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Method of breeding


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Method of breeding

  1. 1. BREEDING “It is an application of genetic principles to improving heriditory for economically important traits in domestic animals.” Ex: Improving of milk production in dairy animals Egg production in chickens
  2. 2.  Produce individuals with superior merits  Improvement of the characteristics.  Production of new traits. Advantages
  3. 3. Methods Hand mating Pair mating Harem mating
  4. 4. Hand mating: In this method male and female are brought together for a brief period and then separated once the mating is over. Ex : Rabbits and Hamsters are mated by this method
  5. 5. Pair mating : This is the method in which male and females are mated together rest of their breeding life. In this method in case of mice one male mated with one female , and left together for the rest of their breeding life. In the case of rats, pregnant females should be isolated prior to delivery.
  6. 6. Harem mating : In this method males and females are run together , but separated prior to parturition In this method four females are regularly mated with one male. The female is separated soon after the pregnancy is established, and replaced by fresh females. Ex : guinea pigs are mated by this method.
  7. 7. Breeding methods In breeding Close breeding Line breeding Out breeding Out crossing Cross breeding : Criss crossing Triple crossing Back crossing Grading up Mutations
  8. 8. INBREEDING “The crossing of two closely related genes is called inbreeding.” In this individuals are mated 4-6 generations. Objective Develop lines which commercially used. Inbreed should have at least 50% coefficient of inbreed.
  9. 9. Advantages  It is used to return desirable genetic characters.  Identify harm full genes.  Increase frequency of homozygocity . Disadvantages  Higher susceptibility to genetic disorders.  Risk of inbreeding depression I . e infertility , delayed maturity , slow growth , decrease egg production.  hybrid vigor and fertility were lost due to repeated inbreeding.
  10. 10. Line breeding : This is the breeding of animals that share common ancestors but are not closely related.  Line-breeding over successive generations will result in more variations of physical appearance Close breeding : In this mating the breeding is done between brother-sister , dam-son etc.
  11. 11. Out-breeding  The crossing of distantly related animals is called Out -breeding.  In this method it is possible to breed a desirable type of animal with a less desirable type and then to increase the degree of desirable traits. Advantages :  New and high yielding genes can be introduced into the population through out -breeding.  They produce some valuable traits  Can create new breeds  Can produce a hybrid of superior vigor and value. Disadvantages :  Introduction of new genes into population.
  12. 12. Out – crossing : It is system of mating where un related animals with in the same breed. Cross breeding : a) Criss cross : Mating of two different breeds alternatively. In pigs Hampshire Vs Landrace Progeny 1 Vs Hampshire Progeny 2 Vs Landrace It can produce pigs with different levels of inheritance.
  13. 13. b)Triple crossing : mating of three different breeds in rotational manner.  Cross breeds have different proportions for all three breeds. Hampshire Vs landrace • Progeny 1 Vs large black Progeny 2 Vs Hampshire Progeny 3 Vs Landrace
  14. 14. c)Back crossing : Mating of cross bred animals to one of pure bred parents which were used to produce them. Aa Vs AA 2AA , 2Aa Grading up:  It is the system of breeding purebred sire to non descript breed generation after generation.  Level of exotic breed inheritance increase upgraded stock up to 99% in the 7th generation.  Selection and breeding are two main tools to produce superior individual.
  15. 15. “sudden change in the genetic material” The new traits into populations can also be induced through mutations. Most of the mutations are harmful and the process of induction of this method of improvement of animals is impractical. Eg : poultry that is resistant to white diarrhoea , increased egg production in fowls, increased fat content in milk and better meat yielding in Turkeys etc. Mutations
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