is derived from the Latin word aqua, meaning water, and marina, meaning the sea.  This gemstone was believed to protect sailors, as well as to guarantee a safe voyage.  The serene color of aquamarine is said to cool the temper, allowing the wearer to remain calm and levelheaded.  Its pale, cool color beautifully complements spring and summer wardrobes.  Aquamarine is most often light in tone and ranges from greenish blue to blue-green; the color usually is more intense in larger stones.  This gemstone is mined mainly in Brazil, but also is found in Nigeria, Madagascar, Zambia, Pakistan, and Mozambique.<br /> <br />The second birthstone for March is bloodstone, a dark-green jasper flecked with vivid red spots of iron oxide.  This ancient stone was used by the Babylonians to make seals and amulets and was believed to have healing powers — especially for blood disorders.  It is sometimes called the martyr&apos;s stone as legend tells that it was created when drops of Christ&apos;s blood stained some jasper at the foot of the cross.  Generally found embedded in rocks or in riverbeds as pebbles, primary sources for this stone are India, Brazil, and Australia.<br />
  11. 11. Aquamarine or Bloodstone<br />Aquamarine is the traditional birthstone for March. It is also the accepted anniversary gem for the 19th year of marriage.<br />The ideal color of aquamarine is a refreshing pastel sea blue. Stones with a clear blue color without green or gray are generally the most valuable.<br />If you are looking for a big, durable gemstone, aqua is readily available in larger sizes and is truly dramatic when cut in rectangular or oval shapes. It is a member of the important beryl family, which also includes emerald.<br />In ancient times, the stone was said to aid seafarers; thus it is an excellent gift suggestion for sailors or one who takes frequent cruises! To dream of aquamarine signifies the making of new friends; to wear aquamarine earrings brings love and affection. It is a universal symbol of youth, hope and health.<br />As part of the normal finishing process, some aquamarines are heated to remove traces of yellow.<br />To maintain the brilliance of this beautiful gemstone, it should be immersed in jewelry cleaner or in lukewarm soapy water and cleaned with a small bristle brush.<br />Do not use a home ultrasonic machine.<br />As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect it from scratches and sharp blows.<br />Aquamarine is found mainly in Brazil, Nigeria, Zambia, Madagascar and Ukraine. <br />Bloodstone is an alternative birthstone for the month of March, and is often used as the stone of choice in men&apos;s rings.<br />Bloodstone one of the many varieties of jasper or chalcedony, is also known as Heliotrope. Bloodstone is an opaque dark green variety of chalcedony with red spots. Included hornblend needles produce the green color and the red spots are caused by iron oxide.<br />History: Early Christian legends held that the red spots were from Jesu&apos;s blood that fell on a piece of jasper at the foot of the Cross.<br />Bloodstone is the gem for the astrological sign of Aries. The primary sources of bloodstone are Australia, Brazil and India. <br />
  12. 12. April<br />Diamond<br />As the April birthstone, diamonds are the ideal gift for a loved one.  And now you have more choices than ever. Get creative and give the ultimate gift of beauty: a fancy-color diamond. Fancy-color diamonds are natural, rare and truly exotic gem of the earth.  Diamonds in hues of yellow, red, pink, blue, and green range in intensity from faint to vivid and generally the more saturated the color, the higher the value. In fact, diamonds sparkling with intense color are rare and may be priced higher than a colorless diamond of equal size.  Because fancy-color diamonds are very desirable, color is sometimes introduced in a laboratory. These are correctly called color-treated diamonds. When purchasing a fancy-color diamond, the shopper should ask if any enhancements or treatments were used to improve its color and/or clarity.<br />
