•Allport‘s Trait theory•Catell‘s Culture based system‘s theory•Eyesenck‘s Biological theory•Big Five Theory of Personality
A trait is a characteristic pattern of behavior or consciousmotive which can be self-assessed or assessed by peersThe term type is used to identify a certain collection of traitsthat make up a broad, general personality classification
at birth the infant is almost entirely a creature of hereditywith growing maturity, we become increasinglyactive, creative, self-reliant, and characteristicallyrational, largely as a result of learning experiences
at birth the infant is almost entirely a creature of hereditywith growing maturity, we become increasingly active,creative, self-reliant, and characteristically rational, largely asa result of learning experiences
The proprium or self, and how they are shaped as the selfcontinues to develop as the person proceeds through thelifespan.Concept of Cardinal, Central, and Secondary TraitsPersonal dispositionsValues
A Humanistic View of Personality•Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual ofthose psychophysical systems that determine his characteristicbehavior and thought•person is in a state of becoming
traitsare the key structures within the self; traits initiate anddirect the individual‘s behavior in unique ways.―ageneralized and focalized neuropsychic system(peculiar tothe individual) with the capacity to render many stimulifunctionally equivalent and to initiate and guide consistent(equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior‖
•Characteristics that are pervasive and dominant in aperson‘s life•These are master motives, ruling passions, eminent traits.
•Characteristicsthat control less of a person‘s behavior butare nevertheless importantDescriptions of people-intelligent, sincere, kind, possessive, competitive, ambitious, funny, and honest.
•Characteristics that are peripheral to the person––preferences•Such traits are generally less important, lessconspicuous, less generalized, and less often called into playthan central traits.
Common traits are categories for classifying groups ofpeople on a particular dimension e.g. some people are moredominant than others or that some people are more politethan others.The personal disposition is a unique characteristic of theperson, a trait not shared with others.
Substituting the term proprium for self, Allport used it tomean a sense of what is ―peculiarly ours,‖ including ―allaspects of personality that make for inward unity‖The proprium, or self, develops continuously from infancy todeath and moves through a series of stages.
1. The bodily self-Infancy2. Self-identity—by around 18 months3. Self-esteem-2nd or 3rd year4. Self-extension--4 to 6 years5. Self-image6. The self-as-rational-coper--6-12 years7. Propriate striving- adolescence onwards8. The self-as-knower—able to integrate all the aspects of the proprium
•The development of the mature personality takes time, hebelieved, so that only the adult is capable of coming close toself-realization.As their propriums develop, children also learn to protectthemselves against threats through the use of variousdefensive strategies
Early childhood-Peripheral motivesLater,as the proprium develops, there is a shift from thistype of motivation and learning toward propriate strivings .―Functionalautonomy regards adult motives as varied andas self-sustaining, contemporary systems growing out ofantecedent systems but functionally independent of them‖
1. Extension of the sense of self-participate in activities that go beyond themselves.2. Warm relatedness to others—intimacy and compassion3. Self-acceptance--emotionally secure.4. Realistic perception of reality--do not continually distort reality .5. Self-objectification--insight into their own abilities and limitations
commitment to religious beliefs can help organize and giveconstructive meaning to our livesextrinsic religious orientations with immaturity-use theirreligion as a means to an endIntrinsic religious orientations with maturity-as ends inthemselves.Religious Orientation Scale (Allport and Ross, 1967) ameasure ofintrinsic and extrinsic religiosity based onAllport‘s original conceptualization.
1.Theoretical: Focus on the discovery of truth, and intereststhat are empirical, critical, and rational.2. Economic: Focus on usefulness and being practical.3. Aesthetic: Focus on form and harmony, and interests inthe artistic side of life.4. Social: Focus on the altruistic love of others, and atendency to be kind, sympathetic, and unselfish.5. Political: Focus on power over others, dominance,influence, and social recognition.6. Religious: Focus on unity, and a tendency to seek tocomprehend he cosmos as a whole.
