Hide and skin defect

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External parasitism results in poor quality livestock product especially hide and skins and lost income to producers. They seriously damage hide and skins resulting in the rejection or downgrading of the hide and skins
Parasite that cause hide and skin damage include
 Mites
 Chorioptic Mange
 Psoroptic Mange
 Sarcoptic Mange
 Demodectic Mange
 Ticks
 Fleas
 Louse

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Hide and skin defect

  1. 1. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 1 Jimma University College of agriculture and veterinary medicine Hide and defect due to parasite PARASITIC HIDE AND SKIN DISEASES By Nejash Abdela Ahmed NOVEMBER11 2013 JIMMA
  2. 2. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 2 PARASITIC HIDE AND SKIN DISEASES (Hide and skindefectdue to parasite) INTRODUCTION External parasitism results in poor quality livestock product especially hide and skins and lost income to producers. They seriously damage hide and skins resulting in the rejection or downgrading of the hide and skins. They Cause huge economic losses through skin damage rendering it unsuitable for the leather industry. Ethiopia used to get the second largest foreign currency earnings from the export of skins and hides. This has been deteriorating due to the decrease in skin quality. Thirty years ago tanneries in Ethiopia used to produce 70% of processed skins with grades 1-3. About 10-20% of the skins were graded as poor quality. Currently, only 10-15% is in the good category while the rest are downgraded or rejected due to the increase in external parasite infestations during the period. SOUCE: ESGPIP Parasitethat cause hideand skin damageinclude  Mites  Chorioptic Mange  Psoroptic Mange  Sarcoptic Mange  Demodectic Mange  Ticks  Fleas  Louse Ticks feed by attaching themselves to the animal and abstracting blood. The mouth part punctures the skins, causing visible damage to the hide and results in holes in the leather. Mites’ damage leads to skin inflammation and is often accompanied by hair and wool loss. Demodex is common mange, especially in goats. This mange enters the hair follicles and sebaceous glands producing a chronic inflammation with proliferation and thickening of the epidermis and loss of hair. It can be easily detected at the raw material stage. It can be a major cause of downgrading skin quality at the tannery. Lice cause localized areas of inflammation and possible scar tissue, rough hair or coat, licked hair, constant rubbing against fence or equipment which leads to the hair loss. Melophagus Ovinus (sheep keds)is a flat brown insect and is blood sucker which measure about 6mm in length and occurs on sheep in most part of the world. Its life cycles spent entirely on the host and spread by contact between hosts. Its existence on the host caused irritation with resulting scratching, biting and damage to the fleece which is further down graded by staining by the fleece of the ked. Heavy infestation causes skin blemishes which reduce the marketable value of the skin and of any leather made from it. It causes “cockle” or rib cockle in sheep skin
  3. 3. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE ide and skin defect due to p rasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 3 Mites Mites Cause the skin disease known as mange in animals. Mites can cause extensive and visible damage but cannot be seen by the naked eye and is a serious cause of hide and skin defects in Ethiopia. Characterized by skin lesions, itching, and loss of hair and occurs in any species. The infestation usually begins in areas of minimal hair growth, such as the nose, around the eyes, and on the elbows; the lesions consist of follicular papules, areas of erythema, crusts of dried serum and blood, and ex-coriations from scratching to relieve the intense skin irritation. animals rub themselves fiercely against rough surfaces, causing hair loss, lesions, blisters and, most likely, infection feed on lymph as well as dead cells and other debris resulting in 'barn itch'' with hair loss and scabbiness. The skin under the infected area becomes swollen and inflamed. There are different types of mange, depending on the type of mite involved: sarcoptic mange, demodectic mange, chorioptic mange and psoroptic mange Chorioptic mange: Caused by Chorioptic mange mites. This condition is often referred to as leg mange or foot mange because of the distribution of the lesions, which are usually limited to the lower limbs extending up the limbs to affect the scrotum in