Finland / What do we teach about our neighbours?


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Finland / What do we teach about our neighbours?

  1. 1. What do we teach about our neighbours ?
  2. 2. What do we teach about the Baltic States ?
  3. 3. What do we teach about our neighbours – The Baltic States <ul><li>Before the 20th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The history of Baltic countries are studied only if it touches on Finnish history. For example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gustav Vasa founded the city of Helsinki as a rival to Tallinn in 1550 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Baltic countries were part of Sweden during the 16th and 17th century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the 18th century Sweden lost its territories in the Baltic countries to Russian regime </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What do we teach about our neighbours – The Baltic States <ul><li>In the 20th Century (before 1939) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The textbooks start to deal with the history of Baltic states more extensively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The independence of the Baltic states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3700 Finnish volunteers took part in the Estonian war of independence 1918-1919 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Baltic states practise common foreign policy against Soviet Union in 1920’s together with Poland </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What do we teach about our neighbours – The Baltic States <ul><li>In the 20th Century (1939 - 1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Nazi-Soviet pact 1939 and the secret supplementary protocol in which Germany and Soviet Union divided eastern Europe among themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union demands military bases from Finland and the Baltic states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Estonian volunteers in Finnish Winter War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union occupies Baltic states 1940 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Operation Barbarossa 1941: Baltic countries suffer the consequences of the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Potsdam Conference 1945: Baltic countries remain under Soviet occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Baltic countries as the Soviet Socialist Republics </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What do we teach about our neighbours – The Baltic States <ul><li>In the 20th Century (1991-) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The restoration of independence after the collapse of Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The role Baltic states in Europe and international politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The NATO membership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The EU membership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How history textbooks present the history of Baltic states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the limited amount of lessons and broad curriculum not enough emphasis is given to history Baltic states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbooks stress close connection between Finland and Baltic states especially Estonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Baltic states are often presented as an example of difficult geopolitical position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The content is oriented towards political history and less to cultural or social history </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What do we teach about Denmark, Norway and Iceland?
  8. 8. What do we teach about Denmark, Norway and Iceland? <ul><li>Unfortunately very little time is used to cover the history of these countries in our teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>In the curriculum the history of Denmark, Norway and Iceland is usually studied in broader historical context. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Vikings: both plundering expeditions and trade expeditions in Europe; settlers of Iceland, Greenland and North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Danish rule in Estonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The role of Denmark in the Union of Kalmar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1905 Norway got its independence from Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1940 Germany conquered Denmark and Norway; resistance movement and nazi- followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark, Norway and Iceland in the international politics after the WWII (NATO members, relationship to European Union) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norway’s oil riches </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What do we teach about Sweden?
  10. 10. Finland as a part of Sweden <ul><li>In general Sweden is described as superior and forward-looking and progressive compared to Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Many good things are said to come to Finland from Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>When Sweden conquered Finland (12th century), Finland became westernized and converted to Christianity, e.g laws were got through Sweden from Western Europe (originally Roman laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Finland was a part of catholic church, but in the 16th century in the era of Gustaf Vasa Finland became Lutheran </li></ul><ul><li>Finland and Finns had to participate many wars whether they wanted or not because of its geopolitical position between Sweden and Russia, between west and east </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually said that Finland’s proportion to army was always larger than Sweden’s proportion in comparison with populations </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden in the 18th century is told to become weaker and weaker to defend Finland against the growing threat of Russia </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sweden in the 19th and 20th centuries <ul><li>For a long time Finns had close relations to Sweden especially in cultural sense </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the independence of Finland there were a quarrel between Finland and Sweden concerning the possession of Åland Islands and then there were some language quarrels between Finnish- and Swedish-speaking people </li></ul><ul><li>When Finland became independent it had to create diplomatic relations to different countries; Sweden was the country where presidents visited to </li></ul><ul><li>Before the WWII there were some secret plans to join the armies of Finland and Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Some 10 000 Swedish men came as volunteers to take part in Finland’s Winter War </li></ul><ul><li>At wartime many Finnish children were sent to Sweden so that they could avoid the difficult time in Finland </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sweden in the 19th and 20th centuries <ul><li>After the war Finland’s relationship with Sweden and other Scandinavian countries became closer; for example Finland was accepted as a member of the Nordic Council in 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>In many things Sweden was an example to Finland; e.g. comprehensive school, welfare state </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration to Sweden in 1950’s and 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays Finland is a member of European union and Sweden has lost its position as a role model </li></ul>
  13. 13. Approaches to Swedish history in history teaching <ul><li>Swedish history is taught parallel with Finnish history when Finland is part of the Sweden (until 1809) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The approach is quite balanced between political history and social, economic and cultural history. > This emphasis Finland’s links to Western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swedish history during the 19th and 20th century is taught when it touches on Finnish history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The stress is now on political history and international relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden is presented in positive way: political neutrality and welfare state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are seen as an aim for Finland too > This emphasis Finland’s links to Scandinavian countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The political problems (e.g. The Aland Islands) are toned down as part of Finnish nation building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The social issues, like the problems of Finnish immigrants in Sweden in the1960’s and 70’s, are passed over with a few words </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What do we teach about Poland?