  13. 13. Diamond<br />Diamond is the birthstone for the month of April. Besides being the most popular gemstone for engagement rings, diamond is the accepted anniversary gem for the 10th and 60th years of marriage.<br />The name &quot;diamond&quot; comes from the Greek word &quot;adamas&quot; meaning unconquerable-suggesting the eternity of love. In fact, diamonds have been the traditional symbol of love since ancient Greece. Discovered about 2,500 years ago in India, the ancients believed they were splinters from the stars, perhaps crystallized lightening or hardened dew drops.<br />Although diamonds are associated with being a colorless stone, they are occasionally found with a strong, bright color-green, red, pink, blue, canary yellow and amber. These &quot;fancy&quot; colored diamonds are highly-prized.<br />Occasionally, to improve appearance, diamonds are laser-drilled and, sometimes, a foreign substance is used to fill surface cavities or fractures. Diamonds may also be irradiated and/or heated to induce &quot;fancy&quot; colors.<br />Even though it is the most durable of gemstones, care should be taken to protect a diamond from sharp blows. Household chemicals may discolor or damage the mounting. To clean, you may use a jewelry cleaner, lukewarm soapy water and a small bristle brush, soak in a half-and-half solution of cold water and ammonia for 1/2 hour, or use a home ultrasonic machine with its recommended cleaner. <br />
  14. 14. May<br />Emerald<br />As the birthstone for May, the emerald, a symbol of rebirth, is believed to grant the owner foresight, good fortune, and youth. Emerald, derived from the word smaragdus, meaning green in Greek, was mined in Egypt as early as 330 B.C. Today, most of the world’s emeralds are mined in Colombia, Brazil, Afghanistan, and Zambia. The availability of high-quality emerald is limited; consequently, treatments to improve clarity are performed regularly.<br />
  15. 15. Emerald<br />Emerald is the birthstone for the month of May. It is also the anniversary gemstone for the 20th and 35th years of marriage.<br />Emerald is one of the most highly-prized of all the gems. The name comes from the Greek &quot;smaragdos&quot; which means green stone. The most prized is pure grass green.<br />Emeralds are often characterized by a garden of included crystals trapped within, known as the &quot;jardin&quot;, because under magnification you will see all sorts of lovely patterns resembling foliage in a garden. A flawless, clear emerald is very rare and is usually found in only small sizes. Small to medium sized stones are often faceted in the &quot;step&quot; or emerald cut. The gem is also lovely when cut into a cabochon or dome shape. Sometimes emeralds are even carved.<br />According to legend, the wearing of emerald not only cured a wide range of ailments, including low I.Q., poor eyesight and infertility, but also enabled the wearer to predict the future.<br />As part of the normal fashioning process, most emeralds are immersed in colorless oil or resin so small voids are not as noticeable.<br />Care should be taken to protect it from scratches, sharp blows, household chemicals, and extreme temperature changes. Do not use a home ultrasonic machine.<br />Emeralds are found mainly in Colombia, Brazil, Zambia and Zimbabwe. <br />
  16. 16. June<br />Pearl or Alexandrite<br />Historically, pearls have been used as an adornment for centuries.  They were one of the favorite gem materials of the Roman Empire; later in Tudor England, the 1500s were known as the pearl age.  Pearls are unique as they are the only gems from living sea creatures and require no faceting or polishing to reveal their natural beauty. In the early 1900s, the first successful commercial culturing of round saltwater pearls began. Since the 1920s, cultured pearls have almost completely replaced natural pearls in the market.<br />Alexandrite <br />A relatively modern gem, Alexandrite, was first discovered in Russia in 1831 during the reign of its namesake, Czar Alexander II, and is an extremely rare chrysoberyl with chameleon-like qualities.  Its color is a lovely green in both daylight and fluorescent light; it changes color to a purplish red in incandescent light.  Due to its rarity, some jewelers stock synthetic versions of this enchanting gemstone.  (Synthetic gemstones are man-made alternatives to the natural material, possessing the same physical, optical, and chemical properties as the natural gemstone.)<br /> <br />
  17. 17. Pearl or Alexandrite<br />Pearl is the birthstone for the month of June. It is also the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 3rd and 30th years of marriage.<br />A pearl is the product of an oyster&apos;s defense mechanism. When a foreign irritant is introduced either by man (cultured) or naturally, the oyster immediately surrounds it with layers of a substance called nacre. This forms the exquisite gemstone know as pearl.<br />Pearls come in a wide range of colors. They should be relatively free from skin blemishes. The more perfectly round the shape the better. The higher the luster, or &quot;orient&quot;, the more valuable the specimen. The larger the pearl, the greater the value.<br />Besides the popular round shape, there are stylish mabe (large hemispherical cultured pearls), fresh water (elongated in interesting shapes and colors), and South Sea (large cultured pearls 10mm and up from Australia&apos;s and Indonesia&apos;s waters), to name a few.