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Prevention of the Sexual Abuse of Children (English Version)


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This course provides essential information for parents, child care workers, Directors of institutions, and the public in general on preventing the Sexual Abuse of children. There is a Spanish version at

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Prevention of the Sexual Abuse of Children (English Version)

  1. 1. Towards the Prevention of the Sexual Abuse of Minors ByRev. Dr. Cornelius T. Mc Quillan, C.S.Sp., Psy.D.
  2. 2. WarningThere exists a risk that exposure to this topicmay result in the recovery of painful childhoodmemories which could be traumatic and requirepsychiatric and/or psychological therapy.
  3. 3. Towards the Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA)Rev. Dr. Cornelius T. Mc Quillan, C.S.Sp., Psy. D Licensed Psychologist Puerto Rico Lic # 1642 Editor: Rev. Fr. Pat Patten, C.S.Sp. Flying Medical Service © 2012, Cornelius T. Mc Quillan
  4. 4. Course ObjectivesThis course, which is aimed at parents and thosewho have minors under their care, has twoobjectives:The first Objective is to alert them as to the highprevalence of the sexual abuse of children in our alltoo violent society.Secondly, to orientate them as to the importance ofpreventing CSA by creating safe environments, aswell as knowing how to react in cases where theysuspect that a minor is being abused sexually.
  5. 5. DedicationIf this course serves as an effective instrumentthat helps prevent the sexual abuse of just onechild, it will by that fact, worthwhile.
  6. 6. Course Outline• Objectives• Definition of Pedophilia• Prevalence of the Sexual Abuse of Children• The Necessity de Affirmative Action• Prevention is two pronged• Primary Prevention is aimed at Children• Secondary Prevention is aimed at both victims and predators.
  7. 7. Outline• Prevention Therapy for Parents – Orientation – Identification of Pedophiles• Prevention of CSA for those who care for children
  8. 8. OutlinePrevention of CSA in Institutions – Policy of No Tolerance – Principles a Secure Environment – Screening of Staff Members – Maintaining Records
  9. 9. OutlineSecondary Prevention – Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSA • Addressing the cyclic nature of CSA • Reestablishing Trust • Empowerment • Social Skills • Challenging irrational thoughts • Recovering lost memories • Relaxation techniques • Empathy skills
  10. 10. OutlinePrevention Therapy for Families of the Victims of CSA – Over reacting and trauma – Family assessment – Individual assessment
  11. 11. Outline Prevention Therapy for Perpetrators– Includes therapy given to victims of CSA– Empathy for their victim’s feelings– Remedy their personal code of ethics– Challenging pedophiles’ irrational thoughts
  12. 12. OutlineLegal Obligations: – Informing parents – Informing supervisors – Informing the Police and/or Family Services.
  13. 13. Definition of Sexual Abuse of ChildrenThe sexual abuse of children includes conductbetween a minor and another person wherethere is an age difference of 5 years or more andinvolves fondling the genitals, penetration,incest, sexual violation, sodomy, nakednessbefore the minor, and exploitation by means ofprostitution, production or the presentation ofpornographic materials.
  14. 14. Prevalence• The rate of incidence of CSA is much higher than had been estimated.• The tsunami of scandals in the Press is one indication of the prevalence of CSA.• An anonymous study done by the Los Angeles Times, as far back as 1985, found that 27% of females and 16% of males were victims of CSA.
  15. 15. Rate of Incidence• In 1993 a study done by Abel and Osborn confirmed that 25% of females and 10% of males in the United States were survivors of CSA.• A study done on hospital records between the years of 2003 and 2007 in Puerto Rico by the Pediatric Department of the school of Medicine found that 25% of victims of CSA had been abused by their own fathers.
  16. 16. PrevalenceSome incarcerated pedophiles have admitted toabusing more than 45 children before drawingthe attention of the legal system.Estimates by investigators today indicate that10% of professionals are pedophiles.Researchers estimate that between 6 and 8women and between 4 and 6 out of every tenmales are victims of CSA.