male adolescents and young adults scored higher on thetheoretical, economic, and political valuesfemales scored higher on the aesthetic, social, and religiousvalues
1.Constitutional and physiological diagnosis2.studies of sociocultural membership status, and roles3. personal documents and case studies4.self-appraisal techniques, such as self-ratings and Q-sorts5.conduct samplings, such as behavior assessments ineveryday situations +observer ratings personality tests andscales6.projective tests7.depth analysis, such as free association and dreamAnalysis8. Synaptic measures9. Idiographic approach to measuring personality
Catell was influenced by great psychologists/psychometricians of the Era-Spearman, G. Stanley Hall, Thorndike, William McDougallpersonalityas a system in relation to the environment, andseeks to explain the complicated ransactions between themas they produce change and sometimes growth in the personbegin with empirical observation and description and, onthis basis, to generate a tentative rough hypothesis.inductive-hypothetico-deductive spiral
Cattell relied heavily on factor analysis—a highly complicatedstatistical procedure used to isolate and identify a limitednumber of factors that underlie a larger group of observed,interrelated variablesSurface vs Source traits
Cattell defined personality as ―that which tells what [a person]will do when placed in a given situation‖ R =f(S, P)Constitutional traits vs Environmental-Mold TraitsMultiple abstract variance analysis (MAVA)-Catell
AbilityTraits, Temperament Traits, and Dynamic TraitsCommon vs Unique traitsSurface traits are ―simply a collection of trait elements, ofgreater or lesser width of representation which obviously‗gotogether‘ in many different individuals and circumstances‖A source trait, in contrast, is the underlying factor thatcontrols the variation in the surface cluster
Cattellbegan by examining the 4500 trait names found in theEnglish language by Allport and Odbert.Reduced them down by eliminating synonyms to 171By observer ratings by experts-46 surface traits16 primary factors or major source traits -These 16 basic traitswere then used in the construction of the Sixteen PersonalityFactor (16 PF) Questionnaire( from A to Q)
1. Life data (or L-data)- data from the individual‘s natural, everyday life behaviors, measuring their characteristic behavior patterns in the real world.2. Experimental data (or T-data) -which involves reactions to standardized experimental situations created in a lab where a subject‘s behavior can be objectively observed and measured.3. Questionnaire data (or Q-data), which involves responses based on introspection by the individual about their own behavior and feelings
an erg is an innate drive triggered by stimuli in theenvironment that ceases when its goal is reached.attitudes as specific interests in particular courses of actiontoward certain objects in a given situationSentiments are large, complex attitudes. They incorporate ahost of interests, opinions, and minor attitudes.
dynamic traits are organized in complex ways within thecognitive and motivational structure of the organism, and forma dynamic lattice.subsidiation—the process whereby certain dynamic traits aresubsidiary to (or dependent on) other traits.Ergs↦Attitudes↦SentimentsThe dynamic lattice describes a complicated and oftenbewildering intertwining of interests, attitudes, sentiments,goals, and drives.
Heredity and Environment- prenatal development, maturationClassical Conditioning- Fears and inhibitionsInstrumental conditioning-personality learningIntegration learning-form of cognitive and instrumentallearning in which the developing person uses ego and superegoprocesses to maximize long-term satisfactions.
Cattellsought to develop quantitative techniques to aid thetherapist in diagnosis and treatmentClinical Analysis Questionnaire
Thorough psychometricianDeveloped various eminent tests like the 16 PF, ClinicalAssessment questionnaire, Catell‘s Culture fair test ofintelligence, Early school personality questionnaire etc
Character denotes a person‘s more or less stable and enduringsystem of conative behaviortemperament, his more or less stable and enduring system ofaffective behavior (emotion)intellect,his more or less stable and enduring system ofcognitive behavior (intelligence)physique, his more or less stable and enduring system ofbodily configuration and neuroendocrine endowment
hierarchically organized, and consists of types, traits, andhabits.each of the type concepts is based on a set of observedintercorrelations among various traitstrait, in turn, is inferred from intercorrelations among habitualresponses.Habitualresponses, in turn, are based on specific observableresponses
On the basis of numerous factor analyses of personality datagathered from different subject populations all over theworld, Eysenck derived two factors that could readily be labeledintroversion/extraversion and stability/neuroticism . Later, onthe basis of other statistical analyses, he postulated a thirddimension, impulse control/psychoticism .Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and EysenckPersonality Questionnaire - Revised(EPQ-R)
Extravertsare sociable and impulsive individuals who likeexcitement and who are oriented toward external realityintrovertsare quiet, introspective individuals who are orientedToward inner reality and who prefer a well-ordered life( Influenced by Carl Jung)
Neurotics are emotionally unstable individuals havingunreasonable fears of certain objects, places, persons, animals,open spaces, or heights (Eysenck, 1965, p. 97); others mayexhibit obsessional or impulsive symptomsPsychotics differ generally from neurotics in the severity oftheir disorders. Showing the most severe type ofpsychopathology, psychotics may be insensitive to others,hostile, cruel, and inhumane, with a strong need to make foolsof people and to upset them.
