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Glacial Model Answers


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Glacial Model Answers

  1. 1. <ul><li>Physical landscapes - land use C2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Look at Reference Diagram Q1E, Reference Diagram Q1A and the OS map. </li></ul><ul><li>Give reasons for the pattern of land use which is shown on the transect. </li></ul>The deer stalking and and grouse shooting takes place at the top of the slopes as it’s high and steep land which is only suitable for rough grazing (2). The grouse shooting takes place on the slightly lower land as it provides more protection for the birds (1). The coniferous trees are built on the lower hillsides as the trees grow well on the steep slopes, which tend to have poorer soils (2). However, as it’s lower steep land there is better access for planting and harvesting the trees (2). The floodplain of the River Dee provides the main area of flat land which is suitable for growing crops and grazing animals (2) and the soil is likely to be better here. The A93 road follows a strip of narrow land at the bottom of the steep slope away from flood danger (1).
  2. 2. <ul><li>Physical landscapes - map question C2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Referring to map evidence, explain how physical landscape features (relief and drainage) have affected land use in Area C. </li></ul>Housing on the flat, low lying land though at the risk of flooding? Industry also in the valley floor Communication links (roads and railways) along the valley sides (easier to build on) Planting trees on steeper slopes Hill sheep farming on steeper slopes Rough grazing land Much of the flat land next to the river hasn’t been built on (1) due to the risk of flooding (1), for example at 966686 (1). The housing and communication links have been built on the remaining valley floor areas (1). The river is a barrier to communication and so bridges have been built over it (1). Building is restricted in the east of the area as it’s steeper land (1). Some of the sloping land is used for recreation, e.g. golf courses (1)
  3. 3. <ul><li>Glacial - corrie formation C2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the formation of a corrie. You may use diagrams to illustrate your answer. </li></ul>Remember: well labelled diagrams can achieve you full marks.You MUST use diagrams in your answer. Diagrams must be labelled, sequenced and have full explanations and a key if necessary. Corries are formed by glacial erosion. As the climate cools, snow gathers in small hollows, generally north facing, on high mountain sides (1). This snow is compressed and turns in to ice (1). The ice thickens and begins to move downhill under the force of gravity (1). As it moves it plucks at the back of the hollow (1) abrasion occurs on the floor (1). Freeze-thaw weathering takes place above the ice (1). When the ice melts a deep, armchair hollow is left with steep sides and a flat floor (1).
  4. 4. <ul><li>Glacial - formation of a U shaped valley C2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how a U shaped valley is formed. You may use diagrams to illustrate your answer. </li></ul>Ice forms as the climate cools in hollows high up in mountain sides (1). The ice begins to move under the force of gravity and flow downhill (1). The ice flows in to v-shaped valleys created by rivers (1). The ice fills the valley and over time erodes the valley by the processes of plucking and abrasion (2). This widens and deepens the valley. Eventually, when the ice melts a u-shaped valley has been formed with steep sides and wide, flat valley floor (1). Hanging valleys form due to glacial erosion. As the climate cools, ice forms in hollows high in the mountains (1). This ice fills the hollow and begins to move under the force of gravity (1). In the main valley, the ice flows down the main v-shaped valley and creates deep u-shaped valleys. However, in the smaller tributary valleys the erosion isn’t so deep (1) as it has been occupied by a less powerful glacier (1). Nevertheless, the ice erodes by plucking and abrasion (2) to create a small u-shaped valley (1). When the ice melts the mouth of the tributary valley ‘hangs’ above the steep sides of the main valley (1) Truncated spurs are a result of glacial erosion along a pre-glacial v shaped valley (1). Before the ice age, a river had eroded the small v-shaped valley and had meandered around the spurs or rock that jutted out in to the valley (2). When the glacier eroded the valley by plucking and abrasion (2) it straightened the valley by eroding away the spurs (1). In places large masses of solid rock were plucked and abraded (1) leaving steep slabs of rock on the valley sides (1).
  5. 5. <ul><li>Glacial - depositional features G2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Match each of the features of glacial deposition in the table to the correct letter on the diagram </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Glacial - depositional features G2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how one of these features was formed. You may use a diagram to illustrate your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrams must be included: </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a cross-section or plan view? </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you order them </li></ul><ul><li>Fully label them </li></ul>Terminal moraine: The glacier erodes material by plucking and abrasion (1) and transports it like a conveyor belt (1) inside and on its surface and also pushes material along (1). This material is deposited at the front of the ice as a ridge (1). When the ice melts the material is left as an unsorted ridge marking the maximum extent the ice reached (2). Esker: Streams flowed in tunnels in and under the ice (1). Sands, silt and other material is carried as load inside the tunnels (1) and choke the tunnel (1). When the ice melts a long sandy ridge is left (1) parallel to the direction of ice flow (1).