  17. 17. Rates of Incidence• In 1992 there were 124,467 cases of CSA reported in the United States, including Puerto Rico.• According to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), 47.2 children for every 1,000 in the USA including Puerto Rico are victims of CSA.
  18. 18. Question 1The School of Medicine of the University of PuertoRico did a study and found that ___% of victims ofsexual abuse between the ages of 3 and 8, wereabused by their father. A) 5% B) 10% C) 25% D) .05% (There are 12 question in total. If you would like certification of having taken this course, copypaste the answer sheet on slide 102 of this course and email to the address provided.)
  19. 19. Question 2The rate of sexual abuse of children is: A) Less than people think. B) Quite rare. C) Higher than what has been recognized. D) Low and lower, thanks to adequate treatment for the perpetrators.
  20. 20. Question 3Studies by Abel and Osborn in 1993 indicate thatfor every 100 women ____ have experiencedsexual abuse as children. A) 25 B) 10 C) 5 D) 3
  21. 21. Necessity to be Pro-active in Prevention of CSA• Pedophiles take advantage of an environment where sexual themes are taboo.• Pedophiles take advantage of the ignorance, fear and the natural trust in adults of children.• Far too many parents and children are ignorant of the high risk of CSA.• Parents ignorance of the high risk of CSA leads to a lack of adequate protection of children.
  22. 22. Prevention is Bi-level• Primary prevention is directed at the community at large and is aimed at protecting children by reducing risk factors by means of education.• Secondary prevention is aimed at both victims and perpetrators of CSA and aims at breaking the cyclic nature of CSA.
  23. 23. Primary Prevention of CSA• Education about the high risk of CSA aimed at children, their parents, heath care professionals, civic and religious leaders is the best means of reducing risk factors and preventing further cases of CSA.
  24. 24. Prevention Directed Toward Parents• Parents are those who are recognized as those primarily responsible for protecting their children.• Parents are also recognized as having the primary responsibility for the education of their children and this responsibility includes their sexual education which should include the necessary information so than children can protect themselves from sexual predators.
  25. 25. Prevention of CSA Directed at Parents• Parents must be alerted to the high incidence of CSA in our violent society.• Parents should be alerted to the fact that our criminal system does not rehabilitate felons found guilty of pedophilia.• Few psychiatrists and psychologists have received adequate training in treating pedophilia and mistakenly continue to treat it as if it were a sexual disorder.
  26. 26. Some of your Neighbors are Known Pedophiles !• While a pastor of a rural parish in the Dioceses of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, we identified 16 pedophiles, living within the area covered by the parish.• Parents should point out the homes of pedophiles who live among their neighbors and warn their children not to enter their homes nor to put their trust in these predators.
  27. 27. Locating Pedophile’s Addresses• Most pedophiles have escaped detection but many are known and are obliged by law to post their addresses. The government publishes the residence of sex offenders, as an aid to parents.
  28. 28. Educational MaterialsThe Federal Government also providesinformation and educational materials to helpparents protect their children:
  29. 29. The Seven CommandmentsParents should teach these 7 commandments totheir children:• Good children don’t keep secrets from their parents.• Never get into a stranger’s car.• No one except a doctor or your parents may examine your private parts.
  30. 30. The 7 Commandments• Never enter a public bathroom alone.• Your parents may get angry with you at times, but they will never send you away from home.• If someone touches your private parts, you must tell your teacher at school and then tell your parents as soon as you come home. (You will not be punished.)• Your parents love you unconditionally and there is nothing that you can do to lose their love.
  31. 31. Parental Prevention• Parents should create a safe environment with open communication in which children feel free to ask any sexual question to satisfy either their natural curiosity or answer their doubts.• Parents should always congratulate a child for bringing their questions or doubts to them.• Since pedophiles will use threats to their advantage, parents should avoid using threats and especially never threaten to send their children away.
  32. 32. Parental Prevention• Ideally parents should never confide the supervision of their children to any other person.• The majority of cases of CSA are perpetrated by a trusted member of the immediate family!• If it is absolutely necessary to place minors in the care of others, there should be no less than two adults present at all times.
