E-LearningE-learning is a new style of distancelearning, where the content isdelivered along activities andinteractions with the instructorsand other classmates throughelectronic devices and the Internet.Students in e-learning situations canbe located in the classroom oranywhere in the world.
E-Learning TypesSynchronous e-learning :Is the type of learning that requires the learners andinstructor to use the communication tools in the sametime. In this way they can communicate information atthe same time to teach and learn the subject topics.This could be done by using instant messagesapplications or teaching the lectures using the virtuallearning classrooms.Asynchronous e- learning:Is the type of learning in which the student receives thelessons based on planed schedule but not restrictedwith specific time. Learning activities, multimedia,internet sites , CDs, discussion forums, Wiki forums ande-mail are deployed to deliver this type of learning.
Instructor Role in E-learning SituationsElectronic learning doesn’t eliminatesthe instructor role in learning situations.However, the instructor goal shifts frombeing spoon-feeding of the informationto a mix role between leader, researchproject manager, facilitator andstudents mentor.The instructor becomes a designer ass/he delivers the subject by choosingand using the learning materials andmultimedia .
Instructor Role in E-learning Situations Instructor should shift the teaching strategy from one way (Teacher to Students) to a student- centered learning environment, that enables the student to be active ,creative , self learner and discussion starter. Develop practical understanding of the students needs and characteristics Choosing teaching strategies suit the students needs Develop good understanding of educational technology , keeping in mind the significance of his academic role. Develop and deliver good e-learning content or manage designers through the process of e-learning content development.
Instructor Role in E-learning Situations Technology Researcher Designer E-Courses instructor Facilitator Helper Guidance Manger provider
Students Role in E-learning Situations Information seeker Information founder or explorer Active participator in the discussion Controller of his time and learning activities Information evaluator Exchange experts and information with other colleagues
Instructional Design ConceptsInstructional design is a systematicprocedure that includes learning analysis, design , developments, implementationand evaluation steps. Using these steps,general principles of learning andteaching should be translated into plansof learning activities and assessment.
Instructional design models There are many instructional design models with similar steps, the only difference between these models is the details different that the steps may contain. Instructional design models: ADDIE, Dick and Carey & Gangee…etc
ADDIE ModelAnalysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation
Instructional Designer roles Review and re-write the learning objectives Design the content in an educational manner Review the assessment methods and ensure they are suitable for student levels and motivation Ensure that content has no errors. Ensure that the content format is suitable and attractive for students.
E-Course Standards Standards can be defined as "documented agreementscontaining technical specifications or other precise criteria to beused consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions ofcharacteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes andservices are fit for their purpose" (Bryden, 2003; p. 3). In the context of e-learning technology, standards are generallydeveloped to be used in systems design and implementation in botheducational and technical sided for the purposes of ensuring qualityframework for e-course which consist of main six factors and thereare criteria which must be followed for covering the e-contentquality.
guidelines for planning e-course1- Variety of content sources and media formats to motivate learning, appeal to different student needs, provide multiple perspectives on issues, and draw upon resources available on the Web.2- Divide the content into units or modules. Each module should include its relevant subtopics, objectives, materials, and activities. A modular structure makes it easier for students to locate all the information.3- Chunk and format the content for the Web. Break the content down into manageable pieces and use headings, bullets, graphics, and other formatting devices that make Webpages easier to read and comprehend.4- Relevance. Trigger intrinsic motivation to learn by articulating the contents relevance to learner needs and learning objectives. Provide familiar or real-world examples, and write in a conversational style.5- Accessibility. Use technologies available to the learners. Format course materials to comply with accessibility standards for students with visual, hearing, and other disabilities.6- Copyright. If you are including sources in your course, you should determine if copyright permission is needed. Websites often have statements about their copyright policy, including whom to contact for permission.
Course design criteriaCriteria for developing a qualified e-course The following principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective e-courses. The following rubric includes major areas with essential standards for quality e-courses.1- Authority This information specifies the name of the educational institution that provides the e-content. The author information (qualification, contact, email, working hours,..), Determine the team work and their qualifications and experience. References and sources used in the e- content, Evaluate and approve the content Course ownership and copyright status are indicated. Copyrighted information has been cleared for use in the course.
Course design criteria2- General information about the course At the beginning of the course learners provided with general information that will assist them in completing the course and in understanding its objectives and procedures. Determine the course name. A detailed table of contents includes objectives and learning outcomes. Required enrollment information. Prerequisite needed to enroll at that course. The e-course should contain the Course Map.
Course design criteria3- Content Design Learning objectives are clearly stated and explained. They assist students in focusing their efforts in the course. Students should be provided with a clear, measurable description of what they will be able to do and experience as a result of having successfully completed the e-course. A variety of instructional or learning activities are used to promote interactivity. These may include online discussions, online conferencing, collaborative assignments, and listserv participation. The course contains learning goals and objectives Learning objectives are measurable E-content focuses on cognitive skills and the specific skills included in the content. E-content covers all the goals, concepts and behaviors involved in the content. Coherence and integration between the expertises provided by the content. Sequence in the presentation of course content. Grammar and spelling are correct. Free content from repeating mistakes. Organize content in the form of a written sequentially according to sequential organization. Split content into short chunks threaded to achieve learning objectives.
