Id act 1947-974 (1)

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Id act 1947-974 (1)

  1. 1. Y BHATTSALIENT FEATURES OF THEINDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT,1947
  2. 2. Y BHATTI. IMPORTANT DEFINITIONSCERTAIN IMPORTANT TERMS UNDER THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACTAND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE.a) APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT [Sn.2(a)]UNDER THE ID ACT SOME INDUSTRIES FALL UNDER THE CENTRALLABOUR MACHINERY AND SOME OTHERS FALL UNDER THE STATE LABOURMACHINERY.SN 2(a) HELPS US TO DETERMINE UNDER WHOSE JURISDICTION APARTICULAR INDUSTRY FALLS AND WHETHER THE STATE/CENTRAL RULES WILLAPPLY.b) INDUSTRY [Sn.2(j)]THE ID ACT IS NOT APPLICABLE TO ALL KINDS OF ESTABLISHMENTS. ITIS APPLICABLE ONLY TO ESTABLISHMENTS SATISFYING THE DEFINITION OF THETERM INDUSTRY (AS DECIDED IN SEVERAL JUDICIAL PRONOUNCEMENTS).THE 1984 AMENDED DEFINITION NOW APPEARING IN Sn.2(j) IS YET TOBE BROUGHT INTO FORCE AND THE OLD DEFINITION IS STILL IN VOGUE.
  3. 3. Y BHATTc) WORKMAN [(Sn.2(s)]ALL EMPLOYEES IN AN ESTABLISHMENT ARE NOT WORKMENUNDER THE ID ACT. ONLY EMPLOYEES DOING ANY MANUAL, UNSKILLED,SKILLED, TECHNICAL, OPERATIONAL, CLERICAL (IRRESPECTIVE OFWHETHER THEIR WAGES IS ABOVE Rs.1600/- PER MONTH OR NOT) AND SUCHOF THE SUPERVISORS DRAWING WAGES BELOW Rs.1600/- PM (SEEDEFINITION OF WAGES IN Sn.2(rr). IT ALSO INCLUDES DISMISSED WORKMENFALLING UNDER THE ABOVE CATEGORIES.HOWEVER MANAGERIAL STAFF ARE TOTALLY EXCLUDEDIRRESPECTIVE OF THEIR SALARY. [THE TEST OF DETERMINING WHO IS AWORKMAN WAS PRONOUNCED IN A RECENT SUPREME COURT JUDGEMENTIN SANDOZ LTD CASE REPORTED IN 1994 II LLN 1017)d) WAGES [Sn.2(rr)]WAGES WILL INCLUDE BASIC, DA, VALUE OF HOUSEACCOMMODATION, OTHER AMENITIES, TRAVELLING CONCESSION,COMMISSION PAYABLE AND OTHER REMUNERATION PAYABLE UNDER THECONTRACT, BUT EXCLUDES THE FOLLOWING : ANY BONUS ANDRETIREMENT BENEFITS LIKE EPF/GRATUITY
  4. 4. Y BHATTII WHAT AMOUNTS TO INDUSTRIAL DISPUTEEXTENT AND SCOPE OF THE TERM INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE UNDERTHE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT 1947.PROVISIONS SECTIONS 2(k),2(ka),2(j),2(s),2(A),2(rr).a) WHAT ARE THE INGREDIENTS OF AN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE[Sn.2(k)] ?i) DISPUTE MUST BE IN AN ESTABLISHMENT SATISFYINGTHE DEFINITION OF INDUSTRY IN SECTIONS 2(ka) & 2 (j).(NOTE : THE NEW DEFINITION OF 2(j) HAS NOT BEENBROUGHT INTO FORCE YET).ii) DISPUTE MUST BE BETWEEN :- EMPLOYER Vs EMPLOYER- EMPLOYER Vs WORKMEN- WORKMEN Vs WORKMEN
  5. 5. Y BHATTiii THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THE DISPUTE MUST BE :- CONNECTED WITH EMPLOYMENT OR NON-EMPLOYMENT- CONNECTED WITH TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT- CONNECTED WITH CONDITIONS OF LABOURiv OF ANY PERSON - PROVIDED THAT PERSON HAS A NEXUS WITHTHE INDUSTRYv DISPUTE MUST BE RAISED BY WORKMEN : BY UNION, OR AGROUP OF WORKMEN.b) CAN ALL EMPLOYEES IN AN INDUSTRY RAISE AN INDUSTRIALDISPUTE [Sn.2(s),2(k)]?ANSWER IS NO.INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE CAN BE RAISED ONLY BY EMPLOYEESSATISFYING THE DEFINITION OF WORKMAN IN SECTION 2(s).THOSE NOT SATISFYING THE DEFINITION OF WORKMAN CANNOTRAISE A DISPUTE UNDER ID ACT.
  6. 6. Y BHATTc) WHAT CATEGORY OF EMPLOYEES WOULD FALL UNDER THEDEFINITION OF WORKMAN UNDER SECTION 2(s) ?ANY PERSON IN AN INDUSTRY (INCLUDING AN APPRENTICE)EMPLOYED ON MANUAL, UNSKILLED, SKILLED, TECHNICAL, OPERATIONALJOBS PLUS THOSE SUPERVISORY STAFF DRAWING WAGES BELOWRs.1600 PM AS PER DEFINITION OF WAGES IN Sn.2(rr).NOTE :- ALL MANAGERIAL STAFF ARE EXCLUDED IRRESPECTIVEOF THEIR SALARY- MEMBERS OF SUPERVISORY STAFF WILL BE EXCLUDEDONLY IF THEY ARE DRAWING WAGES ABOVE Rs.1600 PM- WORKMEN WHO WERE TERMINATED COULD CONTINUE TOCLAIM STATUS OF WORKMEN FOR PURSUING THEIRDISPUTES- THE WAGES OF SUPERVISORY STAFF SHOULD BECOMPUTED AS PER DEFINITION OF WAGES IN SECTION 2(rr).
  7. 7. Y BHATTd) CAN ONLY A MAJORITY OF WORKMEN IN AN INDUSTRY RAISE ADISPUTE ?IT IS NOT NECESSARY THAT A MAJORITY OF WORKMEN SHOULDSUPPORT THE RAISING OF THE DISPUTE. IT IS ENOUGH IF A SUBSTANTIALNUMBER BACK THE RAISING OF THE DISPUTE. WHILE A UNION CAN RAISEA DISPUTE, IT IS NOT NECESSARY THAT ONLY A UNION CAN RAISE ADISPUTE. A SINGLE WORKMAN CANNOT NORMALLY RAISE DISPUTE.e) WHEN CAN AN INDIVIDUAL WORKMEN RAISE A DISPUTE (i.e. EVENWITHOUT THE SUPPORT OF OTHER WORKMEN) ?NORMALLY ONLY COLLECTIVE DISPUTES (DISPUTES RAISED BY AGROUP OF WORKMEN CAN BE TAKEN UP AS INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES). ANINDIVIDUAL WORKMAN CAN RAISE A DISPUTE IF IT FALLS UNDER THEEXCEPTIONAL CASES LISTED IN SECTION 2 A: CASES OF DISMISSAL /DISCHARGE / RETRENCHMENT / TERMINATION ONLY. FOR NON-TERMI-NATION ISSUES (LIKE PROMOTION / TRANSFER / PUNISHMENTS NOTAMOUNTING TO TERMINATION) INDIVIDUAL WORKMAN CANNOT RAISE ADISPUTE IF THERE ARE NO OTHER WORKMEN SUPPORTING HIS CASE.
  8. 8. Y BHATTf) CAN WORKMEN RAISE AN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE PERTAINING TONON-WORKMEN ?ANSWER IS YES - THEY CAN AS PER SECTION 2(k) RAISE AN INDUSTRIALDISPUTE REGARDING ANY PERSON IF IT CAN BE SHOWN THAT THATPERSON HAS A NEXUS WITH THEIR INDUSTRY (THEY COULD THEREFORERAISE DISPUTES DEMANDING BENEFITS OR REINSTATEMENT OFDISMISSED MANAGERS / SUPERVISORS).g) HOW CAN AN INDIVIDUAL WORKMAN REDRESS HIS DISPUTE ?HE SHOULD GET OTHER WORKMEN / UNION TO SPONSOR IT TO MAKE ITAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE UNDER Sn.2(k). IF IT IS A TERMINATION CASE HECAN RAISE IT HIMSELF UNDER Sn.2(A).
  9. 9. Y BHATTIII FUNCTIONING OF DISPUTE SETTLING MACHINERIESa) ALL ABOUT CONCILIATIONi) WHAT TYPE OF CONCILIATION MACHINERY EXIST UNDERTHE ID ACT ?CONCILIATION BY AN OFFICER [Sn.4 & 2(d)] AND A BOARD (AN AD-HOC BOARD CONSISTING OF AN INDEPENDENT CHAIRMAN ANDEQUAL NUMBER OF WORKMEN AND EMPLOYERREPRESENTATIVES) [Sn.5 & 2(e)].[THIS IS NOT A PERMANENT BODY, SET UP ONLY FOR APARTICULAR DISPUTE AND THE BOARD WILL STAND DISSOLVEDWHEN THE ISSUE IS SETTLED].
  10. 10. Y BHATTii) WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF A CONCILIATION OFFICER ?AS PER Sn.12 (1) AND RULE 9(1) WHEN A STRIKE / LOCKOUT NOTICE ISISSUED UNDER RULE 71/72 IN A PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICE, HE IS BOUND TOIMMEDIATELY CONVENE A CONCILIATION MEETING.AS PER Sn.12(1) AND RULES 9(2) & 10, IN NON PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICE ORIN NON-STRIKE DISPUTES IN PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICE HE IS NOT BOUND,BUT MAY HOLD CONCILIATION MEETINGS. HE WILL HOWEVER HOLDORDINARY JOINT MEETINGS WHICH WOULD NOT BE COUNTED ASCONCILIATION MEETINGS.HE WILL TRY TO PERSUADE THE PARTIES TO RESOLVE THE DISPUTES ASPER RULES 10A, 11, 12 AND 13.
  11. 11. Y BHATTIF HE SUCCEEDS IN BRINGING ABOUT AN UNDERSTANDING, HE GETSTHE PARTIES TO SIGN A SETTLEMENT IN FORM-H AS PER Sn.12(3), 18(3)AND RULE-58. AS PER RULE 75, HE HAS TO MAINTAIN A REGISTER IN FORM-O, GIVING THE DETAILS OF THE SETTLEMENTS SIGNED BY HIM. IF HE FAILSTO BRING ABOUT A SETTLEMENT, AS PER Sn.12(4) HE HAS TO INFORM THEGOVERNMENT AND THIS IS CALLED A FAILURE REPORT. BEFORE SENDINGTHE FAILURE REPORT HE SHOULD ASK THE DISPUTING PARTIES WHETHERTHEY WOULD LIKE THE DISPUTE TO BE SENT FOR ARBITRATION. AS PERSN.12(6) HE IS EXPECTED TO CLOSE THE CONCILIATION PROCEEDINGSWITHIN 14 DAYS BUT WITH THE CONSENT OF THE PARTIES HE CAN KEEPTHE CONCILIATION PROCESS GOING FOR A LONGER DURATION. WHENNOTICE OF CHANGE IS ISSUED UNDER Sn.9A HE IS OBLIGED TO HOLDMEETINGS TO RESOLVE THE DISPUTE. WHEN APPROVAL/PERMISSIONAPPLICATIONS ARE FILED UNDER Sn.33/33A HE IS REQUIRED TO PASSAPPROPRIATE ORDERS.NOTE : UNLIKE IN ARBITRATION/ADJUDICATION PROCEEDINGS, ACONCILIATION OFFICER HAS NO POWER TO ENFORCE HIS DECISION ONTHE PARTIES. HE CAN ONLY TRY TO PERSUADE THE PARTIES TO ACCEPTHIS SUGGESTION.