INTROVERSION - EXTRAVERSIONIntroversion: tender mindedness; introspectiveness; seriousness; performance interferedwith by excitement; easily aroused but restrained; inhibited; preference for solitaryvocations; sensitivity for painExtraversion: tough mindedness; impulsiveness; tendency to be outgoing; desire fornovelty; performance enhanced by excitement; preference for vocations involving contactwith other people; tolerance for painNEUROTICISMBelow-average emotional control, will-power, capacity to exert self; slowness in thoughtand action; suggestibility; lack of persistence; tendency to repress unpleasant facts; lack ofsociability; below average sensory acuity but high level of activationPSYCHOTICISMPoor concentration; poor memory; insensitivity; lack of caring for others; cruelty; disregardfor danger and convention; occasionally originality and/or creativity; liking for unusualthings; considered peculiar by others
Why people who differed along the dimensions should behavedifferently from one another a theory that had a strong physiological base, but did not ignore environmental influences.
strongly determined by heredity and have their origins in thecerebral cortex of the central nervous systemEysenck maintained that extraverts have relatively strongnervous system and weak excitatory processes. Thus, cantolerate more stimulation.Thus, the brains of extraverts react more slowly and weakly tostimuli, thereby creating a stimulus hunger, or desire for strongsensory stimulationintroverts are inherently more corticallyaroused, have brains that react more quickly and strongly tostimuli and can tolerate only relatively small amounts ofstimulation.
Eysenck located the seat of neuroticism in the visceral brain, orlimbic systemThe limbic system-the hippocampus, amygdala, cingulum,septum, and hypothalamus—are involved in generatingemotionalityPeople high in neuroticism have lower thresholds for activity inthe visceral brain greater responsivity of the sympatheticnervous systemThus, neurotics are innately more reactive; theyoverreact to even mild forms of stimulation
socialized conduct is mediated by conscience, which he definesas the sum total of an individual‘s learned or conditionedResponsesIndividualsdiffer in the degree to which they learn the rules ofsociety. Specifically, Eysenck proposed that introverts learn therules more quickly and efficiently than do extraverts.
1. Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961.2. Lewis R. Goldberg3. Costa and McCrae at the National Institutes of Health
Openness to experienceappreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas,imagination, curiosity, and variety of experienceintellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive tobeauty more creative and more aware of their feelings unconventional beliefsDivergent thinking
Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, actdutifully, and aim for achievement against measures oroutside expectationsa preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior
Agreeablenesstendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather thansuspicious and antagonistic towards others Agreeable individuals value getting along with othersoptimistic view of human nature. agreeableness is positively correlated with good team workskills, it is negatively correlated with leadership skills
Neuroticismtendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger,anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotionalinstabilityThey are more likely to interpret ordinary situations asthreatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. poor ability to think clearly, make decisions, and copeeffectively with stress
In its current iteration, ratings from three assessments combine to comprise theessential criteria for a personality disorder:(1) A rating of mild impairment or greater on the Levels of Personality Functioning (criterionA),(2) A rating of(a) a “good match” or “very good match” to a Personality Disorder Type or(b) “quite a bit” or “extremely” descriptive on one or more of six Personality TraitDomains (criterion B).(3) Diagnosis also requires relative stability of (1) and (2) across time and situations, andexcludes culturally normative personality features and those due to the direct physiologicaleffects of a substance or a general medical condition.