  33. 33. Parental Warning• There are numerous cases where the perpetrator of CSA was the grandfather or uncle of the victim.• Organizations such as Boy and Cub Scouts, religious education and sport programs attract pedophiles as ministers, teaches, coaches, assistants, and volunteers. While these organizations do tremendous good, parental involvement is absolutely necessary.
  34. 34. Parental Warning• Perpetrators of CSA are very patient people willing to wait years in which they attempt to gain your trust and the opportunity to be alone with one of your children.• Perpetrators seek out emotionally abandoned children and bestow much attention (grooming) on them, often with special gifts and privileges in an attempt to create an unhealthy co-dependence with the minor.
  35. 35. Parental Warning• Sexual aggressors will sometimes play into a child’s natural fear and threaten to harm them or their parents or a pet in order to get their cooperation or to keep secrets.• Perpetrators will also use controlled substances in order to lower a child’s inhibitions, often inducing addictions in order to guarantee a child’s cooperation.
  36. 36. Warning to Single Parents• If you are a single parent, your children are at higher risk for sexual abuse.• In order to lower the high risk of CSA of their children, single parents should never invite single adults into their home. (There are numerous cases where children were abused by a friend of their mother’s boyfriend or the boyfriend himself!)
  37. 37. Advice for Single Parents• Pedophiles seek out unwed mothers, since they are known to have more difficulty in raising their children. It is recommended that single mothers suspend all social/romantic interests until after their children are grown.• Clearly this recommendation is very difficult to accept but not as difficult as accepting that your child has become a victim of CSN with the very person that you invited into your home.
  38. 38. Warning to the RemarriedThe rates of CSA are higher among stepdadsthan incest rates between natural fathers andtheir children.
  39. 39. Warning to Alcoholic Parents• The children of an alcoholic parent have higher rates of CSA than the general population.• Pedophiles seem to know instinctively children who hunger for a parent’s attention. Alcoholic fathers tend to isolate their homes making it difficult for their children to invite friends over, thus they tend to spend more time at friends’ homes, which puts them at higher risk of CSA.
  40. 40. Parental Prevention• Parents should insist on the vigilance of child care centers by means of video cameras, which should be accessible to them over the Internet.• Parents should frequently visit, without previous warning, their child’s classroom and should been made welcome by the administration.• Parents should participate actively in their children’s activities.
  41. 41. Parental PreventionParents:• should insist that there be a written policy statement of No Tolerance of CSA in any institution which serves their children.• Should insist that organizations have an adequate screening program for potential staff & volunteers and have a system for verifying applicants’ background thoroughly.
  42. 42. Question 4Good communication between parents and childrenabout the risk of sexual abuse: A) Will not help in any way to protect children. B) Is needed so that the child understands the risks, as well as feels confident to tell their parents if anyone has tried to abuse them. C) Would be too traumatic for children. D) Would give a false sense of security to parents.
  43. 43. Question 5Most cases of Childhood Sexual Abuse are per-petrated by: A) A member of the family of the victim. B) A stranger to the child. C) A single male. D) Men over 55 years.
  44. 44. Question 6Children at higher risk of sexual abuse are: A) Children of single mothers B) Children emotionally abandoned by their parents. C) Both A and B D) All juveniles are at the same risk of sexual abuse.
  45. 45. Prevention for Child Care WorkersInstitutions that provide care for Children must:• Publish their policy of No tolerance of any kind of abusive behavior including CSA.• Investigate formally the background of their employees and volunteers.• Frequently include in the agenda of staff meetings the No tolerance policy and examples of unacceptable behavior.
  46. 46. Which of the following characteristics do you think are typical of pedophiles?• They have distinguishing physical traits.• They wear loud or odd clothing.• They are effeminate.• There is a strange look in their eyes.• They make one feel uncomfortable in their presence.