  12. 12. Y BHATTiii) WHAT ARE THE POWERS OF A CONCILIATION OFFICER ?AS PER Sn.11(1) AND RULE 23, HE CAN ENTER AND INSPECTANY ESTABLISHMENT. AS PER Sn.11(4) AND RULE 17 HE CAN SUMMONANY PERSON AS WITNESS OR COMPEL THE PRODUCTION OFDOCUMENTS HAVING RELEVANCE TO THE DISPUTE. AS PERSn.33/33A AND RULES 59, 60, 61 HE CAN GRANT/REFUSEAPPROVAL/PERMISSION TO PETITIONS FILED BY EMPLOYER ONDISCIPLINARY MATTERS DURING PENDENCY OF CONCILIATIONBEFORE HIM.iv) SUMMARY OF SECTIONSSECTIONS 2(d), 2(e), 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 18(3), 20, 33, 33ARULES 9, 10, 10A, 11, 12, 13, 17, 23, 58, 59, 60, 61FORM-H
  13. 13. Y BHATTb) ALL ABOUT ADJUDICATIONi) WHAT IS MEANT BY ADJUDICATION ?ADJUDICATION IS A JUDICIAL (DECISION MAKING) PROCESS FORSETTLEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES [Sn.2(aa)].ii) WHAT ARE THE ADJUDICATING BODIES UNDER THE ID ACT ?LABOUR COURTS [Sn.2(kkb), 7, Sch.II]TRIBUNALS [Sn.2(r), 7A, Sch.III]NATIONAL TRIBUNALS [Sn.2(11), 7B, Sch.III]
  14. 14. Y BHATTiii) CAN PARTIES (EMPLOYER OR WORKMEN) APPROACH THEADJUDICATING BODIES DIRECTLY FOR DISPUTE SETTLEMENT ?UNLIKE IN THE CIVIL COURTS, PARTIES CANNOT APPROACH THELABOUR COURT / TRIBUNAL / NATIONAL TRIBUNAL DIRECTLY.DISPUTES CAN BE TAKEN UP BY LABOUR COURT / TRIBUNAL / NATIONALTRIBUNAL ONLY IF THEY ARE REFERRED TO THEM BY THE GOVERNMENT.GOVERNMENT CAN REFER THE DISPUTES AFTER RECEIPT OF THECONCILIATION FAILURE REPORT OR WHEN THE PARTIES REQUEST THEGOVERNMENT TO MAKE A REFERENCE [Sn.10(1), 10(1A), 10(2), 10(6),12(4), 12(5), 12(6)].iv WHEN DOES ADJUDICATION COMMENCE AND WHEN DOES IT END ?ADJUDICATION PROCEEDINGS ARE DEEMED TO HAVE COMMENCEDFROM THE DATE THE GOVERNMENT REFERRED THE DISPUTE TOLABOUR COURT/TRIBUNAL / NATIONAL TRIBUNAL.IT IS DEEMED TO HAVE CONCLUDED ON THE DATE THE AWARDBECOMES ENFORCEABLE AS PER Sn.17A [Sn.20(3)].
  15. 15. Y BHATTv DUTIES OF LABOUR COURT / TRIBUNAL / NATIONAL TRIBUNAL ?TO HOLD ADJUDICATING PROCEEDINGS EXPEDITIOUSLY ANDSUBMIT THEIR REPORT TO THE GOVERNMENT WITHIN THEPRESCRIBED TIME LIMIT [Sn.15, 10(2A), 16(2)].TO CONFINE THE SCOPE OF THEIR JUDGEMENT TO THE POINTSREFERRED TO THEM FOR DETERMINATION [Sn.10(4)].vi WHAT ARE THE POWERS OF LABOUR COURT / TRIBUNAL/NATIONAL TRIBUNAL ?THEY CAN ENTER ANY ESTABLISHMENT FOR FACT FINDING[Sn.11(2) AND R.23] CAN ENFORCE ATTENDANCE OF ANY PERSONAND PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS AND MATERIALS HAVING BEARINGON THE DISPUTE [Sn.11(3), R-10A, 10B]. EMPOWERED TOADMINISTER OATHS AND ISSUE SUMMONS TO PARTIES /WITNESSES [R-16, 17, 18]. CAN APPOINT ASSESSORS TO ASSISTTHEM [Sn.11(5), R-25]. CAN EXERCISE POWERS OF PUBLIC SERVANTSUNDER Sn.21 OF IPC [Sn.11(6)] CAN PASS ORDERS ON AWARDING COSTSTO THE AGGTRIEVED PARTY
  16. 16. Y BHATT[Sn.11(7)] CAN EXERCISE POWERS OF CIVIL COURTS FOR PURPOSESOFSn.345, 346, 348 OF THE CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE OF 1973 [Sn.11(8)]. HASPOWERS TO REVIEW DISCIPLINARY PUNISHMENT ORDERS ISSUED BYMANAGEMENT AND CAN REDUCE/SUBSTITUTE PUNISHMENTS OR ORDERREINSTATEMENT WITH/WITHOUT BACK WAGES [Sn.11(A)]. HAS POWERS TOGRANT / REFUSE APPROVAL / PERMISSION PETITIONS FILED UNDER Sn.33[Sn.33A] CAN PASS ORDERS ON MONEY CLAIM PETITIONS FILED BY WORKMENAGAINST EMPLOYERS [Sn.33C(2)].vii PROCEDURE FOR ENFORCING ADJUDICATION AWARDSDECISIONS GIVEN BY LABOUR COURT / TRIBUNAL / NATIONAL TRIBUNALARE CALLED AWARDS [Sn.2(b)]. AWARDS ARE NOT ENFORCEABLEDIRECTLY. THE LABOUR COURT / TRIBUNAL / NATIONAL TRIBUNAL CAN ONLY SENDTHEIR FINDINGS TO THE GOVERNMENT AND CANNOT ANNOUNCE THEM DIRECTLY.[Sn.15] AFTER RECEIPT OF THE REPORT, THE APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENTWOULD DECIDE WHETHER TO ACCEPT / MODIFY / WITH-HOLD THE REPORT -THE GOVERNMENT HAS TO ANNOUNCE THEIR DECISION THROUGH THEGAZETTE WITHIN 30 DAYS OF RECEIPT OF THE REPORT [Sn.17, 17A]. THEGOVERNMENT ORDER ON THE ADJUDICATION DECISION BECOMESENFORCEABLE ON THE EXPIRY OF 30 DAYS FROM THE DATE OF THEGAZETTE NOTIFICAITON [Sn.17A].
  17. 17. Y BHATTviii FOR WHAT DURATION IS THE ADJUDICATION AWARD VALID ?AN ADJUDICATION AWARD (AS PUBLISHED BY GOVERNMENT) SHALL BEIN OPERATION FOR A PERIOD OF ONE YEAR FROM THE DATE IT BECOMESENFORCEABLE UNDER 17A [Sn.19(3)]. GOVERNMENT HAS THE POWER TOREDUCE THE VALIDITY PERIOD OR EVEN EXTEND THE VALIDITY PERIODBY ONE YEAR AT A TIME SUBJECT TO THE TOTAL DURATION NOTEXCEEDING THREE YEARS [Sn.17A,19(3)].EVEN AFTER THE NORMAL / EXTENDED PERIOD OF OPERATION, THETERMS OF THE AWARD SHALL CONTINUE TO BE IN FORCE UNTIL ONE OFTHE PARTIES SERVES A FORMAL NOTICE OF TERMINATION [Sn.19(5), 19(6),19(7)].ix ON WHOM ARE THE AWARDS BINDING ?IT IS BINDING ON ALL PARTIES TO THE DISPUTE. IT IS ALSO BINDING ONALL OTHER PARTIES SUMMONED TO APPEAR IN THE PROCEEDINGS TOTHE DISPUTE. ON THE EMPLOYER, HIS HEIRS,ASSIGNS ANDSUCCESSORS.ON WORKMEN CURRENTLY EMPLOYED AND WHO SUBSEQUENTLY GETEMPLOYED IN THE ESTABLISHMENTS [Sn.18(3)].
  18. 18. Y BHATTc) ALL ABOUT ARBITRATIONi) WHAT IS MEANT BY ARBITRATION ?IT IS A DISPUTE RESOLVING PROCESS THROUGH ANUMPIRE SELECTED BY THE DISPUTING PARTIES.ii) HOW DOES ARBITRATION DIFFER FROM ADJUDICATIONAND CONCILIATION ?WHILE THE PRESIDING OFFICERS OF CONCILIATION ANDADJUDICATION PROCEEDINGS ARE FULL TIME OFFICERSAPPOINTED BY GOVERNMENT, ARBITRATORS ARE ADHOCUMPIRES APPOINTED BY THE DISPUTANTS.WHILE THE CONCILIATION OFFICER HAS NO POWER TO IMPOSEHIS DECISION ON THE PARTIES, AN ARBITRATOR HAS AUTHORITYTO GIVE AN ORDER WHICH CANNOT BE CHALLENGED BY THEPARTIES.ADJUDICATORS GET THEIR POWER FROM STATUTE ,ARBITRATORS ACQUIRE THEIR POWR FROM THE CONSENT OF THEPARTIES.
  19. 19. Y BHATTiii) TYPES OF ARBITRATIONID ACT CONTEMPLATES TWO TYPES OF ARBITRATION, ONE UNDERSECTION 10(2) TO A LABOUR COURT / TRIBUNAL AND THE SECONDTYPE UNDER 10A TO ANY OTHER ARBITRATOR INCLUDING TOLABOUR COURTS OR TRIBUNALS.iv) HOW IS ARBITRATION PROCESS INITIATED [Sn.10(2)+10A] ?WHEN CONCILIATION FAILS, BEFORE SENDING THE FAILUREREPORT, THE CONCILIATION OFFICER ASKS THE PARTIES IF THEYWISH TO SEND THE DISPUTE FOR ARBITRATION. IF PARTIES DESIRESO, THEY MUST SIGN AN ARBITRATION AGREEMENT IN FORM-C UNDERRULE 7 AND SEND IT TO THE GOVERNMENT. GOVERNMENT WILL THENNOTIFY HIM AS AN ARBITRATORv) AWARDS OF ARBITRATORSARBITRATORS HEAR THE PLEADINGS OF BOTH PARTIES ANDSUBMIT THEIR ORDERS TO THE GOVERNMENT WHO PROCESSES ITLIKE AN ADJUDICATION AWARD AND IT IS IMPLEMENTED LIKE ANADJUDICATION AWARD.
  20. 20. Y BHATTIV PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGS AND ITS IMPLICATIONSa) WHAT IS MEANT BY PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGS [Sn.20] ?i) THE PERIOD FROM WHICH CONCILIATION / ADJUDICATION / ARBITRATIONPROCEEDINGS COMMENCES AND CONCLUDES UNDER Sn.20 IS CALLEDPERIOD OF PENDENCY.ii) WHEN IS CONCILIATION DEEMED TO BE PENDING -COMMENCEMENT AND CONCLUSION [Sn.20(1)(2)(a,b)] ?COMMENCEMENT :WHEN NOTICE OF STRIKE/LOCKOUT IN PUBLIC UTILITY INDUSTRIES UNDERSn.22 IS RECEIVED BY THE CONCILIATION OFFICER OR ON THE DATE THEDISPUTE IS REFERRED TO THE CONCILIATION BOARD AND IN OTHER CASESWHEN THE CONCILIATION OFFICER ISSUES NOTICE OF CONCILIATION.CONCLUSION :IT CONCLUDES WHEN A SETTLEMENT IS SIGNED BY THE PARTIES. IF THEREIS NO SETTLEMENT WHEN THE FAILURE REPORT OF THE CONCILIATIONOFFICER IS RECEIVED BY THE GOVERNMENT.
  21. 21. Y BHATTiii) WHEN IS ADJUDICATION /ARBITRATION DEEMED TO BE PENDING[Sn.20(2)(C)20(3) & 17] ?COMMENCEMENT :ADJUDICATION / ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS ARE DEEMED TOCOMMENCE ON THE DATE WHEN THE GOVERNMENT REFERSTHE DISPUTE TO LABOUR COURT / TRIBUNAL / NATIONAL TRIBUNALOR ARBITRATOR UNDER SECTION 10 OR 10 A AS THE CASE MAY BE.CONCLUSION :ADJUDICATION / ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS ARE DEEMED TOHAVE CONCLUDED ON THE DATE ON WHICH THEIR AWARDS BECOMEENFORCEABLE UNDER SECTION 17 A, i.e. AFTER 30 DAYS OF THEPUBLICATION OF THE AWARD IN THE OFFICIAL GAZETTE.
