Theories of human development an Introductory Course for Catechists


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A short description of Developmental Theories according to Piaget, Erickson and Kolberg, presented here to help catechists understand the cognitive level of functioning of their students

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Theories of human development an Introductory Course for Catechists

  1. 1. Theories of Human Development A Short Course for Catechists By Rev. Cornelius T. McQuillan, C.S.Sp., Psy.D. Editor: Sharon Piper
  2. 2. Introduction 4 Principle theories of Human Development: 1) Sigmund Freud 2) Jean Piaget 3) Erick Erickson 4) Lawrence Kolberg
  3. 3. Introduction Jean Piaget´s theory treats Cognitive Development of Children, while that of Erick Erickson treats the psycho-sexual development throughout all the stages of Human Development.
  4. 4. Introduction Lawrence Kolberg’s theory treats human moral development.
  5. 5. Introduction Not presented here is Freud’s theory of psycho-sexual development, which does not offer much insight for the average catechist.
  6. 6. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget’s theory presents his findings with regard to the Intellectual Development of children.
  7. 7. Part A The Cognitive Theory of Jean Piaget
  8. 8. Jean Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s theory is based on careful and disciplined observation of his own children, as well as some ingenious experiments he did with them.
  9. 9. Jean Piaget’s Theory Piaget describes 4 stages of cognitive development which have been confirmed by later studies. However, later studies indicate that Piaget’s stages may begin earlier than he theorized.
  10. 10. Jean Piaget’s Theory Although Piaget is not himself a psychologist, students of educational psychology and of pedagogy all study his theory. Thus his theory should be familiar to catechists and those responsible for the religious education of children.
  11. 11. Jean Piaget’s Theory Jean Piaget’s four stages of development: 1) Sensory-motor 2) Pre-operational 3) Concrete Operations 4) Formal Operations
  12. 12. Jean Piaget’s Stages 1) The Sensory-motor Stage of Development: (Birth to 2 years) During the first stage of development the child makes random movements and only slowly begins to be able to control his/her own movements.
  13. 13. Jean Piaget’s Stages 1) First Stage Sensory-motor: (the first two years) The child slowly begins to discover the Permanence of Objects towards the end of the first year. (That is, it begins to dawn on the child that objects that are out of sight still exist).
  14. 14. Jean Piaget’s Stages 2) Second Stage is the Pre-operational: (2 to 7 years) During this stage the children can begin to think, but their thought processes are based on the senses. They are unable to reason, that is, come to conclusions based on deduction or induction; nor can they think abstractly.
  15. 15. Jean Piaget’s Stages 2) The second stage is the Pre-operational: Children in this stage can’t reason in reverse. (Operation is any mental activity that is reversible.) At this stage children do not comprehend that Objects conserve or retain their physical properties. Children are Ego-centric during this stage.
  16. 16. Jean Piaget’s Stages 3) The third stage Concrete Operations: (from around 6 to11 years) -They develop the capacity to reverse mental operations. -They begin to take into account the conservation of physical properties.
  17. 17. Jean Piaget’s Stages 3) Third Stage Concrete Operations: (from around 6 to 11 years) -The nature and quality of their thinking develops significantly -They begin to understand the law of “Cause and Effect.” -They begin to comprehend the principle of Conservation
  18. 18. Jean Piaget’s Stages 3) The Third Stage Concrete Operations: (From about 6 to 11 years) -Develop the capacity to reverse their thinking. - They learn to recognize the essence of things. -They develop the capacity to order things in a series.
  19. 19. Jean Piaget’s Stages 4) The fourth stage Formal Operations: (12 year a adulthood) Is the capacity to think in abstract terms.
  20. 20. Part B The Psyco-social Theory of Erick Erickson
  21. 21. Erick Erickson’s Theory Erick Erickson divides his Psycho-social theory into 8 stages.
  22. 22. Erick Erickson’s Theory The 8 stages: Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame Iniciative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Integrity vs. Despair
  23. 23. Erick Erickson’s Theory In each step, the task of each individual is to strike a balance between two extremes. The name Erickson gives to each of his stages are the extreme qualities that each individual must balance according to their own situation.
