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By Dr. Neha Deo
Quality
Quality is the totality of features and characteristics
of a product or service that bear upon its ability to
satisfy the stated or implied needs. (BSI, 1991)
Quality is a functional utility of the product.
(Navaratnam,1997)
Quality is the degree of fitness for purpose and
functions.(Oakland 1988)
Quality
Sallis explained the quality of product as “they
must do what they claim to do, and do what
their customers expect of them.”-
Quality is thus a positive & dynamic idea
achievable by design with meaningful
investment & not a absence of defect.
(Crawford Shutler, 1999)
Quality
Quality may be called as a journey (Process)
& not necessarily a destination.
The quality journey is characterized by a
customer focused approach to continuous
planning, implementing, evaluating and
decision making. (Navaratnam 1997)
Quality
In service sector, the client’s perception is the
final index of quality.
Quality has both absolute & relative connotations.
Absolute—e.g. Rolls Royce----Most of us admire
it, many of us want it, few of us can have it.
Relative—since there can be many shades. The
relativity becomes evident when products &
services are the same.
Quality
 The standard of something as measured against
other things of a similar kind; the degree of
excellence of something.
 A quality is an attribute or a property characteristic
of an object in philosophy. In contemporary
philosophy the idea of qualities, and especially
how to distinguish certain kinds of qualities from
one another, remains controversial.
 Quality is a distinctive attribute or characteristic
possessed by someone or something.
Nature of Quality
• Simple
characteristic &
it can be
analyzed.
• It is a specific &
measurable
entity.
• It can be proved
through
experience.
 In quality the use of
product or services
by the society is
expected.
 In quality, value of
money is expected.
 Through quality
trust for the
organization is
reflected.
 Quality indicates
the image of the
organization in the
society.
• In quality
acceptable price is
expected.
• It is a measure of
customer
satisfaction.
•In it customers’
need are satisfied.
•It proves that
there is absence of
errors or faults.
Quality can any of the following
Perceptual (as perceived by the consumer)
Both process & product (Product carries manifest
quality, process provides intrinsic support)
Exceptional (something special; in operational
terms, one can have scale or steps of its
achievement and a cut off point)
Perfection (or consistent; in other words, it
identifies a specification to be met absolutely)
Quality can any of the following
Fitness for purpose (Satisfying specified
intentions)
Value for money
Transformative (Captured by terms like
qualitative change, or continuous improvement)
Relative & not absolute
Quality in Education
Excellence in Education
Value addition in Education
Fitness of educational outcome and
experience for use
Quality in Education
Conformance of educational output to
planned goals, specifications &
requirements
Defect avoidance in education process
Meeting or exceeding customers’
expectations of education
Hierarchy of Quality Management
INSPECTION
Limited to physical products
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Comprehensive term
QUALITY ASSUARANCE
Focuses on process
QUALITY CONTROL
Focuses on Product
Total Quality Management
Total quality management (TQM) consists of
organization-wide efforts to install and make
permanent climate where
employees continuously improve their ability
to provide on demand products and services
that customers will find of particular value.
Total Quality Management
 “Total" emphasizes that departments in
addition to production (for example sales and
marketing, accounting and finance,
engineering and design) are obligated to
improve their operations;
“Management" emphasizes that executives are
obligated to actively manage quality through
funding, training, staffing, and goal setting.
TQM
Everyone
Every thing
Continuous
Systematic, Integrated
Consistent
Organization wide
Use of people
Improvement from within.
Deming’s Principles of TQM
Constancy of purpose of improving
Adopt new philosophy.
Cease dependence on mass
inspection to achieve quality.
Terminate the awarding of business
on the basis of price.
Deming’s Principles of TQM
Improve constantly & forever the
system of production & service to
improve productivity & quality &
decrease the cost.
Institute training on the job.
Institute leadership.
Deming’s Principles of TQM
 Drive out fear so that every one may work
effectively.
 Break down the barriers between
departments.
 Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets
asking for new levels of productivity
without providing the workforce with the
methods to do the job better.
 Eliminate work standards that prescribe
numerical data.
Deming’s Principles of TQM
Remove the barriers that rob people
of their rights to pride of
workmanship.
Institute a vigorous programme of
Education & self – improvement.
Put every one in the company to
work to accomplish the
transformation.
Juran’s Steps for
TQM
•Create awareness for the need
and opportunity for improvement.
•Set explicit goals for improvement.
•Create an organizational structure
to drive the improvement process.
•Provide appropriate training.