<br />Pearls have been recognized as the emblem of modesty, chastity and purity. They have come to symbolize a happy marriage.<br />Avoid household chemicals, cosmetics, hair sprays, and perfumes. Don&apos;t use ultrasonic cleaners. Wash with mild soap and water and store in a protective chamois pouch or tissue paper.<br />Alexandrite the traditional birthstone for June is a beautiful, but very rare stone. It is very difficult to find natural alexandrite. Most Alexandrites on the market are synthetic or created. Alexandrite rings are very beautiful. If Alexandrite is set in a ring, the wearer can watch the color change from green to red, mauve or brown in incadescent light. Alexandrite has a hardness rating of 8.5. <br />Care should be taken to protect it from scratches, sharp blows, harsh chemicals and extreme temperatures. <br />Alexandrite has been found in Brazil, Madagascar, Myanmar, Russia, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. <br />
  18. 18. July<br />Ruby<br />There’s no better way to demonstrate your love than by giving a ruby in celebration of a July birthday. Rubies arouse the senses, stir the imagination, and are said to guarantee health, wisdom, wealth and success in love. Ruby is a variety of the gems species corundum. It is harder than any natural gemstone except diamond, which means a ruby is durable enough for everyday wear. Fine-quality ruby is extremely rare, and the color of the gem is most important to its value. The most prized color is a medium or medium dark vivid red or slightly purplish red. If the gem is too light or has too much purple or orange, it will be called a fancy-color sapphire.<br /> <br />
  19. 19. Ruby<br />Ruby is the accepted birthstone for July. It is also the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 15th and 40th year.<br />Ruby is known as the &quot;Lord of the Gems&quot; because of its rarity and beauty. Derived from the Latin word &quot;ruber&quot;, it simply means red. Ruby, like sapphire, is a variety of corundum and only exists as a true red in color. The finest color is a vivid, almost pure spectral red with a very faint undertone of blue, as seen in Burmese rubies which are considered the finest.<br />The highest quality rubies are said to protect their owners from all kinds of misfortune. A fine ruby assured the owner he would live in harmony with his neighbors. It would protect his stature in life, his home and land. Its protective powers were intensified when set in jewelry, and worn on the left side. Many believed rubies possessed an inner flame which burned eternally.<br />As part of the customary fashioning process, virtually all rubies are heated to permanently improve their color and appearance.<br />As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect it from scratches and sharp blows.<br />The finest rubies emanate from Burma, having been mined there since ancient times. Other sources include Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Tanzania, Cambodia, Afghanistan and India. <br />
  20. 20. August<br />Peridot<br />Peridotis said to host magical powers and healing properties to protect against nightmares and to bring the wearer power, influence, and a wonderful year.  As peridot is a gemstone that forms deep inside the Earth and brought to the surface by volcanoes, in Hawaii, peridot symbolizes the tears of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes.  Today, most of the peridot supply comes from Arizona; other sources are China, Myanmar, and Pakistan.  This gemstone comes in several color variations ranging from yellowish green to brown, but most consumers are attracted to the bright lime greens and olive greens.  Peridot, in smaller sizes, often is used in beaded necklaces and bracelets.<br /> <br />
  21. 21. Peridot<br />Peridot is the accepted birthstone for August. It is also the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 16th year of marriage.<br />Peridot should be a lively lime green, without a brownish or olive cast.<br />Peridot is the child of volcanic action. Tiny peridot crystals are sometimes combed from the black sands of Hawaii.<br />Peridots were favored by pirates, considered powerful amulets against all evil, and when set in gold, were said to protect the wearer from the terrors of the night. They had medicinal uses, too. If fashioned into a chalice from which medicines were drunk, they intensified the effects of the drug.<br />Care should be taken to protect peridot from scratches, sharp blows, household chemicals and extreme temperature changes. Do not use a home ultrasonic machine for cleaning.<br />The peridot is abundant, and is available in larger sizes. It is found in Burma and the U.S.<br />The most important source of peridot in the world is the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation near Globe, Arizona, where it is mined by native Americans.<br />Large sizes are mined in Myanmar (Burma) and peridot is also found in China. <br />