  22. 22. Y BHATTb) IMPACT OF PENDENCY ON STRIKES / LOCKOUTSi) WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW THE PERIOD OF PENDENCY OFPROCEEDINGS ?AS PER SECTION 22(d) ANY STRIKE / LOCKOUT IN A PUBLICUTILITY INDUSTRY DURING THE PENDENCY OF CONCILIATION ANDSEVEN DAYS THEREAFTER WOULD BE ILLEGAL [(Sn.22(d)].ANY STRIKE / LOCKOUT IN A NON-PUBLIC UTILITY AS WELL ASPUBLIC UTILITY DURING PENDENCY OF CONCILIATION BEFORE ABOARD AND SEVEN DAYS THEREAFTER WOULD BE ILLEGAL [Sn.23(a)].ANY STRIKE/LOCK OUT DURING THE PENDENCY OFADJUDICATION/ARBITRATION PROCEEDING AND TWO MONTHS THEREAFTERWOULD BE ILLEGAL IN BOTH PUBLIC AND NON- PUBLIC UTILITYINDUSTRIES [Sn.23(b), 23(bb)].
  23. 23. Y BHATTc) IMPACT OF PENDENCY ON EMPLOYERS RIGHT TO ALTER SERVICECONDITIONSi) WHILE EMPLOYERS ARE ENTITLED TO ALTER THE SERVICECONDITIONS / TAKE DISCIPLINARY ACTION IN TERMS OF THEIR STANDINGORDERS DURING NORMAL TIMES; SOME RESTRICTIONS AREPLACED ON THESE RIGHTS DURING PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGSLIKE CONCILIATION, ARBITRATION AND ADJUDICATION.ii) AS PER Sn.33(1)(a) DURING PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINS, ANYALTERATION OF ANY MATTER CONNECTED WITH THE DISPUTE CAN BEMADE ONLY WITH EXPRESS WRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE AUTHORITYBEFORE WHOM THE DISPUTE IS PENDING [APPLY IN FORM-J UNDERRULE 60(1)[Sn.33(1)(a), R-60(1),F-J]iii) AS PER Sn.33(2)(a), EVEN DURING PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGS NOPERMISSION IS REQUIRED FOR ALTERING ANY MATTER NOTCONNECTED WITH THE DISPUTE IF THE STANDING ORDERS OR CONTRACTOF EMPLOYMENT OF THE CONCERNED WORKMEN ALLOW THEEMPLOYER TO MAKE SUCH ALTERATION [Sn.33(2)(a)].
  24. 24. Y BHATTd) IMPACT OF PENDENCY ON EMPLOYERS RIGHT TO TAKEDISCIPLINARY ACTIONi) AS PER Sn.33(1)(b) DURING PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGSANY DISCIPLINARY PUNISHMENT FOR A MISCONDUCT CONNECTED WITHTHE DISPUTE CAN BE TAKEN ONLY AFTER OBTAINING EXPRESSWRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE AUTHORITY BEFORE WHOM THEDISPUTE IS PENDING [APPLY IN FORM-J UNDER RULE 60(1)].ii) AS PER Sn.33(2)(b) IF THE MISCONDUCT IS NOT CONNECTEDWITH THE PENDING DISPUTE NO PRIOR PERMISSION FORDISMISSING OR DISCHARGING IS REQUIRED BUT RATIFICATION ORAPPROVAL IS TO BE TAKEN FROM THE AUTHORITY AFTER THETERMINATION ORDER IS ISSUED.iii) WHILE ISSUING THE TERMINATION ORDER ONE FULL MONTHSWAGES (WITHOUT ANY DEDUCTIONS) SHOULD ALSO BE PAID AND ANAPPLICATION FOR APPROVAL IN FORM-K UNDER RULE 60(2) SHOULDALSO BE SUBMITTED TO THE AUTHORITY ON THE VERYSAME DAY OF ISSUE OF THE TERMINATION ORDER [Sn.33(2)(b), R-60(2),F-K].
  25. 25. Y BHATTNOTE : IF APPROVAL IS REFUSED THE WORKMAN WILL HAVETO BE REINSTATED WITH BACK WAGES.e) IMPACT OF PENDENCY ON TAKING ACTION AGAINSTPROTECTED WORKMENAS PER Sn.33(3) DURING PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGS, TRADEUNION OFFICE BEARERS WHO QUALIFY FOR THE STATUS OFPROTECTED WORKMEN UNDER RULE 61 SHOULD NOT BE PUNISHEDOR TERMINATED WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSIONFROM THE AUTHORITY CONCERNED [AN APPLICATION FORPERMISSION UNDER RULE 60(1) IS TO BE MADE IN FORM-J] [Sn.33(3), R-60(1),F-J].
  26. 26. Y BHATTf) WORKMENS MODE OF SEEKING RELIEF FOR EMPLOYERSVIOLATION OF SECTION-33i) IF DURING THE PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGS THE EMPLOYER HASALTERTED THE SERVICE CONDITIONS VIOLATING Sn.33(1)(a) OR33(2)(a) OR PUNISHED A WORKMAN IN VIOLATION OF Sn.33(1)(b) OR33(2)(b) OR PUNISHED A PROTECTED WORKMAN (OFFICE BEARER) INVIOLATION OF SECTION 33(3), THE AGGRIEVED WORKMAN CAN FILE ACOMPLAINT TO THE AUTHORITY IN FORM-I UNDER RULE 59 AND Sn.33A[Sn.33(A), R-59,F-I].ii) THE AUTHORITY CONCERNED WILL MAKE AN ENQUIRY ANDAFTER HEARING THE PARTIES WILL PASS APPROPRIATE ORDERSGRANTING OR REFUSING APPROVAL OR PERMISSION AS THE CASEMAY BE [Sn.33A].
  27. 27. Y BHATTNOTE :1 IF APPROVAL IS REFUSED WORKMAN HAS TO BEREINSTATED2 WHEN PERMISSION IS REQUIRED, ACTION BY EMPLOYER CAN BEONLY AFTER GETTING WRITTEN PERMISSION3 EVEN IF APPROVAL/PERMISSION IS GRANTED UNDER Sn.33A, THEWORKMAN IS NOT BARRED FROM CHALLEGING THE ACTION ANDRAISING A DISPUTE FOR REINSTATEMENT UNDER SECTION 2(K) OR2(A).
  28. 28. Y BHATTSIGNIFICANCE OF SECTION 33 OF THE I.D.ACT 1947I SIGNIFICANCEOF SECTION 33- IT PLACES CERTAINTEMPORARYRESTRICTIONS ONEMPLOYERS RIGHTTO:MAKE CHANGES IN SERVICECONDITONS OF WORKMENTO AWARD PUNISHMENT OFDISMISSAL/DISCHARGE ON ANYWORKMANTO IMPOSE ANY KIND OFPUNISHMENT ON UNION OFFICEBEARERS TREATED AS ‘PROTECTEDWORKMEN’II ARE THESERESTRICTIONSALWAYSAPPLICABLE ?- NO. [THERE ARE NORESTRICTIONS IF NOPROCEEDING ISPENDING [Sn 33(1)]
  29. 29. Y BHATTIII THEN WHEN ARETHEYAPPLICABLE ?- IT APPLIES ONLYDURING ‘THE PERIODOF PENDENCY OFANY ONE OF THEFOLLOWINGPROCEEDINGS:---CONCILIATIONADJUDICATIONARBITRATION[Sn 33(1)]IV WHAT IS MEANTBY ‘PERIOD OFPENDENCY’ ?-  -CONCILIATION IS DEEMED TO COMMENCE ANDCONCLUDE WHEN CONTINGENCIES MENTIONED INSECTION 20(1) 20(2) ARE SATISFIED SIMILARLY ‘ADJUDICATION’ & ‘ARBITRATION’ AREDEEMED TO COMMENCE & CONCLUDE WHENCONTINGENCIES MENTIONED IN SECTION 20(3) ISSATISFIED. Note: THE INTERVENING PERIOD IS CALLED THEPERIOD OF PENDENCY
  30. 30. Y BHATTV WHAT IS THE NATURE OF RESTRICTIONS IMPOSEDCONTINGENCY TAKE PRIOR WRITTENPERMISSIONTAKE POST FACTO APPROVALALTERATION OF SERVICE CONDITIONSA WHEN EMPLOYER WANTSTO ALTER A MATTER/SERVICE CONDITION WHICHIS THE SUBJECT MATTEROF THE DISPUTEACTION ONLY AFTERGETTING PRIORWRITTEN PERMISSIONFROM AUTHORITYNAB WHEN SERVICECONDITIONS / ANY OTHERMATTER NOT CONNECTEDWITH THE PENDINGDISPUTE ARE TO BEALTERED IN CASE OFPERSONS CONCERNED INTHE DISPUTE [Sn 33(2)(a)]  NANO PERMISSION ORAPPROVAL IS REQUIRED IFTHE ACTION IS AS PERAPPLICABLE STANDINGORDER PROVISIONS ORPREVAILING SERVICERULES.
  31. 31. Y BHATTPROTECTED WORKMENPUNISHING ‘PROTECTEDWORKMEN’[Sn 33(3), R-62]ANY KIND OFPUNISHMENT TO‘PROTECTEDWORKMEN’ MUST BEGIVEN ONLY AFTERAPPLYING ANDGETTING WRITTENPERMISSIONIF NOT A ‘PROTECTEDWORKMAN’ FILEAPPROVAL PETITION(ONLY FORTERMINATION CASES)VI WHERE TO FILEAPPROVAL /PERMISSIONAPPLICATIONSPERMISSION OR APPROVAL APPLICATIONS TOBE FILED BEFORE THE DISPUTE PENDINGAUTHORITYIF DISPUTE PENDING BEFORE MORE THAN ONEAUTHROTITY – EMPLOYER CAN CHOOSE ANYONE OF THEM
  32. 32. Y BHATTVII IS THERE ANY SPECIFICFORMATSEE THE APPLICABLE STATE RULESIN KERALA THE APPLICABLE RULE & FORMAT ARE ASFOLLOWS:CONTINGENCY RULE NO. IN FORM NO.FOR PERMISSIONPETITIONS61(1) & (3) (4) &(5)JFOR APPROVALPETITIONS61(2) (3) (4) & (5) KVIII WHAT CAN A WORKMANDO WHEN EMPLOYERDOES NOT COMPLY WITHSECTION 33AS PER SECTION 33(A) AND RULE 60 (1) (2) (3) (4) HE CANFILE A COMPLAINT TO THE AUTHORITY BEFORE WHOMPROCEEDING IS PENDINGIX CONSEQUENCES OFAPPROVALS NOT BEINGGRANTEDTHE WORKMAN HAS TO BE REINSTATED IN SERVICE ANDGIVEN FULL BACK PAY AND BENEFITS [Sn 33(A)]
  33. 33. Y BHATTX GENERAL EVEN IF APPROVAL/PERMISSION IS GIVEN UNDERSECTION 33, WORKMAN CAN RAISE A SEPARATE DISPUTECHALLENGING HIS DISMISSAL [Sn-2(A) & 11A]EVEN IF NO APPLCATION FOR PERMISSION/APPROVAL ISMADE, DISMISSAL/DISCIPLINARY ACTION WILL NOT BEIPSO FACTO ILLEGAL. EMPLOYERS CAN STILL JUSTIFYHIS ACTION WHEN CASE COMES UP BEFORE LABOURCOURT.EVEN IN PERMISSION CASES THE EMPLOYER CAN FILETHE PERMISSION APPLCIATION AND PARALLALY PLACETHE WORKMAN UNDER SUSPENSION PENDING ENQUIRYPROVIDED HE IS PAID THE APPLICABLE SUBSISTENCEALLOWANCE TILL THE PERMISSION APPLICATION ISDISPOSED OF.
  34. 34. Y BHATTV LEGALITY AND ILLEGALITIESa) PROVISIONS ON STRIKE & LOCKOUTPROVISIONS SECTIONS 2(q), 2(l), 2(n), 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,28RULES 71, 72, 73, 74FORMS L, M, N AND SCHEDULE Ii) INGREDIENTS OF STRIKE & LOCKOUTSSTRIKE [2(q)] BY WORKMENREFUSAL TO WORK OR ACCEPT EMPLOYMENT BY A BODY OFPERSONS IN INDUSTRY [2(j)] IF UNDER A COMMON UNDERSTANDING ORACTING IN CONCERTLOCKOUT [2(l)] BY EMPLOYER TEMPORARY CLOSING OF PLACEOF EMPLOYMENT, OR REFUSAL TO CONTINUE TO EMPLOY PERSONSEMPLOYED BY AN EMPLOYER
  35. 35. Y BHATTii) IS NOTICE OF STRIKE/LOCKOUT MANDATORYMANDATORY [2(n), SCH-I, 22(1), 22(2), 23(1)]:IF INDUSTRY FALLS UNDER DEFINITION OF PUBLIC UTILITYSERVICE AS PER SECTION 2(n), SCH-I OR IF THE TERMS OFEMPLOYMENT (APPOINTMENT LETTER) OR STANDING ORDER REQUIRESGIVING OF NOTICE.NON MANDATORY [22(3), 23(1)] :IN NON-PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICE, UNLESS STANDING ORDERSOR APPOINTMENT ORDERS STIPULATES GIVING OF NOTICE,OR IT IS IN RETALIATION FOR A STRIKE OR LOCKOUT.