  47. 47. How to recognize a pedophile• From the list above, none! Pedophiles are indistinguishable from the general population.• There is no psychological test that can discriminate between pedophiles and the general population (with the exception of one devised by Gene Abel, which has inherent ethic problems in its administration.)• However, pedophiles often seek excuses to be alone with a child!!!
  48. 48. Prevention Directed at Child Care WorkersCenters should establish:• a safe environment for children.• a supervision policy which favors the maintaining of a safe environment.• a protocol for accompanying children to the bathroom.• a policy of having two adults present with the children at all times.
  49. 49. Prevention Directed toward Child Care WorkersCenters should establish:• a policy of facilitating spontaneous parental visits.• a protocol for handling accusations or suspicion of CSA.• a policy of forbidding staff including volunteers from inviting children to their homes.
  50. 50. Ethical Principles• All accusations of CSA should be reported both to the supervisor and the police (or Department of Children’s Welfare, according to the law of your particular state).• In the case of suspected CSA, no one in the institution should investigate the validity of the accusation. Investigation of CSA requires special forensic training and is a matter for the police.• Any suspected CSA must be reported without further investigation.
  51. 51. Ethical Principles• No one is required to have the supervisor’s permission to inform the police.• When there is an accusation or suspicion of CSA, the first obligation is the safety of the child.• The security of the child supercedes the rights of the accused.• One must respect the rights of the accused.
  52. 52. Establish a Policy of NO toleranceEach institution or organization that serves childrenshould:• Establish a policy of NO Tolerance of the threat of violence, bullying, harassment and CSA.• Promulgate the policy of No Tolerance to all employees, volunteers, parents and to the children.• Explain the policy to new arrivals and respond to any of their doubts.
  53. 53. Requirements of the No Tolerance PolicyThe Policy of No Tolerance should include:• The principle of child protection (that the protection of a child takes precedence over an individual’s rights).• Principle of Safe Environment (that children, the elderly and challenged persons have the right to feel safe and free from harassment and threats against their person or families.)
  54. 54. Requirements of the No Tolerance Policy• Unacceptable Behavior (that the supervisor will call attention to any staff member for inappropriate behaviors such as touching a minor in a suggestive way; a relationship which is too familiar, or for not respecting a child’s personal space.)• Adequate Supervision (that the supervisor will be free of tasks that impede or distract from an active roll of supervision of staff’s behavior.)
  55. 55. Written Protocol• Each institution should have a written protocol on how to handle accusations.• The accused should be suspended from all work, which would put him/her in contact with children, until after a tribunal makes a determination.• The institution should have copies on file of all policies y protocols signed by staff and volunteers.
  56. 56. Ethical Principles• While the protection of the child is above the rights of the accused, the presumption of innocence should be offered the accused unless a tribunal determines otherwise.• Thus, the accused should be treated with all respect and his or her reputation protected in so far as possible. However, there should be a record of the accusation placed in their file.
  57. 57. Inadequate BehaviorEach institution that cares for children shoulddraw up a list of inappropriate behavior which isnot tolerated. For example:• Staff members should not allow children from the institution in their car.• Staff members may not organize or hold events when other adults cannot be present.• Staff members are prohibited from using social media to harass children.
  58. 58. Employment RequirementsEach institution or organization that serves childrenshould have written requirements for employees andvolunteers which include:• Letters of recommendation from prior supervisors.• Certificate of a clean record from the Police Department.• A signed affidavit that the applicant has received a copy of the policy of No Tolerance and agrees to abide by it.• Administrators could require applicants to take this course, take the included test and present the certificate of completion with their application.
  59. 59. Need for Live Interviews• Each institution or organization that serves children should require a live interview with each applicant. Two or more representatives from the organization should be present and notes taken.• It is vital to ask why the applicant has left his last position (pedophiles are notorious for inexplicable frequent changes of employment).
  60. 60. Validating RecommendationsIt is essential that letters of recommendation beinvestigated and validated (there have been caseswhere the person recommending the applicant wasnever contacted in person and later it was found thatthere was a long history in the applicant’s file ofinfractions involving inappropriate behavior.)