  22. 22. September<br />Sapphire<br />Sapphire, the September birthstone, has been popular since the Middle Ages and, according to folklore, will protect your loved ones from envy and harm.  Medieval clergy wore sapphires to symbolize heaven, while commoners thought the gem attracted heavenly blessings.  Blue sapphires range from very light to very dark greenish or violetish blue, as well as various shades of pure blue.  The most prized colors are a medium to medium dark blue or slightly violetish blue.  Sapphire is a variety of the gem species corundum and occurs in all colors of the  rainbow.  Pink, purple, green, orange, or yellow corundum are known by their color (pink sapphire, green sapphire).  Ruby is the red variety of corundum.<br />
  23. 23. Sapphire<br />Sapphire is the September birthstone as well as the accepted anniversary gem for the 5th and 45th years of marriage.<br />Sapphire, a variety of corundum, comes in all colors except red (the red variety being known as ruby), but is especially popular in deep blue. Fancy colored sapphires-including pink, green, orange, and golden yellow-are magnificent when combined in a necklace or bracelet.<br />Prince Charles chose a blue sapphire for Princess Diana&apos;s engagement ring. The stone&apos;s durability, combined with its beauty, makes it the perfect alternative for an engagement ring.<br />Ancient priests and sorcerers honored sapphire above all gems, for this stone enabled them to interpret oracles and foretell the future. Ancients believed the Ten Commandments were written on a sapphire tablet. Marriage partners put great faith in the stone. If its luster dimmed, one knew his or her spouse had been unfaithful. Sapphire refused to shine when worn by the wicked or impure.<br />As part of the customary fashioning process, virtually all blue, yellow and golden sapphires are heated to permanently produce or intensify their color.<br />As with all gemstones, care should be taken to protect it from scratches and sharp blows.<br />Sapphire is found in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar (Burma), Kasmir, Australia, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, China and the U.S. <br />
  24. 24. October<br />Opal or Tourmaline<br />October is another month with two birthstone choices – Tourmaline and Opal.<br />Tourmaline has become a favorite gemstone among jewelry designer, and gem collectors the world over. Since it is available in a wide variety of colors, it is ideally suited to almost anyone&apos;s taste. Tourmaline also is known for displaying several colors in the same gemstone.  These bi-color or tri-color gems are formed in many combinations; gemstones with clear color distinctions are highly prized.  One multi-color variety is known as watermelon tourmaline, and features green, pink, and white colors bands; to resemble its namesake, the gemstone is cut into thin slices having a pink center, white ring, and green edge.  Tourmaline is found in many localities including Brazil, Afghanistan, East Africa, and the USA.<br />The name opal derives from the Greek Opallos, meaning &quot;to see a change (of color).&quot;  Opals range in color from milky white to black with flashes of yellow, orange, green, red, and blue. An opal&apos;s beauty is the product of contrast between its color play and its background.  Opal is a formation of non-crystalline silica gel that seeped into crevices in the sedimentary strata. Through time and nature&apos;s heating and molding processes, the gel hardened into the form of opals. The opal is composed of particles closely packed in spherical arrangements. When packed together in a regular pattern, a three-dimensional array of spaces are created that give opal its radiance.<br />