  36. 36. Y BHATTiii) WHEN WOULD STRIKES OR LOCKOUTS BE ILLEGALIN PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICE [22(1)& (2), 23, 30, 19] WHENSTRIKE / LOCKOUT IS COMMENCED :a) WITHOUT GIVING ATLEST 14 DAYS NOTICEb) COMMENCED AFTER 42 DAYS OF NOTICEc) PRIOR TO DATE INDICATED IN THE NOTICEd) DURING PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE CONCILIATIONOFFICER/BOARD AND SEVEN DAYS THEREAFTERe) DURING PENDENCY OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE LABOURCOURT / TRIBUNAL / ARBITRATORS AND TWO MONTHS THEREAFTERf) DURING THE PERIOD WHEN A SETTLEMENT OR AWARD IS INOPERATION ON MATTERS COVERED
  37. 37. Y BHATTIN NON-PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICE [23, 20, 19] WHEN STRIKE / LOCKOUT ISCOMMENCED :a) IN BREACH OF CONTRACTb) DURING PENDENCY OF CONCILIATION BEFORE A BOARD ANDSEVEN DAYS THEREAFTERc) DURING PENDENCY OF CONCILIATION BEFORE LABOURCOURT / TRIBUNAL / ARBITRATOR AND TWO MONTHS THEREAFTERd) DURING THE PERIOD ON MATTERS COVERED WHEN ASETTLEMENT OR AWARD IS IN OPERATION.NOTE :A STRIKE/LOCK OUT LEGALLY COMMENCED WOULD BECOME ILLEGAL IFCONTINUED AFTER GOVERNMENT BANS IT UNDER SECTION 10(4A) AND 24
  38. 38. Y BHATTiv) MANNER OF GIVING STRIKE/LOCKOUT NOTICESTRIKE [22(4)]NOTICE SHALL BE GIVEN IN FORM-L.AS PRESCRIBED UNDER RULE 71 OF CENTRAL RULE ORCORRESPONDING STATE RULELOCKOUT [22(5)].NOTICE SHALL BE GIVEN IN FORM-MAS PRESCRIBED UNDER RULE 72 OF CENTRAL RULE ORCORRESPONDING STATE RULE.v) DUTY OF EMPLOYER ON RECEIVING / GIVING NOTICEON RECEIVING STRIKE NOTICE / OR GIVING LOCKOUT NOTICE. [RULES 71,72, 73, 74 AND Sn.22(3), 22(6)]. SHOULD INFORM THE APPROPRIATEGOVERNMENT WITHIN FIVE DAYS OF RECEIPT OF NOTICE [22(6)] AND ALSOFORTHWITH INFORM THE CONCILIATION OFFICER [RULE-71(2)]. LOCKOUTNOTICE MUST BE DISPLAYED ON NOTICE BOARD AT THE ENTRANCE [RULE- 72].A REPORT ON STRIKE / LOCKOUT SHOLD BE SENT IN FORM-N AS PER SECTION22(3), RULES 73, 74.
  39. 39. Y BHATTvi) CONSEQUENCES OF ILLEGAL STRIKES / LOCKOUTSON WORKMEN- ALL WORKMEN NO WAGES- INSTIGATORS COULD BE PUNISHED/IMPRISONED UNDERSECTIONS 26, 27, 28.ON EMPLOYER- WILL HAVE TO PAY WAGES AND CAN BEPUNISHED/IMPRISONED UNDER SECTIONS 26, 27, 28.ON ANY PERSON- ANY PERSON EXTENDING FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO FURTHER ANILLEGAL STRIKE OR LOCKOUT WOULD BE VIOLATINGSECTION 25.
  40. 40. Y BHATTvii) ROLE OF CONCILIATION OFFICER WHEN STRIKE NOTICE ISISSUED [Sn.12(1)]- HE MAY HOLD CONCILIATION MEETINGS IF NOTICE IS IN NON-PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICE.- HE MUST HOLD CONCILIATION MEETINGS IF NOTICE IS INPUBLIC UTILITY INDUSTRY.NOTE :IN THE SYNDICATE BANK CASE [1994 II LLJ 836] SUPREME COURTHELD THAT WORKMEN ON STRIKE WOULD BE ELIGIBLE TO CLAIMWAGES ONLY IF THEY ESTABLISH THAT THEIR STRIKE WAS LEGALAND JUSTIFIED. IF IT WAS ONLY LEGAL BUT NOT JUSTIFIED, NOWAGES IS PAYABLE.
  41. 41. Y BHATTWHAT IS PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICE & ITS SIGNIFICANCEI SIGNIFICANCEa) UNDER SECTION 2(n) OF THE ID ACT 1947 CERTAIN CATEGORY OFINDUSTRIES HAVE BEEN DECLARED AS PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES.b) AS PER SECTIONS 22 TO 24 MORE STRINGENT PROVISONS HAVEBEEN PRESCRIBED FOR DECLARING LOCK OUTS (BY EMPLOYERS)OR FOR ORGANISING STRIKES (BY WORKMEN) IN SUCHINDUSTRIES.II CONSEQUENCEa) NON-OBSERVANCE BY EMPLOYERS WOULD MAKE THE LOCK OUTILLEGAL AND MAKE THE WORKMEN ELIGIBLE FOR WAGES FORTHE PERIOD OF ILLEGAL LOCK OUT.b) NON-OBSERVANCE BY WORKMEN WOULD MAKE THE STRIKEILLEGAL AND MAKE THEM DISENTITLED FOR WAGES FOR THESTRIKE PERIOD.
  42. 42. Y BHATTIII CATEGORIES OF INDUSTRIES FALLING UNDER PUBLICUTILITY SERVICESECTION 2(n) DECLARES CERTAIN TYPES OF DINDUSTRIES TO BEPERMANENTLY PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES AND SOME OTHERSWHICH COULD BE DELCARED AS PUBLIC UTILITIES FORTEMPORARY PERIODS OF SIX MONTHS AT A TIME.a) PERMANENT PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES [Sn.2(n)(I TO v)]i) ANY RAIL/TRANSPORT/AIR SERVICES/SERVICES IN MAJOR PORTSOR DOCKSii) ANY SECTION OF AN INDUSTRY THE WORKING OF WHICH ISESSENTIAL FOR ENSURING SAFETY OF WORKMEN EMPLOYED.iii) POST/TELEGRAPH/TELEPHONE SERVICESiv) INDUSTRIES SUPPLYING POWER/LIGHT OR WATER TO PUBLICv) ANY SYSTEM OF PUBLIC CONSERVANCY SANITATION.
  43. 43. Y BHATTb) TEMPORARY PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICESi) SECTION 2n(vi) EMPOWERS THE CENTRAL/STATE GOVERNMENTSTO DECLARE ANY INDUSTRY LISTED IN SCHEDULE -I OF THE IDACT AS PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICESii) SUCH DECLARATIONS BY THE APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT ISVALID FOR SIX MONTHS FROMDATE OF NOTIFICATION IN GAZETTE.iii) GOVERNMENT CAN EXTEND THE VALIDITY BY RENEWING THEDECLARATION AT THE END OF EACH SIX MONTH.iv) IF THE DECLARATIONS ARE NOT RENEWED SUCH NOTIFIEDINDUSTRIES WOULD COME OUT OF THE DEFINITION OF PUBLIC UTILITY.v) AS PER SCHEDULE-I, THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES OFINDUSTRIES COULD BE CLARED AS PUBLIC UTILITY FOR SIX MONTHLYSPELLS THROUGH A GAZETTE NOTIFICATIONS:
  44. 44. Y BHATT1 TRANSPORT SERVICES 2 BANKING3 CEMENT 4 COAL5 COTTON TEXTILES 6 FOOD STUFFS7 IRON & STEEL 8 DEFENCE ESTABLISHMENTS9 HOSPITALS & DISPENSARIES 10 FIRE BRIGADE11 GOVERNMENT MINTS 12 INDIA SECURITY PRESSES13 COPPER MINING 14 IRON ORE MINING15 LEAD MINING 16 ZINC MINING17 SERVICE IN ANY OIL FIELD 18 SERVICE IN URANIUM INDUSTRY19 PYRITES MINING INDUSTRY 20 SECURITY PAPER , MILL, HOSHANGABD21 SERVICES IN THE BANK 22 PHOSPHORITE MINING23 MAGNESITE MINING 24 CURRENCY NOTE PRESS25 FERTILIZER INDUSTRY 26 MANUFACTURING, MARKETING &DISTRIBUTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTSSCHEDULE-I
  45. 45. Y BHATTb) PROVISIONS IN LAYOFFi) WHAT SECTIONS AND CHAPTERS OF ID ACT REGULATE LAY OFF ?SECTIONS 2(kkk), 25A, 25B, 25C, 25D, 25E OF CHAPTER VA ANDSECTIONS 25K, 25L, 25M, 25Q, AND 25S OF CHAPTER VB.ii) WHAT IS LAY OFF ?AS PER SECTION 2(kkk) LAY OFF IS THE INABILITY / FAILURE /REFUSAL OF THE EMPLOYER TO GIVE EMPLOYMENT TO WORKMEN ONHIS MUSTER ROLLS (EXCLUDES BADLIS AND CASUALS) ON ACCOUNTOF :- SHORTAGE OF COAL / POWER / RAW MATERIALS- ACCUMULATION OF STOCKS- BREAKDOWN OF MACHINERY- NATURAL CALAMITY (LIKE FLOODS / EARTHQUAKE /FIRE / LIGHTNING, ETC) OR- ANY OTHER CONNECTED REASON
  46. 46. Y BHATTiii) IS THE LAY OFF PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO ALLINDUSTRIES FALLING UNDER Sn 2(j) ?NO - LAY OFF PROVISIONS ARE APPLICABLE ONLY TO A LIMITEDCATEGORY OF INDUSTRIES LIKE FACTORES, MINES AND PLANTATIONS, THAT TOO IFTHEY ARE EMPLOYING MORE THAN 50 WORKMEN ON THE AVERAGE [25A(b) & 25(k)]. IF THE ESTABLISHMENT IS OF SEASONAL CHARACTER OR IS OPERATINGONLY INTERMITTENTLY ALSO LAY OFF PROVISIONS WILL NOT APPLY [SEESECTIONS 25A(b) & 25(k)].iv) ARE WORKMEN REQUIRED TO PUT IN A MINIMUMQUALIFYING SERVICE FOR BEING ELIGIBLE FOR LAY OFFCOMPENSATION ?AS PER SECTION 25(B) ONLY WORKMEN WHO HAVE PUT IN ONE YEARCONTINUOUS SERVICE (RECKONED FROM THE DATE OF LAY OFF) ARE ELIGIBLE TOLAY OFF COMPENSATION.ONE YEAR CONTINUOUS SERVICE MEANS PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT ORWORKING FOR 240 DAYS IN A PERIOD OF 12 MONTHS. 240 DAYS WILLINCLUDE DAYS OF SICKNESS/EARNED LEAVE AVAILED/ACCIDENTLEAVE/MATERNITY LEAVE/STRIKE WHICH IS NOT ILLEGAL/LOCK OUT DAYS/ANDCESSATION OF WORK NOT DUE TO FAULT OF WORKMAN.
  47. 47. Y BHATTv) ARE ANY CATEGORY OF WORKMEN EXCLUDED FROM LAYOFF BENEFITS ?AS PER SECTION 25(C) AND 25(M) BADLIS AND CASUALS AREINELIGIBLE UNLESS THEY HAVE PUT IN 240 DAYS ATTENDANCE IN 12MONTHS PRIOR TO DATE OF LAY OFF.vi) IS PRIOR GOVERNMENT APPROVAL REQUIRED FOR LAYINGOFF WORKMEN ?ESTABLISHSMENTS EMPLOYING AVERAGE OF 50 WORKMEN ORMORE DURING THE MONTH PRIOR TO LAY OFF AND EMPLOYINGLESS THAN 100 WORKMEN ON AN AVERAGE ARE REGULATED BYPROVISIONS OF CHAPTER VA AND NEED NOT TAKE ANYPERMISSION.ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH EMPLOYED AVERAGE OF 100 OR MOREWORKMEN DURING THE 12 MONTHS PRIOR TO LAY OFF AREREGULATED BY CHAPTER VB AND MUST OBTAIN PRIOR PERMISSION FROMAPPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT.