  15. 15. Before the 20th century <ul><li>In the 16th century a court life in the castle of Turku got renaissance influences from Poland </li></ul><ul><li>King Sigismund and the battle of power in Sweden and also in Finland (called as a rebel of peasants) </li></ul><ul><li>In the 17th century Sweden took part in religious wars in Europe; Finnish soldiers (hakkapeliittas) were also in Poland and mistreated Polish people </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning of the 18th century Charles XII, King of Sweden, battled many years in Poland with his army including Finnish troops, too </li></ul><ul><li>Revolts in Poland in 1830 and 1863 </li></ul>
  16. 16. The 20th century <ul><li>After the WWI Poland was one of the Eastern European countries which got their independence </li></ul><ul><li>The Baltic sea countries - with leadership of Poland - practised common foreign policy against Soviet Union in 1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>Poland and the beginning of the World War Two; the pact of Molotov-Ribbentrop and the secret supplementary protocol in which Germany and Soviet Union divided eastern Europe among themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Persecution of Jews in Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Poland and the last battles in the World War Two, e.g. in Warsaw </li></ul>
  17. 17. The 20th century <ul><li>People's democracy of Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Solidarity movement and Lech Walesa in Poland in 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>The collapse of people's democracies in Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Poland in European Union </li></ul>
  18. 18. What do we teach about Russia ?
  19. 19. What do we teach about Russia / Soviet Union? 19th and 20th century <ul><li>Russia: Society and political development </li></ul><ul><li>Russia in 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>Society: peasants and their situation </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion in the east </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism in Russian empire </li></ul><ul><li>Russian revolutions 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutions in February and October </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lenin and communism Soviet Union in the 20´s and 30´s - Civil war - The NEP - Stalin era: 5-years plans, collectivization, industrialization, Stalin’s terror, Stalin cult, dictatorship Soviet Union after war - The Brezhnev era - Gorbatšov: perestroika, glasnost - The collapse of Soviet Union 1991 Russia after 1991
  21. 21. 2) Russia / Soviet Union and Finland Finland becomes part of Russia 1809 - The Treaty of Tilsit 1807 - The War between Russia and Sweden 1808-1809 - Aleksandr I in Finland 1809 Finland as a part of Russia 1809-1917 - Nikolai I and censorship - Reforms of Aleksandr II in Finland The period of russification 1899-1917 - The position of Finland in Russian empire - The administration of Finland: Finnish or Russian?
  22. 22. The civil war of Finland - Russian soldiers in Finland - Finnish emigrants to Soviet Russia Finnish – Soviet relationships in the 20’s and 30’s - The Peace treaty in Tartu 1920 - Distant relations Second World War - The Winter War - The Continuation War - The Peace Treaty: loss of territory, reparations… Finland and Soviet Union after war - Finland’s new policy: The Paasikivi Line - The Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance 1948 - YYA treaty - Kekkonen’s policy: good relationship with Soviet union or “finlandization”? - The collapse of Soviet Union and Finland’s new policy
  23. 23. 3) Russia and the rest of the world USA in the 19th century - Russia sells Alaska to USA - Russian emigrants to USA Imperialism - Japan’s victory over Russia 1905 The First World War - Russia against Germany The Second World War - The Nazi-Soviet pact 1939 - The division of Poland - The operation Barbarossa - Stalingrad - The end of the war
  24. 24. The Cold War - The role of Soviet Union after 1945 - Eastern Europe after war - Arms race, competition of getting to the space - Warsaw Pact - Crisis in Cuba - Improvement in the climate of international relations in the 70’s - The war in Afghanistan Russia and the rest of the world after Soviet Union - The eras of Jeltsin and Putin - The challenges of Russia nowadays: economy, democracy, environment, social development
  25. 25. How do the textbooks see Russia / Soviet Union? - The textbooks are only a part of teaching. Teachers are very free to teach differently and use other material as well. - In the textbooks often the emphasis is on the relationships between Finland and Soviet Union. - There are two sides in those relationships: 1) Russia / Soviet Union as a threat and Finland’s struggle against Russia (especially during the wars) 2) Russia / Soviet Union as a good neighbor or a good ruler (especially during the era of the Grand Duchy of Finland (1809-1917) - There is much more political than cultural history. - The emperors and leaders are important in both Russian and Soviet era. - There are a lot of negative things: dictatorship, wars, oppression, economical and social problems. There are positive things, as well, in the new books.