Microwave radio relay systems


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  • Hiatus- a pause in activity when nothing happens
  • Microwave radio relay systems

    1. 1. Microwave Radio Relay Systems Seminar by Sugavanesh B
    2. 2. What is Microwave Radio Relay? Have you ever noticed a cell phone tower?? If so , have you ever wondered what are those shapes of frustum (in informal way , kind of looking like white colored loud speakers) Well , actually they are our topic of study for the moment, “ Microwave Radio Relay System”
    3. 3. Microwave Radio Relay Microwave radio relay  is a technology for transmitting  digital  and  analog signals , such as long-distance telephone calls and the relay of television programs to transmitters, between two locations on a  line of sight  radio path. In  microwave  radio relay,  radio waves  are transmitted between the two locations with  directional antennas , forming a fixed radio connection between the two points. Long  daisy-chained  series of such links form transcontinental telephone and/or television communication systems
    4. 4. Formation & Function Of Microwave Relay As multiple chains of microwave radio relays are set up, they can form a microwave network . Because all of these relays occur within "lines of sight" there is only a very narrow area that the radio wave passes through. These antennas tend to be installed at high elevations, so as to avoid obstacles, because each antenna needs to broadcast long distances very accurately . This, however, allows for very economical use of radio power and allows for a narrower frequency range , due to less interference.
    5. 5. Planning Considerations Because of the high frequencies used, a quasi-optical line of sight between the stations is generally required. Additionally, in order to form the line of sight connection between the two stations, the first  Fresnel zone must be free from obstacles so the radio waves can propagate across a nearly uninterrupted path. Obstacles in the signal field cause unwanted attenuation, and are as a result only acceptable in exceptional cases. High mountain peak or ridge positions are often ideal: Europe's highest radio relay station, the   Richtfunkstation Jungfraujoch , is situated atop the   Jungfraujoch  ridge at an altitude of 3,705 meters (12,156 ft) above sea level. Multiple antennas provide space diversity Obstacles, the curvature of the Earth, the  geography  of the area and reception issues arising from the use of nearby land (such as in manufacturing and forestry) are important issues to be considered . It is essential that "path profiles" are produced, which provide information about the  terrain and Fresnel zones  affecting the transmission path. The presence of a water surface, such as a lake or river, in the mid-path region also must be taken into consideration as it can result in a near-perfect reflection (even modulated by wave or tide motions), creating  multipath  distortion as the two received signals ("wanted" and "unwanted") swing in and out of phase. Multipath fades are usually deep only in a small spot and a narrow frequency band, so space and frequency diversity schemes  were usually applied in the third quarter of the 20th century. The effects of atmospheric stratification cause the radio path to bend downward in a typical situation so a major distance is possible as the earth equivalent curvature increases from 6370 km to about 8500 km (a 4/3 equivalent radius effect) . Rare events of temperature, humidity and pressure profile versus height, may produce large deviations and distortion of the propagation and affect transmission quality. High intensity rain and snow must also be considered as an impairment factor, especially at frequencies above 10 GHz. All previous factors, collectively known as  path loss , make it necessary to compute suitable power margins, in order to maintain the link operative for a high percentage of time, like the standard 99.99% or 99.999% used in 'carrier class' services of most telecommunication operators .
    6. 6. Over-horizon microwave radio relay In over-horizon, or  tropospheric scatter , microwave radio relay, unlike a standard microwave radio relay link, the sending and receiving antennas do not use a line of sight transmission path . Instead, the stray signal transmission, known as "tropo - scatter" or simply "scatter," from the sent signal is picked up by the receiving station. Signal clarity obtained by this method depends on the weather and other factors, and as a result a high level of technical difficulty is involved in the creation of a reliable over horizon radio relay link. Over horizon radio relay links are therefore only used where standard radio relay links are unsuitable (for example, in providing a  microwave link  to an island).
    7. 7. A Link Diagram <ul><li>Click to edit Master text styles </li></ul><ul><li>Second level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Overlook Of Microwave Networks Microwave networks were originally popularized in the 1950's as a way of transmitting long distance calls, as well as television signals between continents. During the 1950s the  AT&T Communications  system of microwave radio grew to carry the majority of US  Long Distance telephone traffic , as well as intercontinental television network signals . The prototype was called TDX which was set up between New York and Boston in 1947. The TDX was improved to the TD, then later to the TD3 that used solid state electronics . The main motivation in 1946 to use microwave radio instead of cable was that a large capacity could be installed quickly and at less cost . It was expected that this would be cheap. There were two main reasons that a large capacity had to be introduced suddenly: Pent up demand for long distance telephone service, because of the hiatus during the war years. the new medium of television, which needed more bandwidth than radio. By 1980s the technology lost its share of fixed operation to newer technologies such as  fiber-optic cable  and  optical radio relay  links, both of which offer larger data capacities at lower cost per bit .  Communication satellites , which are also microwave radio relays, better retained their market share, especially for television. Now, they are being used increasingly in portable radio applications . The technology is particularly suited to this application because, lower operating costs , a more efficient infrastructure , provision of direct hardware access to the portable radio operator .
    9. 9. Thank You!!