  25. 25. Opal or Tourmaline<br />Opal is the October birthstone as well as the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 14th year of marriage.<br />The well-known Roman naturalist Pliny described opal as &quot;made up of the glories of the most precious gems... the gentler fire of the ruby, the rich purple of the amethyst, the sea-green of the emerald, glittering together...&quot;<br />White opal has a white or light body color with flashes of many colors. Black opal has a black, dark blue, dark green or gray body color with vivid flashes of color such as red, pink and bright green.<br />Opal has symbolized hope, innocence and purity through the ages. In the Middle Ages, young, fair-haired girls wore opals in their hair to protect its lovely blond color. Medieval writers believed opal could render its wearer invisible when the need arose. It was also said to have a beneficial effect on eyesight. It was thought to banish evil spirits and favor children, the theater, amusements, friendships and feelings.<br />Care should be taken to protect it from scratches, sharp blows, household chemicals, and extreme temperature changes. To maintain the brilliance of opal, it should be wiped clean with a soft cloth. Do not use a home ultrasonic machine or jewelry cleaner.<br />Opal sources are Australia, Mexico and the U.S.<br />Sometimes tourmaline is used as a birthstone for October as it comes in many colors such as blue, yellow, pink, red, black, green and clear - but primarily in pink and green. It also occurs in color combinations within single stones which accounts for its popularity. Having a hardness of 7.5 and not being as fragile as opal Tourmaline is often selected by those who prefer faceted stones. <br />As with all gems, care should be taken to protect tourmaline from scratches and sharp blows. Also avoid large temperature changes (such as leaving it be a heater vent or in a hot car). Do not clean tourmaline in a home ultrasonic cleaner. <br />Tourmaline is found in Africa, Brazil, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and USA (California, Connecticut, Maine, New York and Texas). <br />
  26. 26. November<br />Topaz or Citrine<br />Two gems are appropriate for November birthdays - Topaz and Citrine.<br />Topaz is a gemstone available in a rich rainbow of colors. Prized for several thousand years in antiquity, all yellow gems in antiquity were called topaz. Often confused with citrine quartz (yellow) and smoky quartz (brown), quartz and topaz are separate and unrelated mineral species. The most prized color of topaz is called Imperial topaz after the Russian Czars of the 1800s and features a magnificent orange body color with pinkish undertones. Topaz also comes in yellow, pink, purple, orange, and the many popular blue tones.<br />Citrine, the other birthstone for November is known as the &quot;healing quartz&quot;. This golden gemstone is said to support vitality and health while encouraging and guiding hope, energy and warmth within the wearer. Citrine can be found in a variety of shades ranging from pastel yellow to dark brownish orange. It is one of the most affordable of gemstones and plentiful in nature. Citrine is found most frequently in Brazil, Bolivia, and Spain.<br />
  27. 27. Topaz or Citrine<br />Topaz is the accepted birthstone for November. Blue topaz is the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 4th year; Imperial topaz for the 23rd year of marriage.<br />Most people think of topaz as a transparent golden yellow gemstone. However, this gemstone occurs colorless as well as orange-yellow, red, honey-brown (dark sherry), light green, blue and pink.<br />The name topaz is derived from the Greek word meaning &quot;to shine&quot; and also implies &quot;fire&quot;. Orange-red &quot;Imperial&quot; topaz and pink colors are rare and most valuable.<br />The lore, magic and romance of topaz goes back many thousands of years. It holds the distinction of being the gemstone with the widest range of curative powers. The Greeks felt it gave them strength. In addition, it supposedly cooled tempers, restored sanity, cured asthma, relieved insomnia and even warded off sudden death. Topaz is said to make its wearer invisible in time of emergency. It proved the loyalty of associates by changing color in the presence of poison.<br />As part of the normal fashioning process, most brownish to sherry brown topaz are heated to produce a permanent pink color. Certain types of topaz are irradiated and heated to produce shades of blue.<br />Topaz is found mainly in Brazil, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and China.<br />Smoky Quartz or Citrine are often used an alternative to topaz because it appears in many of the same colors as topaz. Unlike topaz, smoky quartz and citrine are readily available and inexpensive even in large <br />