  61. 61. Maintaining RecordsEach institution or organization should maintain ansecure archive which includes:• A file on each employee and volunteer• Job application and verified letters of recommendation.• Signed copies of all policies of No Tolerance.• Copies of any complaint made against the individual, including the bringing to their attention of inadequate behaviors and any determination taken.
  62. 62. Question 7Since pedophiles are attracted to organizations workingwith children, it is necessary that these institutions: A) Investigate thoroughly the background of employees and volunteers. B) Give a psychological test to applicants in order to identify pedophiles. C) Only accept applications of people they already know. D) Ask each applicant whether he has been sexually abused.
  63. 63. Question 8If a child tells you that someone has attempted to sexually abuse him: A) You should investigate further before reporting to the supervisor. B) You must inform the supervisor, but not the police. C) You must report only to the parents of the child. D) After securing the safety of the child, you should inform the supervisor and the police.
  64. 64. Question 9When there is urgency to fill a position in a childcare center, it is acceptable to hire a teacher whohas given positive letters of recommendation: A) There is no need to communicate directly with those who recommend the applicant. B) Only after communicating directly with those that recommend the applicant. C) Only if you have also received a clean criminal record from the police. D) A and C.
  65. 65. Secondary Prevention• Secondary prevention is part of the therapy offered after an incident or more of CSA in order to break the cycle of abuse.• Secondary prevention has three focal points: Therapy directed at the victim Therapy directed at the family Therapy directed at perpetrators.
  66. 66. Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSA• Childhood sexual abuse is another form of violence and all violence whether verbal, emotional, psychological or physical is cyclical.• Therefore preventive sessions of therapy are aimed at breaking the cycle of violence.• Almost all (95.99%) pedophiles have been abused sexually during their childhood, but only about 50% become sexual aggressors.
  67. 67. Justification• This course has not been prepared for health care professionals and it would be out of its scope to explain all the elements essential for therapies directed at victims, families of victims and aggressors. What is presented here is to help that parents, victims and insurance agents understand what is required in therapy to prevent further incidences of CSA.
  68. 68. Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSA• Psychologists have identified some of the factors which contribute to victims becoming perpetrators and countering these factors in therapy can help break the cycle of violence.• Most parents want therapy to be over as soon as possible and are tempted to end further sessions before preventive work has even begun.• Insurance companies try to limit therapy sessions to a minimum in order to cut costs.
  69. 69. Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSAAdditional preventive threapy includesinterventions addressing:• Empowerment, since many victims experience self-doubt and experience feelings of impotency. (They may abuse others in an attempt to regain the self-control that was taken from them). Therapy is often needed to help them find their internal locus of control.
  70. 70. Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSA • Social skills which may be lacking due to isolation during and post abusive relationships. (Lacking age appropriate social skills can trigger feelings of inferiority among peers and make minors seem more attractive and less threatening.
  71. 71. Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSA• Recovering memories of CSA. (Many perpetrators have repressed their feelings associated with sexual abuse and therefore can be unaware of what their victim is feeling while being manipulated or controlled. Perpetrators often project their feelings of relief from anxiety onto their victims.) Learning to cope with negative feelings can lead to a reduction in their high level of anxiety.• Relaxation Techniques since many victims experience elevated levels of anxiety. (High levels of anxiety can trigger sexual abuse, which is not motivated by the sexual appetite).
  72. 72. Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSA• Empathy training (to counter a victim’s tendency to project their own feelings on others.)• Reestablish self-confidence. (Many victims blame themselves or question their own ability to protect themselves, i.e. “Why didn’t I say something?”
  73. 73. Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSA• Reestablish trust in authority figures. (Some pedophiles mistrust authority figures because those that were responsible for their well-being somehow let them down). Some perpetrators become a “teacher’s pet” in order to manipulate authority figures.(Pedophiles use their “authority” over their victimsto create an illusion of self-confidence and instillfear in their victims in order to mask their ownanxieties.)