Course design criteria4- Multimedia Multimedia clips, such as audio and video clips, are included only if the learners have access to the appropriate hardware and software and these items are specified at the beginning of the course. Learning materials are appropriate for the learners and the subject matter. Various learning resources are used to ensure compatibility with learners’ different interests, abilities, and learning styles. Be sure that URLs and media work as well as graphics display. Text appears on the screen clearly. Use three easy to read fonts with three sizes. Titles and paragraphs short while avoid using of long paragraphs. Contrast color line text with the background color. The duration of the video clip no more than 45 seconds. Ability to turn off the display of videos and playback when needed. Avoid the screen contains more of a video clip. T taking into accounts the synchronization between audio and video. Illustrations, photographs, animations, and other forms of multimedia are used to present facts. Images are of good quality and illustrative of ideas, directions, and other text explanations.
Course design criteria5- Navigation The course has a consistent and intuitive navigation system enabling students to quickly locate course information and materials. Site navigation menu is placed in a consistent location on each page. Each hyperlink uses wording that clearly identifies where it leads. All hyperlinks that take the learner out of the course are clearly labeled. Standard colors are used for links and visited links All the pages contain a button to return back to the home page. Fixed position of the navigation tools within pages. Use graphical navigation tools such as graphical icons. Minimize text links in a single text section to ensure no distractions.
Course design criteria6- Links Standard colors are used for links and visited links. Links are provided to material within and external to the course. Links are valid for safety pages. Information in the site link is true and accurate scientifically and linguistically. The possibility of using images as links or connections. Hyperlink text explains the content of the link. Change the color of the link after it is used.7- Objectivity File naming and the directory structure of the course are intelligible to others who may need to work on the course. Help information is clearly indicated. Information is presented in a sufficiently nonlinear organization so that students can reach their destination in as direct a manner as possible. The design is flexible for developers and instructors for the changes needs of the course. E-content is free from advertisements. Not intolerance to a particular race or religion.
Course design criteria8- Consistency The overall look of a single e-course includes splash screens, design elements. It refers to icons, size boxes, scroll arrows, etc. The appearance of such objects needs to be strictly controlled if people are not to spend half their time trying to figure out how to scroll or how to print. It makes sense to standardize location. Use the same page design through the entire e-course Standardization of assistance in all parts of the course. Unify the use of different types of feedback. Uniformity between the sizes and where your content elements
Course design criteria9- Accessibility Students have easy access to an course syllabus which contains crucial course information and requirements they need to know about the course prior to starting. The syllabus is easily accessible from within the online course. An index lists key words or topics. A glossary defines unusual or technical terms used in the course and may provide links to sources of supplementary information. Ensured that the infrastructure and server can handle the number of learners enrolled in the course. Links within the course are provided to other parts of the course. Page headers or footers identify where the learner is in the course. Consideration is given to learners who may have visual or auditory weakness.
Course design criteria10- Orientation And Help Technical support includes information about topics such as how to log in, how to retrieve passwords, how to use the software, and how to report software failures. Technical support does not include help with course content, questions about assignments, exam dates or academic issues. Information regarding access to technical support is clearly communicated to students. For new students, an e-mail and/or printed letter is sent at the beginning of the course to explain how to get to the course. A course orientation section or introductory lesson in the course E-course links to a clear description of the technical support offered. E-course links to an explanation of how the institution’s academic support system can assist the student in effectively using the resources provided. E-course links to an explanation of how the institution’s student support services can help students reach their educational goals. Course instructions answer basic questions related to research, technology, etc., or link to tutorials or other resources that provide the information.
Course design criteria11- Interactivity The learning activities are clearly derived from the learning objectives. The learning activities enable students who have completed the activities to master the related learning objective. Activities are planned so that students will be engaged in multiple ways with the course material, the instructor, and each other to reach course goals and objectives. Activities engage and motivate the learners. Learners must frequently respond to questions, select options, provide information, or contact others. Activities develop appropriate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills. Activities encourage critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving. Activities and materials are presented sequentially in order of difficulty. Learners are encouraged to interact with others and benefit from their experience and professional expertise. Learners are linked to resources beyond the course material. Activities are sequenced logically, as in a hierarchical or chronological manner. The number of activities is sufficient to support learning. Activities are realistic and appropriate and can be performed with the resources and time available to the learners.
Course design criteria12- Accuracy Accurately identify activities that will be done by the student. Determine of resources that can be consulted to verify the validity of the course. Accurately, register teacher and students data to facilitate communication and interaction between them. Non-maximizing at request of students personal data. The e-course is free from the mistakes of the design and programming.13- Safety Ensure that sites links are safe and dont cause harm to the operating system. Provide a sufficient degree of security of personal information for learners and teachers. Provide the course through a safe system that verify of each user. Ask student information that distinguishes between enrolled students and others. Not allowed to amend data within the course without students password. Maintaining the confidentiality of the record of each student so that no one can other students read.
Course design criteria14- Currency Regularly updating, modifying and changing the content. Identify date of the last modification. Mention the number of modernization and revision The used material resources as links, books and sites are modern and updated. Verification of the effectiveness of the linkages and that some of them have expired or moved.15- Costs Fit cost techniques used in the design and deployment of e-content with the return of investment. Get the sources associated with the e-content for free. Possibility to download free references and some programs needed to run files.