  28. 28. December<br />Tanzanite, Turquoise and Blue Zircon<br />Discovered in the late 1960s in Tanzania, and found exclusively in this tiny area of the world, tanzanite exhibits a rich violet-blue color for which the gemstone is treasured; often it is heat-treated to achieve this color.  Colors range from blue to purple, and tanzanites that are medium dark in tone, vivid in saturation, and slightly violet blue command premium prices.  As tanzanite can be less expensive than sapphire, it often was purchased as an alternative.  However, it has increased in popularity and now is valued more for its own beauty and brilliance than as a sapphire substitute.<br />Derived from the Arabic words zarand gun, meaning gold and color, zircon is found in a wide range of colors such as: blue, yellow, orange, brown, green, colorless, and red (the most prized color). For many years colorless zircon was used to imitate diamonds.  Folk wisdom grants zircon the power to relieve pain, whet the appetite, protect travelers from disease and injury, to ensure a warm welcome, and to prevent nightmares guaranteeing a deep, tranquil sleep.  Major sources of zircon are the Chanthaburi area of Thailand, the Palin area of Cambodia, and the southern part of Vietnam.<br />The name turquoise, from the French expression Pierretourques or Turkish stone, originated in the thirteenth century and describes one of the oldest known gemstones. Turquoise varies in color from greenish blue, through robin&apos;s egg-blue, to sky blue shades and its transparency ranges from translucent  to opaque. Turquoise is plentiful and is available in a wide range of sizes. It is most often used for beads, cabochons, carvings, and inlays. Although its popularity fluctuates in fashion, it is a perennial favorite in the American Southwest.<br />
  29. 29. Turquoise or Blue Zircon<br /> <br />Turquoise is the accepted birthstone for December and is the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 11th year of marriage.<br />Colors in turquoise range from sky blue (most desirable color) to blue green and apple green.<br />The name means &quot;Turkish stone&quot; because the trade route that brought it to Europe used to come via Turkey. The best qualities are found in northeast Iran (Persian turquoise). However, the United States southwest is now the world leader in production.<br />The deposits in Sinai were already worked out by 4,000 BC. At that time the stone was used for jewelry, amulets and in the preparation of cosmetics.<br />During the 16th century turquoise was used as currency by the Southwest Indians. They believed the gemstone could bring spoils to the warrior, animals to the hunter, and happiness and good fortune to all.<br />Although large quantities of beautiful turquoise which have not been color enhanced are available, today&apos;s turquoise is commonly stabilized with plastic to improve its color and durability. Chalky varieties of turquoise are normally impregnated with oil or wax to enhance color. This color change may not be permanent.<br />Care should be taken to protect it from scratches, sharp blows, hot water, and household chemicals. Do not use a home ultrasonic machine.<br />Zircon though not mass marketed due to limited availibility is sometimes selected by those who prefer faceted stones. Zircon is a natural stone - not to be confused with Cubic Zirconia which is manmade. Colorless zircone is used to imitate diamonds but also comes in: blue, yellow, orange, red, brown and green. It has a hardness of 7.5. <br />Care: Zircon is somewhat soft so avoid scratches and sharp blows. Avoid hot water and household chemicals. Zircon will have more wear on its facets than diamond. Zircon is imitated by colorless glass and synthetic spinel. <br />Zircon is found in Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, France, Myanmar, Nigeria, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. <br />
  30. 30. Modern Birthstones<br />Modern birthstones<br />In 1912, in an effort to standardize them, the American national association of jewelers, Jewelers of America, officially adopted a list, shown in the &quot;Modern&quot; column in the table below. It is currently the most widely used list in the United States and many other locations, including Australia and Thailand. Some alternates have been adopted to be a less expensive substitute for a cut stone. Tanzanite was added to December by the American Gem Trade Association in 2002. Most organizations[who?] do not recognize tanzanite as a December birthstone,[citation needed] however, as lists of birthstones continue to be published[citation needed] that do not list it. AGTA&apos;s move to make it a December birthstone has generally been viewed as a marketing technique.[citation needed] This hasn&apos;t been limited to tanzanite, however -- some birthstone lists incorrectly give blue topaz as being a birthstone for December. Some stores will simply list a blue stone for December, as a substitute, or a pink stone for October and call it &quot;rose zircon&quot;. Still others give May&apos;s birthstone as the &quot;shamrock spinel&quot;, when in reality, spinel does not occur green naturally.[4][5]<br />