males or udder in females. Chorioptic mange is characterized by the production of crusts and flaking especially on the backs of the feet. It causes the downgrading of skins to the tanneries. Sarcoptic mange Sarcoptic mange is caused by infestation with Sarcoptes scabei variety capri in goats and variety ovis in sheep. It is more common and severe in goats, spreading extensively and in some instances causing deaths. Sarcoptic mange is more acute than the other forms of mange in that it may involve the entire body surface in a short time. It usually starts on a relatively hairless part of the skin and May latter generalize. Sarcoptic mange is chronic mange that may affect large areas of the body. It Figure 1Chorioptic Mange. Crusts, excoriation, and alopecia over is the most common cause of mange in goats. The skin lesions are wide spread and can cover the whole body. There is itching and loss of hair. The skin becomes thickened and folded in affected areas. Scales and crust develop on the skin surface. As the skin becomes more damaged it loses its power to protect the animal against secondary bacterial infections The mites burrow the skin and form galleys where they remain for the rest of their lives. They cause small red papules of the skin. The affected area is itchy and frequently damaged by scratching and biting. Loss of hair, thick brown H a
  4. 4. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE scabs and thickening and wrinkling of surrounding skin is observed. Psoroptic Mites of the genus Psoroptes cause psoroptic mange in animals. In sheep, the condition is known as sheep scab. As with sarcoptic mange in goats, the skin lesions can be widespread and mange cases are often fatal. There is itching and loss of hair or wool. The skin becomes thickened and folded in affected areas. Scales and crusts developed on the skin surface, as it becomes more damaged it loses its power to protect the animal against secondary bacterial infections. Psoropts is a highly contagious disease of sheep and goats. Psoropts affecting different animals are highly host specific and a species parasitic on one host will not readily infest a host of a different species. Psoropts mites live on the surface of the skin and are non-borrowing. It is the most frequent type in sheep, and can affect sheep of all ages but may be particularly severe in young lambs. It occurs almost exclusively on the tickly wool areas where it produces large scaly, crusted lesions. Intense itching is generally the first sign. It is located in most areas of the body, such as shoulders, sides and back. Affected skin is covered with exudates. This dries to form a scab. Massive loss of hair usually occurs. Figure 2Psoroptic Mange. Alopecia, erythema, and thick yellow crusts over thorax In bovine Lesions typically begin on the shoulders and rump Papules, pustules, exudation, crusts, alopecia, and excoriations are seen and pruritus is intense. Skin becomes lichenified and thickened with chronicity. Generalized skin involvement and secondary bacterial infections are common. Mite lives on the epidermis surface and cause itching and general dermatitis. They may or may not seriously damage the leather, depending on the amount of secondary infections that are associated with the areas. If there is damage it affects only full Figure 3PsoropticMange. Thick crusts on bridge of nose Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 4 Figure 4 Psoroptic Mange. Alopecia, erythema, crusts, and lichenifi-
  5. 5. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 5 grain leathers as it can be eliminated by a grain correction Demodectic mange (Hairfollicle mite) The mites of demodex spp. Invade and infest the hair follicles of the domestic animals but cattle and goats most severely attacked. They also live in sebaceous glands. In some areas, cattle are seriously affected resulting considerable financial loss occurs through rejection of hide. Mites are considered to be specific to cattle (D.bovis), sheep (D.ovis), and goats (D.carpae). The mites multiply within the hair follicles or sebaceous glands producing a skin reaction leading to proliferation of the epidermis, thickening of the follicle or gland wall with development of cysts and loss of hair. Demodectic mange is one of the most serious parasitic damages occurring in leather. They multiply inside the skin forming pocket or nests; at advanced stages the mass of mites may occupy space equal to half the thickness of the hide. The damage is serious because it involves the corium or the fiber portion of the skin which is transformed in to leather. The lesions are seen on the flesh side of the dried skins and are sharply out lined more or less as circular light colored spots. In advanced states simple like elevations may be seen on the hair side of the living cattle. In leather if follicular mange is in earlier state of development, the damage is confined to the opening of the hair pockets. If it is in later stages the damage is deep in the skin and can easily be located as the nodules and are obvious on the surface of the leather, a grain correction cannot remedy this type of mange damage. When such a leather is split, cheesy drop out leaving voids in the leather The mites seen on the skins of animals at the abattoir were mainly demodex. These mites are common inhabitants of hair follicles and sebaceous glands leading to inflammation, loss of hair, and sometimes abscess formation. An important sign of infection by demodex mites is raised tuft of hair, underneath which are nodules formation, which can be seen more clearly on removing hair. In cattle, lesions were more frequent on the neck, shoulder, and back areas. In sheep, the disease was of lesser occurrence as compared to goats. It was more common on coronets, nose, tip of the ears, and around the eyes. This could be the reason of less prevalence, as the head and forelegs are removed and on the skins collected and sent to hide markets and tanneries the lesions are not carried over. In goats, it was more severe and the lesions were found more frequently on the lower side of neck, shoulders. In advanced stages of infestation, raised large (up to 10 mm in diameter) lesions on the goat skins were observed. In less advanced infestations, pitting of the skin surface was seen. In the latter situation, damage to the hide surface similar to the small holes and scars caused by ticks. Demodectic mange invades hair follicles and sebaceous glands of all species of domestic animals. The disease very severe in goats, spreading extensively before it is suspected and in some instances causing death. It causes significant damage to the skin. It causes the small pinholes in the skin which interfere with its industrial processing and limits its use.
  6. 6. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 6 Demodectic mange lesions consist of thick scabs overlaying the skin which was reddened and thickened usually present round the eyelids, nose, the brisket, lower neck, forearm and shoulder and the tips of the ears. In severe cases there may be a general hair loss and thickening of the skin. The disease spreads slowly and transfer of mites takes place by contact. Demodectic mange causes small nodules and pustules which may develop into large abscess. The contents of the pustules are usually white in color and cheesy in consistency. In large abscesses the pus is more fluid. It causes small nodules and pustules which may develop into larger abscess. There may be a general hair loss and thickening of the skin Ticks Figure 5 :Demodectic Mange. Papules and nodules on face The damage is caused by blood sucking parasite, ticks. They usually adhere to the inner part of the hide such as the dewlap and inner parts of the legs. The defect has the shape of tiny holes or unhealed scars. These holes can be seen on the grain surface of the finished leather resembling tiny spots and hollows. While developing and growing in to the adult organism, the males move about rapidly causing the host animal to rub and scratch. Secondary infection leads to fare more extensive damage. Badly tick infested animals have poor health and provide hide with lack of substance. The damage to leather caused by tick is so deeply seated that even with grain correction, the scars will persist. The small hole and the more or less healed scars mark the smoothness of the grain and detract from the appearance of the finished leather. Tick bites directly damage to the skin at the site of attachment, which predisposes to secondary bacterial infection leading to abscesses or myiasis. Adverse reactions to ticks depend in part on the content of salivary secretions. The severity of local cutaneous reactions varies not only with salivary secretions, but also with host resistance. Lesions include red papules that progress to circular erythematous areas up to 2 cm in diameter, which progress to focal necrosis, erosions, ulcers, crusts, and in some animals, nodules. Lesions heal with scarring and alopecia. Secondary bacterial infection of the wounds sometimes disfigure the skin, both epidermis and dermis. This affects the quality of leather produced Tickscan affect skin qualityin the followingway  The penetration of the skin by the piercing mouth parts makes holes which are defects in processed skins
  7. 7. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 7  When feeding, ticks can allow bacteria to pass through the skin leading to the development of local abscesses which damage skin quality more extensively than the holes caused by feeding Ticks feed by attaching themselves to the animal and abstracting blood. The mouth part punctures the skins, causing visible damage to the hide and results in holes in the leather. Additional damage may be caused by rubbing due to irritation Fleas Ked (Melophagus ovinus): Keds are wingless flies brown in color. They are found on goats but are more commonly seen in sheep. Keds suck blood and can cause anemia as well as skin irritation. Keds can produce an allergic hypersensitivity reaction in the skin of sheep, leading to lesions known as cockle in processed skins. In Ethiopia, keds are considered a major cause of “EKEK” and are visible on the skin surface of affected animals Cockle/ “Ekek”: Ekek is not a disease as such but a generic grading term used by tanners, and means “itch” in Amharic. Skin puncture by blood sucking. keds causes an inflammatory response of the skin to the presence of keds and their saliva known as cockles. It is recognized after the wool or hair has been removed from the skin. Cockle causes down grading of the skin because it weakens and discolours it. Keds are mainly seen in colder areas and infestation may be reduced when the animals are moved from cold to hot dry areas. Cockle/Ekek is an allergic skin hypersensitivity reaction to Keds that occurs in local Ethiopian sheep. This is not currently a major problem on goat skin production. It is a defect which appears on the grain side of semi-processed and crust leather after pickling that cannot be detected when the skin is examined raw or unprocessed. It results in huge economic loss to tanneries and the country at large since the damage is recognized after a lot of cost is incurred on processing after which the damaged skins have to be discarded or downgraded. There are reports of a seasonal pattern to the occurrence of “Ekek”; being higher during or just after the wet or rainy season. Lice Lice are small wingless insects. The head is broad and flat with mouth parts adapted to chewing. Louse Infestation arises from attack by a wide range of louse species on cattle, sheep, and goats. These pests include both biting and sucking types such as lignognathus ,solenoptes,
  8. 8. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 8 haematopinus spp. (Sucking lice) and damalinia (bovicola)(biting lice). Irritation caused by the pests leads to scratching, rubbing and licking by the infested host. The lesions caused by the louse infestations are often almost circular and small size and the extent of damage to the eventual leather depends on the presence or absence of secondary infection. The damage done by biting and sucking lice can usually be eliminated by the grain correction according to the degree of secondary infection Biting and sucking. Infestations cause intense irritation which leads to rubbing. Lice favour cool conditions and are commonly found in the autumn/winter months. Transmission is through contact with infected animals. Heavy lice infestations can cause irritation and distress. Animals rub and lick themselves, and damage their hides Lice cause localised areas of inflammation and possible scar tissue, rough hair or coat, licked hair, constant rubbing against fence or equipment which leads to the hair loss. Preventionof externalparasites Figure 6Sucking lice (Lignonathus spp) Seen close to the skinsurface, on wet saltedsheep skin Rather than waiting until the problem of external parasites becomes serious, farmers should maintain a strict preventative regimen to controlling external parasites.  Conduct a thorough physical evaluation of animals at least onceweekly. Run your hand over each animal’s hair coat, visually inspecting for excessive hair loss, flakes of loose skin, areas of skin irritation, and any crusty lesions or bumps that might indicate infection with an external parasite.  Immediately separate and place any animal that shows sign of parasite infection or seems to be unthrifty. This helps to reduce the chances of passing infection on to the rest of your animals. Quarantined animals should not be mixed with the main flock until treatment is complete and the parasite eradicated.  Isolate newly introduced animals and treat them for external parasites before mixing them with other animals.
  9. 9. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 9  Practice good sanitation habits. o Clean animal houses regularly. o Seal with cement or mud all cracks in the floor and walls of livestock housing. o remove grass/plants around the barn o All litter and discarded wool must be collected and burnt or deposited out of animal contact.  Spray housing with an appropriate pesticide every two weeks if possible.  Farmers should also be aware of ways to reduce the number of ticks on pasture. o Rotate the land where livestock graze. o Avoid pasture which has many ticks as long as possible o Chickens can be kept in places where there are many ticks, for example around watering places, etc.  Controlby good animal hygiene o Shearing of sheep regularly – for lice and keds o Shearing and wetting/washing animals regularly with detergents effective especially against lice  If the abovemeasures are not effective, treat the animals with appropriate pesticide. Treatmentand control of external parasites  Dipping is very effective; currently, mobile dipping vats for sheep and goats are available.  Thoroughtreatment of the infested area is required, especially when ticks infest the ears and under side of the tail or mites infest localized patches on the skin.  After treating place the animal in the sun to dry.  Due to the biological cycle of the ectoparasites, a single treatment may not be efficient. The first treatment will only kill the active stages of the parasite present on the animal at the time of treatment. The second treatment will kill any eggs that have hatched since the first treatment.  All animals introduced to a farm must be treated immediately upon arrival to avoid the spread of new parasites on to the farm.
  10. 10. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 10  If external parasites are seen on an animal, it should be treated immediately to prevent transmission to others.  Some traditional methods of external parasite controlcan help. These include.  Washing the animal with salt water.  Smearing the bodyof the animal with spent oil  Using repellent herbs  Using kerosene to rub the predilection sites.  Use tick grease and/orold engine oil, to reduce parasite numbers on animals. Soaking cloth with a mixture of old engine oil and insecticide and placing it on a tree or on a pole where animals will rub against it will help to apply the material to the animal.  Once the animals are treated the buildings/ paddocks,barns must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfested with a suitable chemical. No sheep should be housed/grazed in the disinfested area for at least 21 days.  External parasites can develop resistance to acaricides and this is encouraged by frequent dipping and the use of dip solutions at a lower than recommended concentration. The manufacturer’s recommendations should be strictly followed.  Acaricides are toxic to people as well as animals and care should be taken to limit contactwith the skin and prevent any possibility of dip fluid being drunk. Or contaminating ground water.  Acaricides are also very damaging to wildlife and fish so great care is needed when discarding used dip fluid.  Do not recommend unnecessary external parasite control. This will waste a farmer’s money and increase possibility of development of drug resistance. .  Effect and incidence of ectoparasites can usually be reduced by improving nutrition, hygiene of animal houses and by occasionalspraying or dipping  Regular removal of moist bedding, hay and manure along with preventing the accumulation of weed heaps, grass cuttings and vegetable refuse is very helpful.
  11. 11. HIDE AND SKIN DEFECT DUE TO PARASITE Hide and skin defect due to parasite by Nejash Abdela Ahmed (sabkebeek) Page 11 Recommendations Proper management of live animals in feeding, health care and handling are relevant to minimize the defects affecting the quality of hides and skins, which occurs while the animals are alive. Increasing the number of trained manpower working in regional Agricultural Bauer and toaster the experts in all possible way for what they demand to improve the quality of these by-products. Integrated efforts towards improved livestock husbandry and animal health care and application of insecticide and acaricide to minimize the effect of ectoparasites Awareness creation on the danger of the defects is very serious to minimize the burden on the economic product of skin and hide. Reference 1. COMESA/LLPI. 2005. Pre-slaughter defects of hides/skins and intervention option for east Africa: Harnessing the leather industry to benefit the poor. Proceeding of the regional workshop. April 18- 20, 2005. ADDIS Ababa, Ethiopia. 2. Deuasy, T.D. and Getachew Argaw. 1989. Hides and Skins Improvement Hand book MoA/FAO Jesper A. and Touni, M. 1989. Skin Disease on Ethiopian sheep and their effect on the pickled skin. A minor field study. working paper Uppsala 1988 3. Leach, Ian B. and Kassa Bayou (Editors). 1998. Proceedings of an In-service training Exercise on Hides and Skins Improvement, 9 to 12 February, 1998.Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 4. Elliott, R.G.H. 1985. Hides and Skins improvement in Developing Countries. FAO

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