  74. 74. Preventive Therapy for Victims of CSA• Challenging irrational thoughts, some of which the perpetrator may have implanted in their minds, such as, «it’s my fault for being so attractive.»• According to Albert Ellis’ theory of Rational/Emotive Therapy, irrational thoughts are the cause of many psychological conflicts.
  75. 75. Therapy directed at the Victim of CSA• Often perpetrators instill irrational ideas into the minds of their victims which later facilitate their transition into aggressors; i.e. “you were born different;” or “children have a right to sex;” “sex between an adult and a child is not harmful;” and “children are capable of giving informed consent.”
  76. 76. Therapy directed to the Family of a Victim of CSAMany victims of CSA don’t suffer any apparentsymptoms of trauma until they see their parent’sreaction upon discovery of their victimization.It is therefore quite necessary that the person whoinforms the parents of their child’s sexual abuse istrained and competent in explaining to them howtheir reaction to the child may trigger latent trauma.The family should be accessed for further need ofgrieving therapy.
  77. 77. Therapy for Family of a Victim of CSA• While it is outside the scope of this course to describe all the factors that may require therapy, systemic theories maintain that what affects one member of the family can affect the functioning of the entire family.• Therefore all families of victims of CSA should be given an psychological intervention in order for them to learn how to support the abused child.
  78. 78. Therapy forthe Families of Victims of CSA• It is highly likely that an individual member of the family may suffer PTSD, triggered by the discovery that their child was abused and require treatment.• Sudden recovered childhood memories late in life are not all that rare and can be quite traumatic.
  79. 79. Prevention Therapy for Perpetrators• Therapy for perpetrators must take into account that almost all sexual aggressors where victimized during their childhood and therefore the therapies appropriate for victims may also apply to perpetrators.• However, studies using the MMPI comparing perpetrators with the general population indicate that known sexual aggressors score lower on the Empathy Scale.
  80. 80. Prevention Therapy For Perpetrators• Prevention therapy therefore should include empathy training for known perpetrators.• The lack of empathy for a victim’s feelings probably results from the use of the defense mechanism dissociation, whereby during their own experience of abuse, they escaped from their feelings of helplessness and fear into a flight of fantasy and therefore are unaware of what a victim of CSA feels.
  81. 81. Prevention Therapy For Perpetrators• Therefore many pedophiles do not believe that sex with a child is morally reprehensible, and believe its condemnation to grow from a sick society, unaware of the damage done to their own cognitive and ethical functions.• Effective preventive therapy with pedophiles must address this moral lapse in their cognitive development.
  82. 82. Prevention Therapy for Perpetrators• According to Human Development theory, the brain develops in stages. Moral normally follows cognitive development, but in the natural order precedes puberty.• Apparently victims of early CSA experience stimulation into that part of the brain responsible for sexual behavior prior to the development of their conscience or their ability to distinguish between good and evil.
  83. 83. Prevention Therapy For PerpetratorsIt is very important for therapists to be mindfulthat CSA is not motivated by the sexual appetite,but rather a need to escape high levels ofanxiety. While sex can be a powerfulreinforcement for CSA, no therapy cansuccessfully prevent further abuse that does notteach adequate techniques for channelinganxiety.
  84. 84. Prevention Therapy For Perpetrators• Many children are seduced into CSA by means of the use of controlled substances and later suffer from addictions, as a consequence of introduction to them at an early age.• Often addiction correlates statistically with CSA but is not its cause. Addiction therapy may therefore be required.
  85. 85. Prevention Therapy For PerpetratorsPerpetrators often believe that there are no negative effects to children who are introduced into sexual behavior by an adult, but studies show that victims of CSA are 10 to 15% more likely to suffer from cancer, heart disease, gastrointestinal problems, liver disease, and diabetes as adults. These and other irrational ideas of sexual aggressors need to be confronted.
  86. 86. Prevention Therapy For Perpetrators• Finally, pedophiles who were led into CSA before the cognitive development of their brain do not take time to think about the consequences of their actions.• Therefore therapists should include in preventive therapies the possible consequences associated with CSA, as well as have aggressors memorize a story about a perpetrator who is caught in the act, is mortified by his picture appearing on the first page of the newspaper, the suffering he causes his family, as well as the horrors that await pedophiles in prison.