Self:Identity: Experience of oneself as unique, with clear boundaries between self andothers; stability of self-esteem and accuracy of self-appraisal; capacity for, and abilityto regulate, a range of emotional experienceSelf-direction: Pursuit of coherent and meaningful short-term and life goals;utilization of constructive and prosocial internal standards of behavior; ability to self-reflect productivelyInterpersonal:Empathy: Comprehension and appreciation of others’ experiences and motivations;tolerance of differing perspectives; understanding of the effects of own behavior onothersIntimacy: Depth and duration of positive connections with others; desire andcapacity for closeness; mutuality of regard reflected in interpersonal behavior
Personality domains associated with Personality disorders
Negative Affectivity involves experiencing negative emotions frequently andintensely.Trait facets: Emotional lability, anxiousness, separationinsecurity, perseveration, submissiveness, hostility, depressivity, suspiciousness, restricted affectvity (-).Detachment involves withdrawal from other people and from social interactions.Trait facets: Restrictedaffectivity, depressivity, suspiciousness, withdrawal, anhedonia, intimacyavoidance,Antagonism involves behaviors that put the person at odds with other people.Trait facets: Manipulativeness, deceitfulness, grandiosity, attentionseeking, callousness, hostilityDisinhibition involves engaging in behaviors on impulse, without reflecting onpotential future consequences. Compulsivity is the opposite pole of this domain.Trait facets: Irresponsibility, impulsivity, distractibility, risk taking, rigidperfectionism (-).Psychoticism involves unusual and bizarre experiences.Trait facets: Unusual beliefs & experiences, eccentricity, cognitive & perceptualdysregulation
•Cross-sectional research has demonstrated clear associationsbetween the traits of the FFM and PDs, leading some to speculatethat PDs may best be understood as extreme, maladaptive levels ofthese five normal personality traits (Trull & McCrae, 1994)
Recent research has examinedage differences in the Big Five trait domains: Extraversion, Agreeableness,Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness toExperience.(Soto, Gosling etal 2010)Conscientiousness and Agreeableness show positive age trendsNeuroticism shows a negative trendExtraversion and Openness to Experience show flat trends with minorchanges from time to time
Women score higher on the Five Factor Model (FFM) traits ofNeuroticism and Agreeableness (Costa, Terracciano & McCrae 2001). Theformer reflects distress proneness and propensities toward the experienceof a variety of negative affects, while the latter reflectsamicability, altruism, trust, tendermindedness, and compliance. Costa et al. (2001) investigated gender differences across specific aspectsof these broad FFM domains, finding that men scored higher in some facetsof Openness, such as Openness to Ideas, while women scored higher inothers such as Openness to Aesthetics and Feelings.Men scored higher in some facets of Extraversion such as ExcitementSeeking, while women scored higher in other Extraversion facets such asWarmth. Comparisons at the aggregate level of Extraversion and Opennessare thus less meaningful
Budaev (1999) suggested an evolutionary hypothesis that Neuroticism andAgreeableness together represent a single dimension with low Neuroticismand low Agreeableness at one end, and high Neuroticism and highAgreeableness at the other. His data suggested men and women fall atopposite ends of this dimensionGender differences were larger, rather than smaller, in industrializedcountries where more progressive socioculture gender role norms wouldpresumably lead to smaller differences(costa 2001)
David P. Schmitt is a personality psychologist who foundedthe International Sexuality Description Project. The ISDP is thelargest-ever cross-cultural research study on sex andpersonality. 13,243 participants from 56 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behaviorit appeared that the mostextraverted people tended to live in Serbia and Croatia, whereas the mostintrovertedresided in Bangladesh and France. Post hoc analyses (e.g., Tukey’shonestly significantdifference, HSD) confirmed these general national trends
The most agreeable nations were the Democratic Republic of the Congoand Jordan, whereas Japan and Lithuania scored the lowest onAgreeableness.that the highest national scores on the BFI Neuroticism scale were fromJapan and Argentina, whereas the lowest national levels of Neuroticismwere obtained from Democratic Republic of the Congo and Slovenia.Respondents from Chile and Belgium rated themselves as the most open toexperience, whereas the people of Japan and Hong Kong describedthemselves as extremely low in Openness.The top nations in Conscientiousness were the Democratic Republic of theCongo and Ethiopia, whereas Japan and South Koreascored the lowest.
There were some nations, and entire geographical regions, where the BFIpersonality structure deviated slightly from the dominant personalitystructure characteristic of most of the world. For example, we found inAsia that the BFI structure was somewhat at odds with the U.S. structure.