Practice noun (1) a. The habitual doing or carrying out of something; usual or customary action of performance; action as opposed to profession, theory, knowledge, etc. b. A custom; a habit; a habitual action. c. An established method of legal procedure. spec. (2) The carrying out or exercise of a profession or occupation; the business to which a lawyer, doctor, etc., belongs for this purpose. (3) a. The action of scheming or planning, especially in an underhand or evil way; treachery; trickery, artifice, deception. b. Dealings, negotiation; especially underhand dealings, intrigue. c. A scheme, a conspiracy; an artifice, a trick. (4) Repeated exercise in or performance of an activity so as to acquire or maintain proficiency in it; activity undertaken to this end. Formerly also, proficiency so acquired. (5) a. The action of doing something; performance, operation; method of action or working. b. An action, a deed; in plural, doings, proceedings. c. Philos. The practical aspect or application of something as opposed to theoretical aspect. d. In Marxism, the social activity which should result from and complement the theory of Communism. (6) An exercise, a practical treatise. (7) An arithmetical method of finding the price of a given number of articles or the quantity of a commodity at a given price, where quantity or price or both are expressed in several denominations.
Karl Marx Theses on Feuerbach (1845): “ All mysteries which lead theory to mysticism find their rational solution in human practice and in the comprehension of this practice” Praxis: "philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it."
Pierre Bourdieu Outline of a Theory of Practice (1977)
Michel de Certeau The Practice of Everyday Life (1980) Little stabs at happiness Practice is ‘tactical’
<ul><li>Karl Popper </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Critical Rationalism’ </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is gained from a playful creative process, theorising is a practice . </li></ul><ul><li>Process of falsification of hypotheses leads to new working hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. “all cats are black”. </li></ul>
Applied Theory in Art & Design Practice-based or Practice-led? - If a theory leads primarily to new understandings about practice, it is practice-led. - If a creative artefact is the basis of the contribution to knowledge, the theory is practice-based
Practice-led The main focus of the theory is to advance knowledge about practice, or to advance knowledge within practice. Process is all important.
Practice-based Practice-based Research is an investigation undertaken in order to gain new knowledge partly by means of practice and the outcomes of that practice.
Practice-based Research Practice-based research is predicated upon theories: (e.g. to call something art or design is to postulate the existence of art or design – this is a theory ) As such, it should devise an appropriate set of theories, methods and techniques for producing and analysing the process of production.