  87. 87. Punishment vs. Therapy• Some uneducated politicians wish to castrate pedophiles either by surgery or chemically in the belief that this will prevent further CSA.• However, that opinion is based on the false belief that pedophiles are motivated by a overly strong sexual appetites.• Psychologists have known for quite sometime that punishment does not result in the learning desired.
  88. 88. Prevention Therapy For Perpetrators• Imprisonment in the USA costs about $44,000 per year per inmate.• Surely, psychological treatment designed for pedophilia, not generic sexual therapy, has to be far more cost effective, as a means of preventing further incidents of CSA.
  89. 89. Question 10Some child molesters believe: A) That sex between an adult and a child is not harmful. B) That a child feels the same as themselves during sex. C) That a child is capable of deciding to have sex or not. D) All of the above.
  90. 90. Question 11Informing parents that their child was sexuallyabused: A) Can cause more trauma to the child by the reaction of his parents than the actual abuse. B) Requires specialized training. C) Is the victim’s decision. D) Both A and B
  91. 91. Question 12Sexual abuse of children is multi-factorial. Anothermotivating factor for sexual abuse of minors inaddition to being victimized, is: A) An exaggerated sexual appetite due to high levels of testosterone. B) High levels of anxiety. C) Celibacy D) The frequent use of pornography (There is an answer sheet on slide 102 for those who wish certification of completion of this course).
  92. 92. Legal Obligation to Report Cases of CSA• Any person who knows of or suspects that a child is being sexually abused is required by law to inform either the Police or Social Services (depending on the state).• This obligation applies even to those professionals who enjoy the privilege of confidentiality (except confessors) such as counselors and psychologists.
  93. 93. Legal Obligation to Report Cases of CSA• The supervisor or any institution or organization that serves children should have in the protocol of the institution the telephone number of Family Services, and the Police in their city and or state.• Most states have a page on the Internet with the necessary information.• Google: “Reporting Cases of CSA”
  94. 94. Conclusion• The best prevention is primary because its aim is to protect innocent children.• There are far too many pedophiles constantly seeking ways to be alone with a child in our society.• It is absolutely necessary to prepare our children so that they can protect themselves from these many sexual predators with adequate sexual education.
  95. 95. Conclusion• Since the primary obligation to educate their children falls on parents, it is of utmost importance that parents and those who care for children are aware of the high risks that face their wards and have the knowledge and tools to educate them adequately.• The almost daily reports in the news of CSA have shown that the institutions of our society have placed their own well-being above the protection of minors. Therefore parents need to insist that the institutions where they place their children have and are doing as much as possible to create and sustain a safe environment.
  96. 96. Conclusion• Therapy directed to victims must include interventions aimed at breaking the cycle of violence.• Therapy directed at families must include evaluations of the family as a unit, as well as individuals.• The treatment of perpetrators should include prevention therapy so as to lower the rate of recidivism. Neither imprisonment nor punishment can be effective.
  97. 97. The Author Dr. Cornelius Mc Quillan is an R.C. Priest and Licensed Psychologist who has worked over thirty years in Puerto Rico. He is a member of the missionary Congregation of the Holy Spirit and has labored in pastoral and prison ministry as well as the formation of seminarians and in education as a member of the faculties of Columbia College, Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, the Pontifical Catholic University at the Arecibo Campus, and finally the Dominican College, theUniversidad Central de Bayamon, Puerto Rico. Fr. Mc Quillan received his theological training at the CatholicTheological Union of Chicago where he was awarded a Masters in Divinity.He also received a Masters in Counseling Psychology from theInteramericana University of Puerto Rico where he graduated Summa CumLaude. Fr. Neil received his doctorate in Psychology from the CaliforniaCoast University at Santa Ana. He is a licensed Psychologist in Puerto Rico. Other works available on line
  98. 98. Congregation of the Holy Spirit Fr. McQuillan is a missionary of the Congregation ofthe Holy Spirit, a Religious community dedicated to theEvangelization of the poorest of the poor. The Spiritan Missionaries labor in more than 60countries. In the USA they are best known as the foundersof Duquesne University in Pittsburgh. For more information on the Spiritans:
  99. 99. Donations• If you would like to help support the Spiritan Missions, please send your check to: Congregation of the Holy Spirit Mission Office P O Box 3509 Hemet, CA 92546-3509 or Via Paypal:
  100. 100. BibliographyFinkelhor, David, Hotaling, Gerald, Lewis, I. A. & Smith, Christine, (1990). “Sexual Abuse in a National Survey of Adult Men and Women: Prevalence, Characteristics and Risk Factors,” Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 14, pp. 19-28.Hall, Gordon C. N. & Hirschman, Richard, (1992). “Sexual Aggression Against Children A Conceptual Perspective of Etiology,” Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol.19, No.1, pp. 8-23.