  48. 48. Y BHATTNOTEFOR ESTABLISHMENTS HAVING MORE THAN 51% CENTRALGOVERNMENT SHARE CAPITAL THE APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT FORLAY OFF WILL BE ONLY THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND NOT THE STATEGOVERNMENT [SEE Sn.25(L)(b)].vii) WHAT HAPPENS IF PERMISSION IS NOT APPLIED FOR ORPERMISSION IS DENIED BY GOVERNMENT ?WORKMEN WILL BE ELIGIBLE TO RECEIVE FULL WAGES FOR THEENTIRE LAY OFF PERIOD.viii) WHAT IS THE NORMAL RATE OF LAY OFF COMPENSATION ?NORMAL RATE OF COMPENSATION PAYABLE IS 50% OF BASIC + DA[25(C) IF PERMISSION IS REFUSED OR NOT OBTAINED MUST PAYFULL WAGES [25 (M)(8)].
  49. 49. Y BHATTix) WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING FOR PERMISSION ?ESTABLISHMENTS ATTRACTED BY CHAPTER VB MUST SUBMITAPPLICATION TO APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT IN FORM-03. MUSTALSO NOTIFY REGIONAL LABOUR COMMISSIONER THE COMMENCEMENTAND CONCLUSION OF LAY OFF IN FORMS 01 AND 02 WITHIN 7 DAYS[SECTIONS 25(M) AND R 75A]. GOVERNMENT MAY GRANT / REFUSEPERMISSION WITHIN 60 DAYS OF SUBMISSION OF APPLICATION. IF NOREPLY FROM GOVERNMENT - AFTER 60 DAYS PERMISSION CAN BEASSUMED [SECTION 25(M)(5)].x) CAN EMPLOYER DENY LAY OFF PAYMENT IN ANYCIRCUMSTANCES ?UNDER CERTAIN CONTINGENCIES MENTIONED IN SECTION 25(E)ESTABLISHMENTS ATTRACTED BY CHAPTER VA CAN REFUSE TOPAY LAY OFF COMPENSATION. IF WORKMEN REFUSE TO ACCEPTALTERNATE EMPLOYMENT UNDER SAME EMPLOYER WITHIN RADIUSOF 5 MILES [25(E)(1)]. IF HE DOES NOT REPORT FOR GIVINGATTENDANCE [25(E)(2)]. IF LAY OFF IS DUE TO STRIKE OR GO SLOW BYANOTHER SECTION OF WORKMEN [25(E)(3)].
  50. 50. Y BHATTNOTETHIS DENIAL OF COMPENSATION IS NOT APPLICABLE TO ESTABLISHMENTSFALLING UNDER CHAPTER VB.xi) CAN AN EMPLOYER RESORT TO RETRENCHMENT AFTER CERTAINDURATION OF LAY OFF ?AS PER SECTION 25 C AN EMPLOYER GOVERNED BY CHAPTER VA (NOTAPPLICABLE TO CHAPTER V B) CAN AFTER 45 DAYS LAY OFF IN 12 MONTHSRETRENCH HIS WORKMEN OR SIGN A SETTLEMENT WITH THE WORKMEN TORETAIN THEM ON THE MUSTER ROLLS WITHOUT PAYMENT OF LAY OFFCOMPENSATION. IF HE RESORTS TO RETRENCHMENT HE MUST FOLLOW THEPROCEDURE AND PROVISIONS OF RETRENCHMENT STIPULATED IN SECTION25F. WHILE PAYING RETRENCHMENT COMPENSATION HE CAN REDUCE THE AMOUNTOF ALY OFF COMPENSATION PAID DURING THE PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS [25(C )].xii) WHAT ARE THE EMPLOYERS OBLIGATIONS ?TO MAINTAIN MUSTER ROLL OF WORKMEN [Sn.25(D)]APPLY FOR PERMISSION IN FORM 03 [Sn.25(M)(2)]SUBMIT RETURN IN FORMS 0-1 AND 02 [Sn.25(M)(2)]PAY HALF/FULL WAGES AS COMPENSATION [Sn.25© & 25(M)]
  51. 51. Y BHATTC PROVISIONS ON RETRENCHMENTi) WHAT AMOUNTS TO RETRENCHMENT [DEFINITION SECTION 2(00)] ?AS PER SECTION 2(00) ALL TYPES OF TERMINATION OF AWORKMAN BY AN EMPLOYER WOULD BE RETRENCHMENT, UNLESS ITIS A TERMINATION BY WAY OF DISCIPLINARY ACTION OR IT FALLSUNDER ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING FOUR EXCEPTIONS :1) VOLUNTARY RETIREMENT2) RETIREMENT ON REACHING THE AGE OF SUPERANNUATION (IFTHERE IS A STIPULATION IN THE CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT)3) TERMINATION RESULTING OUT OF NON-RENEWAL OF A FIXEDTERM CONTRACT EMPLOYMENT.4) TERMINATION ON ACCOUNT OF CONTINUED ILL- HEALTH.
  52. 52. Y BHATTii) IS PRIOR PERMISSION REQUIRED FROM THE APPROPRIATEGOVERNMENT FOR RESORTING TO RETRENCHMENT ?NO PERMISSION REQUIRED IF ESTABLISHMENT EMPLOYED LESS THAN 100 WORKMEN(AVERAGE FOR THE PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS) -Sn.25K. MAKING OF APPLICATION ANDOBTAINING PRIOR PERMISSION FROM APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT (OR NOTIFIEDAUTHORITY) IS REQUIRED IN ESTABLISHMENTS (LIKE FACTORIES, MINES ANDPLANTATIONS ONLY) WHICH EMPLOYED MORE THAN 100 WORKMEN (AVERAGE FORPREVIOUS 12 MONTHS) Sn.25N(1)(b), 25L(a), 25L(b), AND 2(a)]. SUCH APPLICATION FORPRIOR PERMISSION SHOULD BE MADE IN ADVANCE AND IF NOT TURNED DOWN, AFTER 60DAYS IT CAN BE PRESUMED THAT PERMISSION IS GIVEN - Sn.25N(4).NOTE1) WHILE GIVING OF NOTICE AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION TO WORKMEN ISAPPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, THE REQUIREMENT OFAPPLYING AND OBTAINING PRIOR GOVERNMENT PERMISSION IS APPLICABLE ONLY TOTHREE CATEGORIES OF INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, VIZ FACTORIES, MINES ANDPLANTATIONS [25L(a)].2) PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS IN WHICH CENTRAL GOVERNMENT HAS AT LEAST51% SHARE CAPITAL SHOULD APPLY AND OBTAIN PERMISSION FROM THE CENTRALGOVERNMENT AND NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENT EVEN IF THE APPROPRIATEGOVERNMENT FOR THEM UNDER SECTION 2(a) IS THE STATE GOVERNMENT [SEE Sn.25L(b)].
  53. 53. Y BHATTiii) POWER OF GOVERNMENT TO GRANT/REFUSE/REVIEWPERMISSION [25 N(1) TO (9)]UNDER Sn.25N(3) GOVERNMENT CAN GRANT/REFUSE PERMISSION,BUT MUST GIVE REASON FOR THIS TO EMPLOYER AND WORKMEN.UNDER Sn.25N(6) GOVERNMENT CAN REVERSE ITS EARLIER ORDERGRANTING OR REFUSING PERMISSION AND ISSUE FRESH ORDERS.GOVERNMENT CAN ALTERNATIVELY UNDER Sn.25N(6) REFER THEISSUE OF PERMISSION TO TRIBUNAL FOR GRANTING OR REFUSINGPERMISSION AND SUCH TRIBUNAL SHOULD PASS AN ORDER IN 30DAYS. ANY ORDER PASSED BY GOVERNMENT/APPROPRIATEAUTHORITY SHALL AS PER Sn.25N(5) BE BINDING FOR A PERIOD OFONE YEAR.NOTEIF WORKMEN HAVE BEEN RETRENCHED WITHOUT PERMISSION (INABOVE 100 WORKMEN CASE) OR PERMISSION HAS BEEN REFUSEDTHE AFFECTED WORKMEN WILL GET ALL BENEFITS AS IF THEYWERE NEVER TERMINATED [Sn.25N(7)].
  54. 54. Y BHATTiv) NOTICE, IF ANY, REQUIRED TO BE GIVEN TO WORKMEN TOBE RETRENCHEDIN SMALLER ESTABLISHMENTS (AVERAGE LESS THAN 100WORKMEN) MINIMUM ONE MONTH’S NOTICE OR ONE MONTH’S PAY IN LIEUOF NOTICE MUST BE GIVEN [Sn. 25F(a)] IN LARGERESTABLISHMENTS( AVERAGE MORE THAN 100 WORKMEN) MINIMUM THREEMONTHS NOTICE OR THREE MONTH’S PAY IN LIEU OF NOTICE MUST BEGIVEN [Sn. 25 N(1)(a)].v) EXTENT OF COMPENSATION PAYABLE TO RETRENCHEDWORKMENELIGIBLE FOR 15 DAYS AVERAGE PAY FOR EVERY COMPLETEDYEAR OF CONTIINUOUS SERVICE OR PART IN EXCESS OF SIX MONTHS IFTHE WORKMEN SATISFIES THE REQUIREMENT OF ATTENDANCEUNDER Sn. 25B(1) & (2) [Sn.25N(9), 25F(b), AND 25B(1) & (2)]. IF UNDERANY OTHER LAW OR STANDING ORDERS WORKMEN ARE ELIGIBLETO A HIGHER QUANTUM OF COMPENSATION, THAT HIGHER QUANTUMWILL PREVAIL [Sn.25J(1)].
  55. 55. Y BHATTNOTEIN ESTABLISHMENTS EMPLOYING LESS THAN 100 WORKMEN(AVERAGE OF THE PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS) IF LAY OFF HAS EXCEEDED45 DAYS DURING THE IMMEDIATE PRECEDING 12 MONTHS, THE LAYOFF COMPENSATION PAID CAN BE OFFSET FROM THERETRENCHMENT COMPENSATION PAYABLE TO THE WORKMEN [25C(PROVISO)].vi) PROCEDURE FOR RESORTING TO RETRENCHMENTNOTICE MUST BE SENT TO THE APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT/NOTIFIED AUTHORITY IN FORM P UNDER RULE 76. APPLICATIONFOR PERMISSION MUST BE MADE IN FORM PA UNDER RULE 76-A(1) ORFORM PB UNDER RULE 76-A(2) AS THE CASE MAY BE. A CATEGORYWISE WORKMEN SENIORITY LIST MUST BE PREPARED AND IN EACHCATEGORY THE LEAST SENIOR, MUST GO OUT FIRST - EXCEPTIONS CANBE MADE WITH PROPER REASONS RECORDED AND THE SENIORITY LISTSHOLD BE DISPLAYED AS PER RULE 77 [Sn.25G].
  56. 56. Y BHATTvii) HAVE RETRENCHED WORKMEN THE RIGHT TO RE-EMPLOYMENT ?IF AT ANY LATER DATE THE PLANT OR PROCESS IS RESTARTED,RETRENCHED WORKMEN SHOULD BE GIVEN PREFERENCE FO RE-EMPLOYMENT AND THE INTIMATION GIVEN TO THE CONCERNEDWORKMEN AND UNION AND NOTICE DISPLAYED AT LEAST 10 DAYSBEFORE FILLING UP THE VACANCY. [Sn.25H, R-78].viii) IMPACT OF OTHER LAWSANY PROVISION ON RETRENCHMENT IN ANY OTHER LAW ORSTANDING ORDERS INCONSISTENT WITH THE PROVISIONS IN THE IDACT SHALL BE NULL AND VOID. HOWEVER, IF MORE BENEFICIALTERMS EXIST THOSE WILL PREVAIL [Sn.25J].Ix) CONSEQUENCES OF VIOLATING THE PROVISIONS ONRETRENCHMENTAS PER Sn.25Q IMPRISONMENT UPTO ONE MONTH OR Rs.1000/-FINE OR BOTH.
  57. 57. Y BHATTx) SUMMARY OF SECTIONS ON RETRENCHMENTSECTIONS 2(00), 25B, 25C, 25F, 25G, 25H, 25J, 25K, 25L, 25Q, 25SRULES : 76, 76A, 77, 78FORMS:P, PA, PBd) PROVISIONS ON CLOSUREi) WHAT AMOUNTS TO CLOSURE [2n.2(cc)] ?A PERMANENT CLOSURE OF (a) A PLACE OF EMPLOYMENT, OR (b)A PART OF THE ESTABLISHMENT.
  58. 58. Y BHATTii) IS PRIOR PERMISSION REQUIRED FROM THE APPROPRIATEGOVERNMENT FOR CLOSING DOWN AN ESTABLISHMENT ?NO PERMISSION REQUIRED IF ESTABLISHMENT EMPLOYED LESS THAN 100WORKMEN (AVERAGE FOR PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS) [Sn.25 K] MAKING OFAPPLICATION AND OBTAINING PRIOR PERMISSION FROM APPROPRIATEGOVERNMENT (OR NOTIFIED AUTHORITY) IS REQUIRED IF THE ESTABLISHMENT IS AFACTORY, MINE OR PLANTATION WHICH EMPLOYED MORE THAN 100 WORKMEN(AVERAGE OF PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS) [Sn.25-O(I), 25L(a), 25L(b), 2(a)]. SUCHAPPLICATION FOR PRIOR PERMISSION SHOLD BE SUBMITTED AT LEAST 90 DAYS INADVANCE OF PROPOSED DATE OF CLOSURE - COPY OF APPLICATION TO BESENT TO UNION/WORKMEN REPRESENTATIVES [25(O)(1)] IF NO REPLY ISRECEIVED FROM GOVERNMENT WITHIN 60 DAYS, APPROVAL CAN BEPRESUMED [25(O)(3)].NOTE1) PRIOR PERMISSION REQUIRED ONLY FOR FACTORIES, MINES ANDPLANTATIONS.2) PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS IN WHICH CENTRAL GOVERNMENT HAS ATLEAST 51% SHARE CAPITAL SHOLD APPLY AND OBTAIN PERMISSION FROMCENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENT EVEN IF THEAPPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT FOR THEM UNDER SECTION 2(a) IS THE STATEGOVERNMENT [Sn.25L(b), 2(a)].
  59. 59. Y BHATTiii) POWER OF GOVERNMENT TO GRANT/REFUSE/REVIEWPERMISSIONUNDER Sn.25(O)(2) GOVERNMENT CAN GRANT/REFUSEPERMISSION, BUT MUST GIVE REASON FOR THIS TO EMPLOYERAND WORKMEN. UNDER Sn.25(O)(5) GOVERNMENT CAN REVERSE ITSEARLIER ORDER GRANTING OR REFUSING PERMISSION AND ISSUEFRESH ORDERS.GOVERNMENT CAN ALTERNATIVELY UNDER Sn.25(O)(5) REFER THEISSUE OF PERMISSION TO A TRIBUNAL FOR GRANTING ORREFUSING PERMISSION AND SUCH TRIBUNAL SHOULD PASS ANORDER IN 30 DAYS. ANY ORDER PASSED BYGOVERNMENT/APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY SHALL AS PER Sn.25(O)(4)BE BINDING FOR A PERIOD OF ONE YEAR. IF NO ORDER IS PASSEDWITHIN 60 DAYS OF MAKING APPLICATION AS PER Sn.25(O)(3) IT CANBE PRESUMED THAT PERMISSION HAS BEEN GIVEN.
  60. 60. Y BHATTNOTE :1) WHERE THE ESTABLISHSMENT HAS BEEN CLOSED WITHOUTMAKING AN APPLICATION OR WITHOUT OBTAINING PERMISSIONFROM THE GOVERNMENT OR WHEN THE PERMISSION HAS BEENREFUSED AS PER Sn.25(O)(6), AFFECTED WORKMEN WILL BE ENTITLEDTO ALL BENEFITS AND BE TREATED AS IF THE UNDERTAKING WAS NOTCLOSED DOWN.2) IN CASES LIKE CLOUSURE DUE TO DEATH OF AN EMPLOYER ORDUE TO ACCIDENT IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AS PER Sn. 25(O)(7)GOVERNMENT CAN GRANT RELAXATION OR EXEMPTION FROM THEVARIOUS PROVISIONS ON CLOSURE.
  61. 61. Y BHATTIv) NOTICE, IF ANY, REQUIRED TO BE GIVEN BEFORE CLOSUREOF UNDERTAKINGAS PER Sn.25FFA AND RULE 76B IN SMALLER ESTABLISHMENTS(EMPLOYING LESS THAN 100 WORKMEN BUT ABOVE 50 WORKMEN) NOTICE OFCLOSURE IN FORM Q MUST BE GIVEN BY REGISTERED POST TO :a) APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENTb) REGIONAL LABOUR COMMISSIONERc) EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGE CONCERNEDIN LARGER ESTABLISHMENT (EMPLOYING MORE THAN 100 WORKMEN ONAN AVERAGE FOR PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS) AS PER Sn.25(O)(1) AND RULE 76C NOTICE OF CLOSURE MUST BE GIVEN IN FORM QA TO THE APPROPRIATEGOVERNMENT BY REGISTEREDPOST. IN ADDITION TO NOTICE UNDER Sn.25(O)(3) AND RULE 76C IN FORM QB (IN TRIPLICATE) MUST BE SENT BYREGISTERED POST TO THE APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT. AS PER RULE76C(3) THE EMPLOYER IS BOUND TO SUPPLY ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, IFANY, CALLED FOR BY GOVERNMENT. AS PER RULE 76C(2) THE DATE ONWHICH THE REGISTERED POST IS RECEIVED BY GOVERNMENT SHALL BETREATED AS THE DATE OF FILING THE APPLICATION FOR PERMISSION.
  62. 62. Y BHATTv) EXTENT OF COMPENSATION PAYABLE TO AFFECTEDWORKMENAS PER Sn.25FFF IN SMALLER ESTABLISHMENTS (AVERAGE LESSTHAN 100 WORKMEN) WORKMEN SATISFYING THE ATTENDANCEREQUIREMENT OF Sn.25B ARE ENTITLED TO COMPENSATION AS IF THEY WERERETRENCHED (15 DAYS WAGES PER YEAR OF SERVICE). HOWEVER,IF THE ESTABLISHMENT CAN JUSTIFY THAT IT HAD TO BE CLOSEDDOWN DUE TO CIRCUMSTANCES BEYOND THE EMPLOYERS CONTROL(PLEASE SEE EXPLANATION TO 25FFF AS TO WHAT WOULD NOT BETREATED AS FACTORS BEYOND THE CONTROL) THE MAXIMUMCOMPENSATION PAYABLE WOULD BE LIMITED TO THREE MONTHS WAGES[PLEASE ALSO SEE Sn.25FFF(1A) ON CLOSURE OF MINING ESTABLISHMENTAND Sn.25FFF(2) ON CONSTRUCTION ESTABLISHMENT].IN LARGER ESTABLISHMENTS (EMPLOYING MORE THAN 100WORKMEN ON AN AVERAGE DURING THE PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS) ASPER Sn.25(O)(8) COMPENSATION AT THE RATE OF 15 DAYS WAGES PERYEAR OF SERVICE IS PAYABLE AND AS PER Sn.25J IF UNDER ANY OTHER LAWOR CONTRACT/STANDING ORDER THEY ARE ELIGIBLE FOR BETTER RATEOF COMPENSATION THE HIGHER OR BETTER RATE WILL PREVAIL.
  63. 63. Y BHATTvi) CONSEQUENCIES OF VIOLATING THE PROVISIONS ON CLOSUREAS PER Sn.25R ANY EMPLOYER WHO CLOSES DOWN ANESTABLISHMENT WITHOUT COMPLYING WITH THE PROVISIONS OFSn.25(O)(1) SHALL BE PUNISHABLE WITH IMPRISONMENT FOR 6 MONTHSOR WITH FINE UPTO Rs.5,000/- OR BOTH.vii) SUMMARY OF SECTIONS2(cc), 25B, 25FA, 25FFF, 25J, 25K, 25L, 25O, 25R, 25S.e) PROVISIONS FOR ALTERATION OF SERVICE CONDITIONS /ISSUE OF NOTICE OF CHANGEi) CAN AN EMPLOYER UNILATERALLY ALTER THE CONDITIONS OFSERVICE APPLICABLE TO WORKMEN ?ON ANY ITEMS LISTED IN SCHEDULE IV OF THE ID ACT, HE CANNOTALTER, UNLESS HE GIVES A NOTICE OF CHANGE ASCONTEMPLATED IN SECTION 9A OF THE ACT.
  64. 64. Y BHATTii) WHAT KIND OF NOTICE MUST BE GIVEN ?AS PER Sn.9A(b) HE SHOULD GIVE AT LEAST 21 DAYS ADVANCENOTICE. IF THE CHANGE IS MADE AS A RESULT OF AN AGREEMENT, NONOTICE IS REQUIRED [Sn.9A, PROVISO (a)] OR THE WORKMEN BELONGTO THE CATEGORIES LISTED IN PART(b) OF THE PROVISO TO 9A.THE NOTICE MUST BE GIVEN IN FORM-E AS PER RULE 34.Iii) EFFECT OF GIVING NOTICEIF WORKMEN/UNIONS DO NOT OBJECT TO THE CHANGE, THECHANGE CAN BE EFFECTED AFTER 21 DAYS [Sn.9A(1)]. IF WORKMENOPPOSE THE CHANGE, THE ISSUE WILL BE TAKEN UP IN CONCILIATIONAND THE EMPLOYER WILL HAVE TO AWAIT THE OUTCOME OF THECONCILIATION MEETING/ADJUDICATION PROCESS [Sn.33(1)].
  65. 65. Y BHATTiv) WHAT ARE THE 11 ITEMS LISTED IN SCHEDULE IV FORWHICH NOTICE OF CHANGE NEEDS TO BE GIVEN ?WAGES, INCLUDING THE PERIOD AND MODE OF PAYMENT;CONTRIBUTION PAID, OR PAYABLE, BY THE EMPLOYER TO ANY PROVIDENTFUND OR PENSION FUND OR FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE WORKMEN UNDERANY LAW FOR THE TIME BEING IN FORCE; COMPENSATORY ANDOTHER ALLOWANCE; STARTING ALTERATION OR DISCONTINUANCEOF SHIFT WORKING OTHERWISE THAN IN ACCORDANCE WITHSTANDING ORDERS; CLASSIFICATION BY GRADES; WITHDRAWAL OFANY CUSTOMARY CONCESSION OR PRIVILEGE OR CHANGE INUSAGE; INTRODUCTION OF NEW RULES OF DISCIPLINE, ORALTERATION OF EXISTING RULES, EXCEPT IN SO FAR AS THEY AREPROVIDED IN STANDING ORDERS; RATIONALISATION, STANDARDISATIONOR IMPROVEMENT OF PLANT OR TECHNIQUE WHICH IS LIKELY TOLEAD TO RETRENCHMENT OF WORKMEN; ANY INCREASE ORREDUCTION (OTHER THAN CASUAL IN THE NUMBER OF PERSONSEMPLOYED OR TO BE EMPLOYED IN ANY OCCUPATION OR PROCESSOR DEPARTMENT OR SHIFT(NOT OCCASIONAED BY CIRCUMSTANCESOVER WHICH THE EMPLOYER HAS NO CONTROL).
  66. 66. Y BHATTv) POWER TO EXEMPTUNDER Sn.9B THE GOVERNMENT HAS POWER TO EXEMPT ANYESTAB LISHSMENT FROM THE REQUIREMENT OF GIVING NOTICE OFCHANGE UNDER Sn.9A.VI PROVISIONS FOR RECOVERY OF MONEY DUE FROM ANEMPLOYER UNDER THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT 1947.a) WHO AND WHEN CAN MONEY CLAIMS BE PUT UP ?i) WHAT KIND OF MONEY CLAIMS CAN BE PUT UP UNDER SECTION 33 ?ANY MONIES DUE TO A WORKMAN/WORKMEN UNDER ASETTLEMENT OR AWARD AND ANY COMPENSATION PAYABLE TO AWORKMAN FOR LAY OFF/ RETRENCHMENT/ CLOSURE [Sn.33C].ii) WHO CAN FILE THE MONEY CLAIMS ?WORKMAN HIMSELF ANY OTHER PERSON AUTHORISED AFTERDEATH OF WORKMAN HIS ASSIGNS/LEGAL HEIRS [Sn.33C, R-62(1),62(2)].
  67. 67. Y BHATTNOTE IF  MORE  THAN  ONE  WORKMAN  HAVE  SIMILAR  CLAIMS,  THEY  CAN ALL JOINTLY FILE A COMMON CLAIM AS PER Sn.33C(5). iii) TIME LIMIT FOR FILING THE CLAIMSAS  PER  FIRST  PROVISO  TO  33C(1),  MUST  BE  FILED  WITHIN  ONE YEAR  OF  THE  AMOUNT  BECOMING  DUE  FOR  PAYMENT.    AS  PER  THE SECOND  PROVISO  TO  33(C  )(2),  GOVERNMENT  CAN  CONDONE  THE DELAYED SUBMISSION OF CLAIMS IF PROPER REASON IS  PUT UP. b) TYPES OF CLAIMS WHERE  ONLY  THE  RIGHT  TO  CLAIM  IS  ESTABLISHED  BUT  THE EXTENT OF THE CLAIM OR ITS EXACT MONEY VALUE IS NOT  KNOWN A CLAIM  ;PETITION  IS  TO  BE  FILED  UNDER  Sn.33C(1),  RULE  62(1)  IN FORM  K-1  OR  K-2.    IF  THE  ACTUAL  MONEY  VALUE  IS  PRE-DETERMINABLE  A  CLAIM  PETITON  IS  TO  BE  FILED  UNDER  Sn.33C(2) RULE 62(2) IN FORMS K- 3 OR K- 4.
  68. 68. Y BHATTc)  ENFORCEMENT OF CLAIMSi)  GOVERNMENT  WILL  REFER  THE  CLAIM  PETITION  TO  THE    LABOUR COURT FOR DETERMINATIONTHE  COURT  WILL  PASS  NECESSARY  AWARD  (ORDER)  AND  SEND  IT TO THE GOVERNMENT [Sn. 33(4)].THE  GOVERNMENT  WILL  THEN  FORWARD  THE  ORDER  TO  THE COLLECTOR  TO  EXCEUTE  THE  ORDER  BY  ATTACHING  THE EMPLOYER’S  PROPERTY  AND  RECOVERING  THE  MONEY  AND PAYING IT TO THE WORKMAN / WORKMEN [Sn. 33(C)(1),33(C)(4)].WHAT  ARE  THE  PROVISIONS  ON  ‘WORKS  COMMITTEE’  UNDER  THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT 1947?WHAT IS A WORKS COMMITTEE?IT  IS  A  COMMITTEE  CONSISTING  OF  EQUAL  NUMBER  OF MANAGEMENT  AND  WORKMEN  REPRESENTATIVES  SET  UP  FOR PROMOTING  AMITY  AND  GOOD  RELATIONS  AND  EMPOWERED  TO COMMENT  ON  MATTERS  OF  COMMON  INTEREST  AND  TO ENDEAVOUR  TOWARDS  REDUCING  DIFFERENCES  IN  THE  VIEW POINTS BETWEENTHEM [Sn.3(2)].
  69. 69. Y BHATTii) WHEN DOES IT BECOME OBLIGATORY TO SET UP A WORKS COMMITTEE ? IN ESTABLISHSMENTS WHICH EMPLOY MORE THAN 100 WORKMEN OR HAD EMPLOYED MORE THAN 100 WORKMEN ON ANY DAY IN THE PREVIOUS 12 MONTHS, OBLIGATION ACTUALLY ARISES ONLY WHEN THE  GOVERNMMENT  THROUGH  A  GENERAL/SPECIAL  ORDER REQUIRES SETTING UP OF A WORKS COMMITTEE [Sn.3(1)].iii) MANNER OF CONSTITUTING A WORKS COMMITTEE THE  WORKMEN  REPRESENTATIVES  SHALL  BE  ELECTED  AND MANAGEMENT REPRESENTATIVES CAN BE NOMINATED [R-40]   DIVISION OF CONSTIUTENCIES  WITHIN    THE  ESTABLISHMENT  SHALL  BE  MADE  IN CONSULTATION WITH THE UNIONS AFTER COMPLYING  WITH PROCEDURE OUTLINED IN RULES 41 TO 43.  CANDIDATES  CONTESTING SHALL BE AT LEAST  19  YEARS  OF  AGE  AND  HAVE  AT  LEAST  ONE  YEAR  SERVICE. WORKMEN  WHO  HAVE  AT  LEAST  SIX  MONTHS  SERVICE  AND  ABNOVE THE AGE OF 18 COULD VOTE IN THE  ELECTIONS.  ELECTIONS SHALL BE CONDUCTED  IN  COMPLIANCE  WITH  THE  PROCEDURE  LAID  DOWN  IN RULES 46 TO 50.
  70. 70. Y BHATTiv) OFFICE BEARERS COMMITTEE SHALL HAVE A CHAIRMAN, VICE CHAIRMAN, SECRETARY AND JOINT SECRETARY [R-52] v) TERM OF OFFICE THE COMMITTEE ONCE SET UP WILL HAVE A TWO YEAR TERM OF OFFICE. MID TERM VACANCIES SHOLD BE FILLED AS PER RULE 52. vi) MEETINGS COMMITTEE SHALL MEET AT LEAST ONCE IN A QUARTER [R-55] EMPLOYER SHOULD PROVIDE NECESSARY FACILITIES FOR  HOLDING THE MEETINGS [R-56] vii) DISSOLUTION THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT OR OTHER AUTHORISED AUTHORITY COULD  DISSOLVE A WORKS COMMITTEE AS PER RULE 57.
  71. 71. Y BHATTviii) SUBMISSION OF RETURNSTHE EMPLOYER IS REQUIRED TO SUBMIT HALF YEARLY RETURN IN FORM G-1 IN TRIPLICATE [R-56-A] ix) SUBJECTS  THAT  COULD  BE  DISCUSSED  IN  THE  WORKS COMMITTEE  THIS IS NOT SPECIFICALLY LISTED IN THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT  OR  RULES.    HOWEVER  THE  TRIPARTITE  LABOUR CONFERENCE HELD IN 1959 HAS DRAWN UP A LIST OF DOS AND DONTS FOR THE WORKS COMMITTEE. x) MATTERS  THAT  COULD  BE  DISCUSSED  AT  THE  WORKS COMMITTEE  CONDITIONS  OF  WORK  SUCH  AS  VENTILATION,  LIGHTING, TEMPERATURE  AND SANITATION, INCLUDING LATRINES AND  URINALS.  AMENITIES  SUCH  AS  DRINKING  WATER,  CANTEEN  REST  ROOMS, MEDICAL  AND  HEALTH  SERVICES.    SAFETY  AND  ACCIDENT PREVENTION,  OCCUPATIONAL  DISEASES  AND  PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS.  ADJUSTMENT  OF  NATIONAL  AND  FESTIVAL  HOLIDAYS.   PROMOTION OF THIRFT AND SAVINGS.
  72. 72. Y BHATTxi) MATTERS  WHICH  CANNOT  BE  DISCUSSED  AT  THE  WORKS COMMITTEEWAGES AND ALLOWANCESBONUS AND PROFIT SHARING BONUSRATIONALISATION  AND  MATTERS  CONNECTED  WITH  THE  FIXATION  OF WORKLOADMATTERS  CONNECTED  WITH  THE  FIXATION  OF  A  STANDARD  LABOUR FORCEPROGRAMMES OF PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENTMATTERS CONNECTED WITHRETRENCHMENT AND LAYOFFVICTOMISATION FOR TRADE UNION ACTIVITIESPROVIDENT FUND, GRATUITY SCHEME AND RETIREMENT BENEFITSQUANTUM OF LEAVE AND NATIONAL AND FESTIVAL HOLIDAYSINCENTIVE SCHEMEHOUSING AND TRANSPORT SERVICE.b) PROVISIONS ON UNFAIR LABOUR PRACTICE i) PROHIBITION ON EMPLOYER/UNIONS/WORKMEN SECTION  25  T  OF  THE  ID  ACT  PROHIBITS  EMPLOYERS/WORKMEN/UNIONS INDULGING  IN  ACTS  LISTED  AS  UNFAIR  LABOUR  PRACTICES  UNDER SCHEDULE-V TO THE ID ACT [Sn.2(ra), 25T, Sch.V]
  73. 73. Y BHATTii) WHAT  ARE  THE  UNFAIR  LABOUR  PRACTICES  LISTED  AGAINST EMPLOYERS ? THE  FOLLOWING  ARE  THE  IMPORTANT  UNFAIR  LABOUR PRACTICES LISTED AGAINST EMPLOYERS : 1) THREATENING  WORKMEN  WITH  DISCHARGE/DISMISSAL/LOCKOUT FOR PREVENTIONG TRADE UNION FORMATION.2) GRANTING WAGE INCREASE AIMED AT PREVENTING TRADE UNION FORMATION 3) FINANCING  OR  ASSISTING  IN  FORMATION  OF  EMPLOYER SPONSORED UNIONS 4) TAMPERING  WITH  SENIORITY/PROMOTION  OF  WORKMEN  WITH  A VIEW TO OBSTRUCT THE GROWTH OF PARTICULAR UNION 5) VICTIMISING WORKMEN FOR TRADE UNION ACTIVITIES
  74. 74. Y BHATT6) REPLACING  REGULAR  JOBS  WITH  CONTRACT  WORKMEN  WITH  A VIEW TO BREAK A STRIKE 7) MALAFIDE TRANSFER OF WORKMEN 8) FORCING WORKMEN ON A LEGAL STRIKE TO GIVE GOOD CONDUCT BONDS9) EXPLOITING  WORKERS  BY  KEEPING  THEM  AS  CASUALS/ TEMPORARIES/BADLIS FOR LONG YEARS10) REFUSE TO IMPLEMENT SETTLEMENTS/AWARDS11) FAILURE TO IMPLEMENT SETTLEMENTS/AWARDS12) CONTINUIGN WITH ILLEGAL LOCKOUTS13) INDULGE IN ACTS OF FORCE/VIOLENCE [Sch.V(1)]
  75. 75. Y BHATTiii) UNFAIR  LABOUR  PRACTICES  LISTED  AGAINST  UNIONS/ WORKMEN1) SUPPORTING/INSTIGATING ILLEGAL STRIKES2) FORCING WORKMEN TO JOIN A UNION 3) PICKETING  /  OBSTRUCTING  /  THREATENING  NON-STRIKING WORKMEN4) REFUSING TO PARTICIPATE IN COLLECTIVE BARGAINING5) INDULGING IN GO-SLOW/SQUATTING6) DEMONSTRATION AT RESIDENCE OF EMPLOYER7) WILFUL DAMAGE OF EMPLOYERS PROPERTY [Sch  V(II)]
  76. 76. Y BHATTiv) CONSEQUENCES OF INDULGING IN UNFAIR LABOUR  PRACTICES AS PER Sn 25U ANY PERSON INDULGING  IN UNFAIR LABOUR   PRACTICE SHALL BE PUNISHABLE `BY IMPRISONMENT UPTO SIX MONTHS OR FINE OF UPTO Rs.1000/- OR BOTH [Sn.25U].c) PROVISIONS ON GRIEVANCE SETTLEMENT AS  PART  OF  THE  1982  AMENDMENT  A  GRIEVANCE  SETTLEMENT MACHINERY  WAS  INCORPORATED  IN  THE  INDUSTRIAL  DISPUTES  ACT.   ACCORDINGLY  SECTION  9C  WAS  INCORPORATED  IN  THE  ACT.    THIS SECTION  HAS  HOWEVER  NOT  BEEN  NOTIFIED  FOR  IMPLEMENTATION  SO FAR.  SECTION 9C(4) CONTEMPLATES THAT  NO DISPUTES SHOULD BE  REFERRED FOR  ADJUDICATION  UNTIL  THE  GRIEVANCE  SETTLEMENT  PROCEDURE  IS EXHAUSED.d) PROVISIONS ON REPRESENTAITION OF PARTIES i) BAN ON APPEARANCE OF LEGAL PRACTICTIONERS [Sn.36]SECTION  36(3)  OF  THE  ACT  PROHIBITS  APPEARANCE  OF  ADVOCATES.   HOWEVER, SECTION 36(4) PERMITS APPEARANCE OF  LEGAL  PRACTITIONERS WITH THE CONSENT OF THE OTHER PARTY AND LEAVE  OF THE PRESIDING OFFICERS.
  77. 77. Y BHATTii) WHO CAN REPRESENT THE WORKMEN [Sn.36(1),(a),(b),(c)] ?ANY  EXECUTIVE  MEMBER  OR  OFFICE  BEARER  OF  A  REGISTERED TRADE  UNION.    ANY  EXECUTIVE  MEMBER  OF  FEDERATION  TO WHICH  THE  TRADE  UNION  IS  AFFILIATED.  IF  A  WORKMAN  IS  NOT  A MEMEBR OF ANY UNION HE CAN AUTHORITIRSE ANY CO-WORKER  OR ANY UNION LEADER TO REPRESENT HIM.iii) WHO CAN REPRESENT AN EMPLOYER [Sn.36(2)(a),(b),(c)] ?AN OFFICER OF AN ASSOCIATION OF EMPLOYERS.  AN OFFICER OF A  FEDERATION  TO  WHICH  THE  EMPLOYERS  ASSOCIATION  IS AFFILIATED. IF NOT BELONGING TO ANY ASSOCIATION CAN  AUTHORISE ANY OTHER EMPLOYER IN THE INDUSTRY OR ANY  OFFICE BEARER OF AN ASSOCIATION OF EMPLOYERS.
  78. 78. Y BHATTe) PROVISIONS ON SETTLEMENTi) WHAT IS MEANT BY A SETTLEMENT [Sn.2(p)] ? AN AGREEMENT ARRIVED AT BETWEEN THE EMPLOYER AND  WORKMEN.ii) TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS [Sn.12(3), 18(1), 18(30] TRIPARTITE SETTLEMENTS UNDER SECTION 12(3) ARRIVED AT  WITH HELP OF  CONCILITION  OFFICER/BOARD.  BIPARTITE  SETTLEMENT  ARRIVED  AT WITHOUT  CONCILIATION  ASSISTANCE  BUT  SENT  JOINTLY  TO  CONCILIATION OFFICER  FOR  REGISTRATION  AS  A  SETTLEMENT  UNDER  SECTION  18(3).   BIPARTITE  SETTLEMENTS  ARRIVED  AT  BETWEEN  THE  PARTIES  UNDER SECTION  18(1)  WITH  NO  NOTICE  TO  OR  ASSISTANCE  FROM  CONCILIATION OFFICER.iii) ON WHOM ARE SETTLEMENTS BINDING [Sn.18(1), 18(3)] ? BIPARTITE SETTLEMENTS UNDER 18(1) OR 18(3) ARE BINDING ONLY ON THE PARTIES  THAT  SIGNED  THE  SETTLEMENT  (IT  CANNOT  BE  ENFORCED  ON OTHER  UNIONS  OR  WORKERS  WHO  ARE  NOT   PARTIES  TO  THE SETTLEMENT)
  79. 79. Y BHATTA  TRIPARTITE  SETTLEMENT  THROUGH  CONCILIATION UNDER 12(3)  IS ENFORCEABLE AGAINST :- ALL PARTIES TO THE DISPUTES- ALL  OTHER  PARTIES  SUMMONED  TO  THE  CONCILIATION PROCEEDINGS- IN THE CASE OF EMPLOYER ON HIS HEIRS/SUCCESSORS/ASSIGNS- IN  THE  CASE  OF  WORKMENON  ALL  WORKMEN  ON  THE  ROLLS  ON DATE  OF  SETTLEMENT  AND  ALL  FUTURE  EMPLOYEES  OF  THAT ESTABLISHMENT iv) WHEN DOES A SETTLEMENT COME INTO OPERATION [Sn.19(1)] ?FROM THE DATE AGREED TO AND INDICATED IN THE SETTLEMENT.  IF DATE IS SILENT, FROM THE DATE OF SIGNING SETTLEMENT.v) HOW LONG WILL IT BE BINDING OR PERIOD OF ITS VALIDITY [Sn.19(1)] ? FOR A MINIMUM PERIOD OF SIX MONTHS IF NO PERIOD IS INDICATED, OR FOR THE LONGER PERIOD INDICATED IN THE SETTLEMENT.
  80. 80. Y BHATTvi) WILL  THE  OBLIGATIONS  ON  THE  PARTIES  CEASE  ON  THE  EXPIRY OF VALIDITY PERIOD [Sn.19(2), 19(6)] ? OBLGATIONS  CONTINUE  EVEN  BEYOND  THE  AGREED  PERIOD  AND  WILL CONTINUE  TILL  PROPER  NOTICE  OF  TERMINATION  IS  GIVEN  UNDER  SECTION 19(2)  AND  TWO  MONTHS  HAVE  EXPIRED  AFTER  ISSUE  OF  NOTICE OFTERMINATION.    AS  PER  JUDICIAL  DECISIONS  THE  TERMS  OF  SETTLEMENT  WILL CONTINUE  TO  BE  IN  FORCE  EVEN  AFTER  TERMINATION  TILL  ANOTHER AGREEMENT  IS  REACHED  REPLACING  THE  CORRESPONDING  TERMS  IN  THE  OLD AGREEMENT.vii) WHO IS COMPETENT TO ISSUE NOTICE OF TERMINATION [Sn.19(7)] ? ONLY A PARTY REPRESENTING THE MAJORITY OF THE PERSONS BOUND BY THE SETTLEMENT CAN ISSUE A VALID NOTICE OF TERMINATION.viii) WHO IS COMPETENT TO SIGN A SETTLEMENT [RULE 58(2)] ? IN  CASE  OF  EMPLOYER,  HIMSELF/HIS  AUTHORISED  AGENT/MANAGER  OR PRINCIPAL  OFFICER.    IN  CASE  OF  WORKMEN  BY  A  TRADE  UNION  OFFICE BEARER  (PRESIDENT/VICE  PRESIDENT/    SECRETARY  OR  GENERAL SECRETARY/JOINT SECRETARY OR ANY OTHER AUTHORISED OFFICE  BEARER).  IN CASE OF AN INDIVIDUAL DISPUTE UNDER 2(A) BY WORKMAN  HIMSELF.
  81. 81. Y BHATTix ROLE OF CONCILIATION OFFICER [Sn. 12(3), Rules 58(1), (3) & 75]TO RECORD THE SETTLEMENT IN FORM H UNDER Rule 58 (1).TO MAINTAIN A REGISTER OF ALL SETTLEMENTS UNDER Rule 75.TO  SEND  A  COPY  OF  SETTLEMENT  TO  THE  APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT.NOTE:              WHERE THERE IS MULTIPLICITY OF UNIONS AND INTER UNION RIVALRY,  IT  IS  PRUDENT  TO  SIGN  ONLY  TRIPARTITE  CONCILIATION SETTLEMENTS  UNDER  Section  12  (3)  RATHER  THAN  GO  IN  FOR BIPARTITE  AGREEMENTS  UNDER  Section  18  (3)  OR  18  (1).  WHILE  A TRIPARTITE  SETTLEMENT  IS  ENFORCEABLE  AGAINST  ALL,  A BIPARTITE  AGREEMENT  BINDS  ONLY  ON  THE  PARTIES  TO  THE SETTLEMENT.f)  PROVISIONS ON AWARDSWHAT IS MEANT BY AN ‘AWARD’ [Sn. 2 (b)]?              AN AWARD IS AN INTERIM OR FINAL ORDER PASSED BY THE FOLLOWING DISPUTE SETTLING AUTHORITIES UNDER THE I.D. ACT.-  LABOUR COURT UNDER Sn. 7-   INDUSTRIAL  TRIBUNAL  OR  NATIONAL  TRIBUNAL  UNDER  SECTION 7(A) OR 7(B)-  AN ARBITRATOR UNDER SECTION 10 (A)
  82. 82. Y BHATTii) TYPES OF AWARDS [Sn.7, 7A, 7B]LABOUR COURTS GIVE AWARDS ON ITEMS LISTED IN SCHEDULE-II OF THE  ID ACT  TRIBUNALS/ NATIIONAL  TRIBUNALS  GIVE  AWARDS ON ITEMS LISTED IN SCHEDULE-III OF THE ID ACT.  ARBITRATORS GIVE  AWARD  ON  SUBJECT  REFERRED  TO  THEM  UNDER  THE ARBITRATION AGREEMENT. iii) PUBLICATION  OF  AWARDS  ANDA  THEIR  FINALITY  Sn.17(1)(2),  15, 17(B)]  UNLIKE THE CIVIL/CRIMINAL COURTS, LABOUCOURTS/ TRIBUNALS/ ADJUDICATORS  UNDER  THE  ID  AC  CANNOT  PRONOUNCE  THEIR DECISIONS/ORDERS IN COURTS. THEIR DECISIONS/ORDERS ARE TO  BE SENT  TO  THE  APPROPRIATE  GOVERNKENT.    THE  APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT IS TO THEN PUBLISH IT WITHIN 30 DAYS OF RECEIPT  OF THE ORDER.  SUBJECT TO PROVISION OF SECTION 17A, THE  AWARDS ARE FINAL AND CANNOT BE CHALLENGED IN ANY COURT.   HOWEVER AWARDS PERTAINING TO REINSTATEMENT OF  DISMISSED WORKMEN CAN BE CHJALLENGED IN SUPREME COURT/  HIGH COURT. SECTON 17 B STIPULATES THAT IN SUCH CASES THE  EMPLOYER MUST PAY FULL LAST DRAWNWAGES  TILL  THE  SIT  IS  DISPOSED  OFF  BY  THE  HIGH  COURT/ SUPREME COURT.
  83. 83. Y BHATTIV ON WHOM ARE AWARDS BINDING [Sn.18(3)] ?AS PER SECTION 18(3) AWARDS ARE BINDING ON THE  OLLOWING :ALL  PARTIES TO THE DISPUTEALL OTHER PARTIES SUMMONED TO APPEAR IN THE PROCEEDINGSINCASE OF EMPLOYER ON HIS HEIRS/SUCCESSORS/ASSIGNSIN  CASE  OF  WORKMEN,ON  ALL  WORKMEN  ON  THE  ROLLS  ON  THE DATE THE DISPUTE AROSE AND ALL FUTURE EMPLOYEES OF THAT ESTABLISHMENT.V WHEN  DOES  AN  AWARD  COME  INTO  OPERATION  OR  BECOME ENFORCEABLE ?[Sn.17  (A),  17(1),(2),  (3),  (4)]    IT  BECOMES  ENFORCEABLE  ON  THE EXPIRY  OF  30  DAYS  FROM  THE  DATE  OF  ITS  PUBLICATION  BY  THE GOVERNMENT UNDER Sn.17.
  84. 84. Y BHATTNOTE :UNDER  THE  PROVISO  TO Sn.17, GOVERNMENT  EMPOWERED  TO HOLD UP THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE AWARD IN PART OR FULL IN PUBLIC INTEREST BUT MUST THEN PUT UP THE AWARD BEFORE THE LEGISLATURE FOR A FINAL DECISION ON ITS ENFORCEMNE.TVI WHAT IS THE PERIOD OF VALIDITY OF AN AWARD ?[Sn.19(3),(4),(5)]  AS PER SECTION 19(3) IT SHALL BE IN FORCE FOR ONE YEAR FROM THE DATE IT BECOMES ENFORCEABLE  UNDER SECTION 17(A)  STATEGOVERNMENT CANE XTEND THIS  PERIOD FOR ONE YEAR  AT  A  TIME  SUBJECT  TO  THE  TOTAL  VALIDITY  PERIOD  NOT EXCEEDING  THREE  YEARS.    UNDER  SECTION  19(4)  GOVERNMENT EMPOWERED  TO  SEEK  REDUCTION  OF  THE  NORMAL  PERIOD  BY REFERRING IT TO THE  ADJUDICATING AUTHORITY.
  85. 85. Y BHATTVII) WILL  THE  OBLIGATIONS  ON  THE  PARTIES  CEASE  ON  EXPIRY  OF THE VALIDITY PERIOD [Sn.19(2), (3), (6)]  ?OBLIGATIONS  CONTINUE  EVEN  AFTER  THE  VALIDTY  PERIOD TILL  PROPER  NOTICE  OF  TERMINATION  IS  GIVEN  UNDER Sn.19(6)  AND  TWO  MONTHS  HAVE  ELAPSED  FROM  DATE  OF NOTICE.VIII) WHO IS COMPETENT TO ISSUE NOTICE OF TERMINATION ?ONLY  A  PARTY  REPRESENTING  THE  MAJORITY  OF  THE  PERSONS BOUND  BY  THE  AWARD  CAN  ISSUE  A  VALID  NOTICE  OF TERMINATION.

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