•Adopt a project approach to
problem solving.
Juran’s Steps for TQM
•Recognize & reinforce
success.
•Identify & report progress.
•Communicate results.
•Keep records of change.
•Build an annual improvement
cycle into all process of
company.
Crosby’s steps of
TQM
1) Establish full management commitment to
the quality programme.
2) Set up a quality team to drive the
programme.
3) Introduce quality measurement procedures
4) Define & apply the principle of the cost of
quality.
5) Institute a quality assurance programme.
6) Introduce a corrective action procedures.
7) Plan for the implementation of a zero –
defect system.
Crosby’s steps of TQM
8) Implement supervisor training.
9) Announce a zero defects day to launch
the process.
10) Set goals to bring about action.
11) Set up an employee- management
communication system.
12) Recognize those who have actively
participated.
13) Set up quality councils to sustain the
process.
14) Do it all over again.
Quality Management
Quality management is a set of
concepts, strategies, tools and beliefs
etc. which are aimed at improving the
quality of products and services,
reducing the waste & saving costs.
(Navaratnam,& O’Connor)
Quality Control
Quality control in its broader sense, refers to a
spectrum of managerial methods for attempting
to maintain the quality of manufactured articles
at a desired level.
Detection & elimination of products that do not
match the product specification.
Avoiding too high a quality as well as too low a
quality.
Sticking to the predefined quality (Johansen,
1986)
QUALITY ASSURANCE
Quality Assurance is a strategy of prevention
of production of wasteful defective
pieces.(Oakland,1988)
 Dealing with quality planning
 Providing quality advice& expertise
 Providing inward goods, process &
finished products’ appraisal methodology.
 Analyzing customer’s complaints,
warranty claims and product liability
cases.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
What is done to assure quality?
 An advance prototyping of the product.
 Equal emphasis on quality of transforming
the design into a product conforming to the
original design.
 This mechanism ensures the right quality of
raw material and equipment (inputs) and
also rigorous process quality so that quality
is ensured.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
Quality assurance system, based on the fact
that all functions share responsibility of
quality, provides an effective method of
acquiring and maintaining desired
quality.(Oakland, 1988)
Quality Improvement
Quality improvement is the framework used
to systematically improve care. Quality
improvement seeks to standardize processes
and structure to reduce variation, achieve
predictable results, and improve outcomes for
the customers & stakeholders..
 Mukhopadhyay ,Murmer (2012). Total Quality Management :(Second Edition) Sage Publications.
 Wikipedia
 https://www.google.co.in/search?q=quality+free+images&sxsrf=ALiCzsZjlKgT1-
Mu3U9IRWLG01FyUZQ7cA:1669793878410&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjG3eH3st References
 https://www.google.co.in/search?q=TQM++free+images&tbm=isch&ved=2ahUKEwip2vz-stX7AhXsi9gFHcDFAcMQ2-
cCegQIABAA&oq=TQM++free+images&gs_lcp=CgNpb
 https://www.dictionary.com/browse/quality
 https://www.google.co.in/search?q=Deming+&bih=604&biw=1264&hl=en&sxsrf=ALiCzsb3SvnnZevSx1JBooHMmwfXtkVxUA%3A1669794013949&ei=3QiHY-
zDOaeL3LUP3cyB6Ao&ved=0ahUKEwisprK4s9X7AhWnBbcAHV1mAK0Q4dUDCA8&uact=5&oq=Deming+&gs_lcp=Cgxnd3Mtd2l6LXNlcnAQAzIECAAQQzIHCAAQsQMQQzIFCAA
QkQIyBAgAEEMyBQgAEJECMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgUIABCRAjIFCAAQkQIyBAgAEEM6BwgjEOoCECc6BAgjECc6DgguEIAEELEDEIMBENQCOgUIABCABDoLCAAQgAQQsQ
MQgwE6CAgAELEDEIMBOg4ILhCABBCxAxDHARDRAzoLCC4QgAQQsQMQ1AI6CAgAEIAEELEDSgQIQRgASgQIRhgAUABY3RhgnCVoAXABeACAAZ0BiAGhB5IBAzAuN5gBA
KABAbABCsABAQ&sclient=gws-wiz-serp
 https://www.google.co.in/search?q=juran&bih=604&biw=1264&hl=en&sxsrf=ALiCzsbcvcOs8pUfPiUXrfL9MJIgCye03g%3A1669794211161&ei=owmHY6DACduoz7sP7_WFEA&gs_ssp=eJzj4tTP1TcwTU82LDdg9G
LNKi1KzAMAL6AFVg&oq=Juran&gs_lcp=Cgxnd3Mtd2l6LXNlcnAQARgBMgUIABCRAjILCC4QgAQQsQMQgwEyCwgAELEDEIMBEJECMgQIABBDMgQILhBDMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgUIABCABDIF
CAAQgAQ6BwgjEOoCECc6BAgjECc6CgguEMcBEK8BECc6CwguELEDEIMBENQCOgsIABCABBCxAxCDAToICAAQsQMQgwE6DgguEIAEELEDEMcBENEDOggIABCABBCxAzoRCC4QgAQQsQMQgwEQxwE
Q0QM6CggAEIAEEIcCEBQ6CAguEIAEELEDOggILhCxAxCDAToICC4QsQMQgAQ6CwguEIAEELEDENQCSgQIQRgASgQIRhgAUABYpA1g7SJoAXABeACAAagBiAHuBZIBAzAuNZgBAKABAbABCsABAQ&scli
ent=gws-wiz-serp
 https://www.google.co.in/search?q=crosby+quality&bih=604&biw=1264&hl=en&sxsrf=ALiCzsYne0_8AIsKfXfdExI-S1ZCbXCasg%3A1669794265723&ei=2QmHY4joK--
24t4Pgaye8A0&gs_ssp=eJzj4tTP1TewqDJOqjBg9OJLLsovTqpUKCxNzMksqQQAcvMJEg&oq=Crosby&gs_lcp=Cgxnd3Mtd2l6LXNlcnAQARgBMgoILhCxAxCDARBDMgQILhBDMgQIABBDMgUIABCABDILCC4Q
gAQQxwEQ0QMyBQguEIAEMgsILhCABBDHARCvATIFCAAQgAQyCwguEIAEEMcBENEDMgUIABCABDoHCCMQ6gIQJzoHCC4Q6gIQJzoECCMQJzoHCC4Q1AIQQzoQCC4QsQMQgwEQxwEQ0QMQQzoLC
AAQgAQQsQMQgwE6DgguEIAEELEDEMcBENEDOgsILhCABBCxAxCDAToICAAQsQMQgwE6CAgAEIAEELEDOgsIABCABBCxAxDJAzoICC4QgAQQsQM6BQgAELEDSgQIQRgASgQIRhgAUABYpCJglkpoAX
ABeACAAZ4BiAH4BpIBAzAuNpgBAKABAbABCsABAQ&sclient=gws-wiz-serp
Quality

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Quality

  • 2. Quality Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear upon its ability to satisfy the stated or implied needs. (BSI, 1991) Quality is a functional utility of the product. (Navaratnam,1997) Quality is the degree of fitness for purpose and functions.(Oakland 1988)
  • 3. Quality Sallis explained the quality of product as “they must do what they claim to do, and do what their customers expect of them.”- Quality is thus a positive & dynamic idea achievable by design with meaningful investment & not a absence of defect. (Crawford Shutler, 1999)
  • 4. Quality Quality may be called as a journey (Process) & not necessarily a destination. The quality journey is characterized by a customer focused approach to continuous planning, implementing, evaluating and decision making. (Navaratnam 1997)
  • 5. Quality In service sector, the client’s perception is the final index of quality. Quality has both absolute & relative connotations. Absolute—e.g. Rolls Royce----Most of us admire it, many of us want it, few of us can have it. Relative—since there can be many shades. The relativity becomes evident when products & services are the same.
  • 6. Quality  The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something.  A quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object in philosophy. In contemporary philosophy the idea of qualities, and especially how to distinguish certain kinds of qualities from one another, remains controversial.  Quality is a distinctive attribute or characteristic possessed by someone or something.
  • 7. Nature of Quality • Simple characteristic & it can be analyzed. • It is a specific & measurable entity. • It can be proved through experience.  In quality the use of product or services by the society is expected.  In quality, value of money is expected.  Through quality trust for the organization is reflected.  Quality indicates the image of the organization in the society. • In quality acceptable price is expected. • It is a measure of customer satisfaction. •In it customers’ need are satisfied. •It proves that there is absence of errors or faults.
  • 8. Quality can any of the following Perceptual (as perceived by the consumer) Both process & product (Product carries manifest quality, process provides intrinsic support) Exceptional (something special; in operational terms, one can have scale or steps of its achievement and a cut off point) Perfection (or consistent; in other words, it identifies a specification to be met absolutely)
  • 9. Quality can any of the following Fitness for purpose (Satisfying specified intentions) Value for money Transformative (Captured by terms like qualitative change, or continuous improvement) Relative & not absolute
  • 10. Quality in Education Excellence in Education Value addition in Education Fitness of educational outcome and experience for use
  • 11. Quality in Education Conformance of educational output to planned goals, specifications & requirements Defect avoidance in education process Meeting or exceeding customers’ expectations of education
  • 12. Hierarchy of Quality Management INSPECTION Limited to physical products TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Comprehensive term QUALITY ASSUARANCE Focuses on process QUALITY CONTROL Focuses on Product
  • 13. Total Quality Management Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make permanent climate where employees continuously improve their ability to provide on demand products and services that customers will find of particular value.
  • 14. Total Quality Management  “Total" emphasizes that departments in addition to production (for example sales and marketing, accounting and finance, engineering and design) are obligated to improve their operations; “Management" emphasizes that executives are obligated to actively manage quality through funding, training, staffing, and goal setting.
  • 16. Deming’s Principles of TQM Constancy of purpose of improving Adopt new philosophy. Cease dependence on mass inspection to achieve quality. Terminate the awarding of business on the basis of price.
  • 17. Deming’s Principles of TQM Improve constantly & forever the system of production & service to improve productivity & quality & decrease the cost. Institute training on the job. Institute leadership.
  • 18. Deming’s Principles of TQM  Drive out fear so that every one may work effectively.  Break down the barriers between departments.  Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets asking for new levels of productivity without providing the workforce with the methods to do the job better.  Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical data.
  • 19. Deming’s Principles of TQM Remove the barriers that rob people of their rights to pride of workmanship. Institute a vigorous programme of Education & self – improvement. Put every one in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
  • 20. Juran’s Steps for TQM •Create awareness for the need and opportunity for improvement. •Set explicit goals for improvement. •Create an organizational structure to drive the improvement process. •Provide appropriate training. •Adopt a project approach to problem solving.
  • 21. Juran’s Steps for TQM •Recognize & reinforce success. •Identify & report progress. •Communicate results. •Keep records of change. •Build an annual improvement cycle into all process of company.
  • 22. Crosby’s steps of TQM 1) Establish full management commitment to the quality programme. 2) Set up a quality team to drive the programme. 3) Introduce quality measurement procedures 4) Define & apply the principle of the cost of quality. 5) Institute a quality assurance programme. 6) Introduce a corrective action procedures. 7) Plan for the implementation of a zero – defect system.
  • 23. Crosby’s steps of TQM 8) Implement supervisor training. 9) Announce a zero defects day to launch the process. 10) Set goals to bring about action. 11) Set up an employee- management communication system. 12) Recognize those who have actively participated. 13) Set up quality councils to sustain the process. 14) Do it all over again.
  • 24. Quality Management Quality management is a set of concepts, strategies, tools and beliefs etc. which are aimed at improving the quality of products and services, reducing the waste & saving costs. (Navaratnam,& O’Connor)
  • 25. Quality Control Quality control in its broader sense, refers to a spectrum of managerial methods for attempting to maintain the quality of manufactured articles at a desired level. Detection & elimination of products that do not match the product specification. Avoiding too high a quality as well as too low a quality. Sticking to the predefined quality (Johansen, 1986)
  • 26. QUALITY ASSURANCE Quality Assurance is a strategy of prevention of production of wasteful defective pieces.(Oakland,1988)  Dealing with quality planning  Providing quality advice& expertise  Providing inward goods, process & finished products’ appraisal methodology.  Analyzing customer’s complaints, warranty claims and product liability cases.
  • 27. QUALITY ASSURANCE What is done to assure quality?  An advance prototyping of the product.  Equal emphasis on quality of transforming the design into a product conforming to the original design.  This mechanism ensures the right quality of raw material and equipment (inputs) and also rigorous process quality so that quality is ensured.
  • 28. QUALITY ASSURANCE Quality assurance system, based on the fact that all functions share responsibility of quality, provides an effective method of acquiring and maintaining desired quality.(Oakland, 1988)
  • 29. Quality Improvement Quality improvement is the framework used to systematically improve care. Quality improvement seeks to standardize processes and structure to reduce variation, achieve predictable results, and improve outcomes for the customers & stakeholders..
  • 30.  Mukhopadhyay ,Murmer (2012). Total Quality Management :(Second Edition) Sage Publications.  Wikipedia  https://www.google.co.in/search?q=quality+free+images&sxsrf=ALiCzsZjlKgT1- Mu3U9IRWLG01FyUZQ7cA:1669793878410&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjG3eH3st References  https://www.google.co.in/search?q=TQM++free+images&tbm=isch&ved=2ahUKEwip2vz-stX7AhXsi9gFHcDFAcMQ2- cCegQIABAA&oq=TQM++free+images&gs_lcp=CgNpb  https://www.dictionary.com/browse/quality  https://www.google.co.in/search?q=Deming+&bih=604&biw=1264&hl=en&sxsrf=ALiCzsb3SvnnZevSx1JBooHMmwfXtkVxUA%3A1669794013949&ei=3QiHY- zDOaeL3LUP3cyB6Ao&ved=0ahUKEwisprK4s9X7AhWnBbcAHV1mAK0Q4dUDCA8&uact=5&oq=Deming+&gs_lcp=Cgxnd3Mtd2l6LXNlcnAQAzIECAAQQzIHCAAQsQMQQzIFCAA QkQIyBAgAEEMyBQgAEJECMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgUIABCRAjIFCAAQkQIyBAgAEEM6BwgjEOoCECc6BAgjECc6DgguEIAEELEDEIMBENQCOgUIABCABDoLCAAQgAQQsQ MQgwE6CAgAELEDEIMBOg4ILhCABBCxAxDHARDRAzoLCC4QgAQQsQMQ1AI6CAgAEIAEELEDSgQIQRgASgQIRhgAUABY3RhgnCVoAXABeACAAZ0BiAGhB5IBAzAuN5gBA KABAbABCsABAQ&sclient=gws-wiz-serp  https://www.google.co.in/search?q=juran&bih=604&biw=1264&hl=en&sxsrf=ALiCzsbcvcOs8pUfPiUXrfL9MJIgCye03g%3A1669794211161&ei=owmHY6DACduoz7sP7_WFEA&gs_ssp=eJzj4tTP1TcwTU82LDdg9G LNKi1KzAMAL6AFVg&oq=Juran&gs_lcp=Cgxnd3Mtd2l6LXNlcnAQARgBMgUIABCRAjILCC4QgAQQsQMQgwEyCwgAELEDEIMBEJECMgQIABBDMgQILhBDMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgUIABCABDIF CAAQgAQ6BwgjEOoCECc6BAgjECc6CgguEMcBEK8BECc6CwguELEDEIMBENQCOgsIABCABBCxAxCDAToICAAQsQMQgwE6DgguEIAEELEDEMcBENEDOggIABCABBCxAzoRCC4QgAQQsQMQgwEQxwE Q0QM6CggAEIAEEIcCEBQ6CAguEIAEELEDOggILhCxAxCDAToICC4QsQMQgAQ6CwguEIAEELEDENQCSgQIQRgASgQIRhgAUABYpA1g7SJoAXABeACAAagBiAHuBZIBAzAuNZgBAKABAbABCsABAQ&scli ent=gws-wiz-serp  https://www.google.co.in/search?q=crosby+quality&bih=604&biw=1264&hl=en&sxsrf=ALiCzsYne0_8AIsKfXfdExI-S1ZCbXCasg%3A1669794265723&ei=2QmHY4joK-- 24t4Pgaye8A0&gs_ssp=eJzj4tTP1TewqDJOqjBg9OJLLsovTqpUKCxNzMksqQQAcvMJEg&oq=Crosby&gs_lcp=Cgxnd3Mtd2l6LXNlcnAQARgBMgoILhCxAxCDARBDMgQILhBDMgQIABBDMgUIABCABDILCC4Q gAQQxwEQ0QMyBQguEIAEMgsILhCABBDHARCvATIFCAAQgAQyCwguEIAEEMcBENEDMgUIABCABDoHCCMQ6gIQJzoHCC4Q6gIQJzoECCMQJzoHCC4Q1AIQQzoQCC4QsQMQgwEQxwEQ0QMQQzoLC AAQgAQQsQMQgwE6DgguEIAEELEDEMcBENEDOgsILhCABBCxAxCDAToICAAQsQMQgwE6CAgAEIAEELEDOgsIABCABBCxAxDJAzoICC4QgAQQsQM6BQgAELEDSgQIQRgASgQIRhgAUABYpCJglkpoAX ABeACAAZ4BiAH4BpIBAzAuNpgBAKABAbABCsABAQ&sclient=gws-wiz-serp