  101. 101. McQuillan, C. (1997). Prevention of Clerical Child Abuse Through Cognigive Changes,” Master s Thesis, Universidad Interamericana, Recinto de Cupey, PR.(2000) "Adolescent Suicide: A Review of the Literature," & "Suicide, Adolescents and Puerto Rico," Boletin de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico, Vol. 92 #s [1-2-3].(2003) "Psicoterapia del Niño" y "Adolescente con Depresión," Boletin de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico Vol. 95, [3].(2004). "What every Priest, Religious and Bishop Should Know About Pedophilia," The Journal of Pastoral Counseling, Vol. XXXIX.(2011). “A Reflection on the Dynamics of Dissociative Amnesia in Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Hacia la Prevención de Abuso Sexual de los Niños , curso de educación continuada, aprobada por 10 juntas examinadores de Puerto Rico, www.adiestrate.comMarshall, W. L. & Pithers, W.D. (1994). “A Reconsideration of Treatment Outcome with Sex Offenders,” Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 10- 25.
  102. 102. Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso (1991). “Multiple Personality in Puerto Rico: Analysis of15 Cases,” Dissociation, Vol. 4 Num. 4.Messler Davies, Jody & Frawley, Mary G. (1994). Treating the Adult Survivor ofChildhood Sexual Abuse, A Psychoanalytic Perspective, Basic Books, HarperCollins, N.Y.Pithers, William D. (1994). “Process Evaluation of a Group Therapy ComponentDesigned to Enhance Sex Offenders Empathy for Sexual Abuse Survivors,”Behavior Research and Therapy, Vol. 32, No. 5, June, pp. 565-570.Ratican, Kathleen L., (1992). “Sexual Abuse Survivors: Identifying Symptoms andSpecial Treatment Considerations,” Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 71,Sept. pp. 33-38aRivas, Carlo A. y Mirabal, B. (2008), “Genitoanal Findings in Puerto Rican Childrenwith Suspected Sexual Abuse,” Bol Asoc. Médica de PR. Apr.-Jun, 100 (2): 24-27.Schmutzer, Andrew J. (2008), “A Theology of Sexual Abuse: A Reflection OnCreation and Devastation. Journal of Evangelical Theological Society, Dec. pp.585-812.
  103. 103. Question AnswersCircle your answer clearly. If you would like to recieve an• 1 A B C D electronic certificate attesting to your• 2 A B C D completion of this course on• 3 A B C D Prevention of CSA, copy/paste your• 4 A B C D answers and email them to me and if• 5 A B C D you answer them correctly, I will send• 6 A B C D you a Certificate of Completion.• 7 A B C D• 8 A B C D• 9 A B C D Be sure to include you full name• 10 A B C D• 11 A B C D• 12 A B C D
  104. 104. Course Evaluation Curse: Toward the Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse Least MostI am likely to recommend this course to others 1 2 3 4I now better understand how I can help prevent CSA 1 2 3 4This course is well prepared and organized 1 2 3 4The time required to do this course is justified by the content 1 2 3 4The author manifests a command of the material 1 2 3 4 (Please copy and paste and send to your opinion to: