CDS R-O2 Presentation - Ceramics & Refractories
R−O2 Drying Presentation
ceramics & allied products.
CDS GROUP ˆthe history˜
Privately owned and formed in 1983.
Based in Stoke−on−Trent, England.
80 people employed throughout the CDS Group,
˘Fabrication, and Installation
Annual Group Turnover of $20,000,000.00 US Dollars.
Accredited to ISO 9001/2000.
CDS GROUP ˆcapabilities ˜
Design, consultation and feasibility study.
From small scale engineering design to full
Flexibility of contract structure.
˘ Complete Supply from the UK.
˘ Local manufacture and equipment supply.
Complete installation and commissioning service.
After sales service from the UK.
Research & Development facilities.
What is R−O2 Drying?
R−O2 Drying is a method of drying which uses dry
superheated steam at atmospheric pressure to perform the
R−O2 Drying is safe to operate, easy to control (only
temperature is controlled & not humidity) & offers ultra fast
drying times with high thermal efficiencies.
R−O2 Drying Advantages include:
Reduction in process drying times
Reduction of energy requirements
High thermal efficiency
Smaller Footprint required
Minimal exhaust emissions to atmosphere. Traditional stack is not needed.
Energy recovery potential
Virtual elimination of the potential explosion and or product combustion risk
How Does Steam Replace air?
The steam is generated from the moisture contained only
within the product.
When water boils & becomes steam its volume increases
by a factor of 1,670.
As the water evaporates, each Kg of water occupies a
volume of 1.67 m3
R−O2 Dryers operate on full recirculation so no new air is
required to enter the system.
As both the recirculation mix and the product get hotter,
1.67m3 of increasingly humid air is vented as each Kg of
water is evaporated. This process continues until the
Dryer is virtually free of air which is replaced with dry
What is the R−O2 Drying Cycle?
The R−O2 drying cycle consists of only 2 phases:
− The Warm Heat Up Phase − between ambient and
− The Drying Phase − Above 100°C.
During the Warm Up Phase the small amount of water
evaporated from the product effectively raises the humidity
level. This suppresses undue evaporation and allows the
product to be rapidly heated to 100°C without rapid
What is the R−O2 Drying Cycle?
Additional heating further heats the product and
evaporates the remaining water, while the additional
steam generated from the moist product continues to be
vented from the chamber.
Heating continues until the product is dry at which stage
ambient air is introduced into the dryer to cool both
chamber and products.
In summary, the combination of the rapid heating during
the warm up phase and rapid moisture removal during the
drying phase allows R−O2 drying to achieve such
substantial reductions in drying times against conventional
Temperature profile in a
Continuous R−O2 Dryer
What Are The Advantages of
As the Specific Heat of steam is twice that of air, less Fan power is
required to supply a given amount of heat to the moist product.
R−O2 Drying is more energy efficient because, not only is fresh air
excluded from the process (which in conventional Dryers needs
heating), most of the Dryers heat input can be usefully re−cycled, and
is typically around 80% of the total heat input.
In summary R−O2 Drying is a
SAFE Drying Method
is more energy efficient and
offers vastly reduced drying times.
R−O2 Trial Plants
We have extensive testing facilities located in Stoke−
on−Trent, UK. These facilities consist of a wide range
of R−O2 processing equipment which allows us to
carry out trials on almost any type of product,
producing trial−sized quantities of up to 1,000 kg/hr.
End User Proximate Energy Savings
Independent Bodies found Potential End User Proximate
Energy Savings of 45% when using R−O2 Technology: (556
Development of an Energy Efficient System to Reduce the Cost
of Drying Food and Food Waste WREEED, CORDIS RTD−
Projects / European Communities FP5 Project Record)
`Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme (UK)
Future Practice Final Report 58 by ETSU, Harwell,
Didcot, OX11 0RA, acting on behalf of the DETR
1997. Found: R−O2 Drying offers energy
consumption savings over industry survey averages
of between 60% and 85%.
`R−O2 Drying for Ceramic Products Ceram Research
Report KAIR−IV Final Project Report, J. Fifer (Project
Manager) and T. Evans (Report) 1996: Found:
Savings relating from shorter cycle times and or
reduced product damage; Savings achievable by full
re−use of the R−O2 Dryers exhausted steam energy
and or use of its flue gas energy