Technical lag*: the increasing diﬀerence between
deployed software packages and the ideal available
Measurement: version updates, bugs, vulnerabilities,
line of code, commits, etc.
(*) Gonzalez-Barahona, et al. "Technical Lag in Software Compilations: Measuring How Outdated a Software Deployment Is."
IFIP International Conference on Open Source Systems. Springer, Cham, 2017.
Gold standard: stability, security, functionality, etc.
Example: diﬀerent kinds of “gold standards” for Debian
Gold standard Scenario Candidate
Stability Isolated system, stable
Functionality Cloud application Latest upstream
Security Reused containers Stable upstream
/technical lag in Docker
1.0.1 1.1.0 2.0.01.2.1 2.1.0
Installed package: D
technical lag (D) =