  24. 24. Erick Erickson’s Theory An important principle of Erickson’s theory is that each succeeding stage depends greatly on the equilibrium established in each of the previous stages.
  25. 25. Erick Erickson’s Theory 1) The first stage Trust vs Mistrust (from 12 to 18 months) In this first stage a child learns to trust and mistrust the significant persons in his life. According to their experience each child combines these two extremes into a functional or disfunctional personality.
  26. 26. Erick Erickson’s Theory 2) The second stage Autonomy vs. Shame (from 12 to 18 months until 3 years) During this stage the child begins to learn to do for himself. According to his success and the reactions of significant others he learns to balance these two extremes.
  27. 27. Erick Erickson’s Theory 3) The Third stage: Initiative vs. Guilt (from 3 to 7 years) During this stage the child begins to explore the environment within the limits set by the significant others.
  28. 28. Erick Erickson’s Theory 4) The fourth stage: Industry vs. Inferiority (7 to 11 years) In this stage, the child attempts to balance doing things on his own with his feelings of inferiority.
  29. 29. Erick Erickson’s Theory 5) The fifth stage: Identity vs. Confusion (puberty until early adulthood) From about 11 years of age adolescents begin discovering their gender role as influenced by significant others. ( 50% of sexual identity is attributed to genetic factors while the social environment contributes the other half).
  30. 30. Erick Erickson’s Theory 6) The sixth stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation (from about 20 years or early adulthood) Much of the individual’s capacity for intimacy depends upon their social skills learned in earlier stages.
  31. 31. Erick Erickson’s Theory 7) The Seventh Stage: Generativity vs. Stagnation (During Intermediate Adulthood, that is from around 40 to 65 years) The individual learns to value contributing to the following generation.
  32. 32. Erick Erickson’s Theory 8) The Eighth Stage: Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood, that is beginning from around 65 years of age) The person, realizing their own mortality begins to evaluate their life. This re-evaluation is more productive when done together with a significant other.
  33. 33. Part C The Theory of Moral Development of Lawrence Kolberg
  34. 34. Lawrence Kolberg’s Theory of Moral Development There are 3 stages in Kolberg’s theory: Pre-conventional Ethics Conventional Ethics Post-Conventional Ethics
  35. 35. Lawrence Kolberg’s Theory 1) The first Stage of Pre-conventional Ethics (Childhood) Rules are obeyed for fear of punishment, that is, out of one’s self-interest. (Many never move beyond this first stage.)
  36. 36. Lawrence Kolberg’s Theory 2) The Second stage: Conventional Ethics (Adulthood) Ethics based on Trust, Conformity and Loyalty. The individual bases their behavior or moral decisions on the “social contract”.
  37. 37. Lawrence Kolberg’s Theory 3) The Third Stage: Post-Conventional The individual understands laws to be limited, imperfect and relative. The individual’s ethics are based on Universal Moral Principles.
  38. 38. Development Theory Resouces Aller, Gustavo J. (1984). Métodos Anticonceptivos, (2 ed.) McGraw-Hill, Caracas. Billings, John, (1976). Regulación Natural de la Natalidad: Método de Ovulación, Madrid, Sal Terra Santander. Burren James E. y Schaie K. Warner (1985). The Psychology of Aging, 2a ed. Van Nostrand. Craig, Grace J. (2001). Desarrollo Psicológico, Octava Ed., Prentice Hall, México. Dickinson, George E., Leming, Michael R, Mermann, Alan C. eds. (1997). Dying, Death and Bereavement, 3 ed. Dushkin McGraw Hill, CT. Erikson, Erik H. (1963). Childhood and Society, 35to ed., New York, W.W. Norton & Co.
  39. 39. Hoffman, Lois, Paris, Scott y Hall, Elizabeth (1995). Psicologia del Desarrollo Hoy, McGraw-Hill, Madrid. Hurtig Michael y Rondal, Jean Adolphe (1986). Introducción de la Psicologia del Nino, Herder, Barcelona. FV Kiibler-Ross, Elizabeth (1972). Sobre la Muerte y los Moribundos. Ed. Grhalbo, Barcelona. Lefrancois, Guy R. (1987). The Lifespan, Wadsworth Pub. Col, Belmont, CA. Lothrop, H. (1999). La Lactancia Natural, Barcelona, Ediciones Oniro. Miller, Patricia H. (1983). Theories of Developmental Psychology. Freeman & Co. San Francisco, CA.
  40. 40. Martin, M., (1997). Embarazo y Nacimiento: El Libro Ilustrado, Da Capo Press, New York. Mock, Gloria y Martinez, Winhed (1995) Sexualidad: Sus Conceptos Basicos, Ed. Cultural, San Juan, PR. Papalia, Diane E. y Wendkos Olds, Sally y Duskin Feldman, Ruth (1999). A Child’s World, Infancy Through Adolescence, McGraw-Hill, Inc. Boston, MA. Polan, Elaine U. y Taylor, Daphne (2002). Journey Across the Lifespan, Davis F.A. Prohaska, Leopold (1973) El Proceso de la Maduracion del Hombre, Herder, Barcelona.