Nanotechnology applications in (final) 16.10.04 textile iitd comfort in textiles seminar


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Nanotechnology applications in (final) 16.10.04 textile iitd comfort in textiles seminar

  1. 1. NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN HIGH PERFORMANCE TEXTILE FINISHING R.B.CHAVAN Department of Textile Technology Indian Institute of Technology Hauz-Khas, New Delhi 110016
  2. 2. Emerging technologies <ul><li>Information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Bio technology </li></ul><ul><li>Nano technology </li></ul><ul><li>Second industrial revolution </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nano technology <ul><li>Nano </li></ul><ul><li>Greek word Nanos meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarf abnormally small </li></ul><ul><li>1nm is 1 billionth of meter 10 -9 m. </li></ul><ul><li>nanotechnology usually refers to the region of 1 to 100 nanometers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nano meter
  5. 5. Nano particle <ul><li>Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic change in properties of a substance when particle size reduced to nanometer range </li></ul><ul><li>Properties different than those of bulk material </li></ul><ul><li>Normal ceramic particle Brittle </li></ul><ul><li>Nano cramic particle Deformable, flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Gold Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Nano gold Red </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nano particle <ul><li>Small amount of nano species can interfere with matrix polymer bringing up the performance of the resultant system to unprecedented level </li></ul><ul><li>This property of nano particles is explored in imparting high performance finishes to textiles </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nano particle <ul><li>Nano technology has made a small beginning in textiles industry in the form of </li></ul><ul><li>high performance fibres and </li></ul><ul><li>high performance finishing of textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>As research progresses more and more potential advantages of nano technology will be revealed in diversified applications in textiles. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Investments TOPNano21 Switzerland research institutes, industries and SMEs collaborate. ‘ Nanonet € 110 million Germany, ¥120 trillion in 2010 $750million Japan government laboratories, universities and private companies. National Nanotechnology Initiative $3.7 billion USA Partners Programme Investment Country
  9. 9. Investments nanotechnology mission. Confederation of Indian industries, Central manufacturing technology Institute, Banglore and Ministry of Commerce India Centre in microsystems and nanotechnology £290million UK Programme Investment Country
  10. 10. Nano finishing of textiles Active organizations Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon Hong Kong Ciba speciaity , Schoeller Textiles AG Switzerland Nishibo, Toray, Kanebo, Teijin Japan DuPont , Nanotex, Nycol USA Organization Country
  11. 11. Commercially available technologies Flame retardant Nycol Self cleansing Hong Kong Polytechnic Luminescence fibres Teijin Hydrophilic finishes Toray, Kanebo Easy care Nano Tex Thermal comfort,Fragrance Ciba speciaity Antimicrobial, Deodorant Nishibo Stain repellent Schoeller Textiles AG Stain repellent DuPont Technology Organization
  12. 12. Du Pont <ul><li>Teflon® Stain Protection </li></ul><ul><li>durable fluorochemical finish based on nano emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>It forms an invisible shield around each fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional stain resistance products are merely a surface coatings. </li></ul><ul><li>Teflon® works on the nano scale that is, on the molecular level to protect each fiber in fabrics </li></ul>
  13. 13. Du Pont <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Apparels </li></ul><ul><li>home furnishings, and </li></ul><ul><li>other textile segments. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Du Pont <ul><li>Zonyl® /Oleophobol® refers to a range of fluorochemical products manufactured by DuPont and marketed by Ciba to textile mills. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Stain release during washing
  16. 18. Comparison of Fluoochemical and Silicone based finishes <ul><li>Teflon® provides the advantage of unmatched resistance to both oil- and water-based stains. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, many stain-protective treatments applied to fabrics today are hydrocarbon based, and are only water repellent. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Comparison of Fluoochemical and Silicone based finishes
  18. 20. Application <ul><li>The fabric is padded and dried. </li></ul><ul><li>During drying water evaporates. </li></ul><ul><li>During subsequent curing operation the polymers melt and spread and fluorocarbon side chains are oriented away from the surface. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Application <ul><li>Proper drying and curing </li></ul><ul><li>Assures formation of invisible shield around each fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures optimal durability and bonding between the finish and the fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>Also cures other components that may be in the pad bath, such as wrinkle-free derivatives </li></ul>
  20. 22. Fixation mechanism
  21. 23. Schoeller Textiles AG Switzerland <ul><li>Nanosphere </li></ul><ul><li>water-repellent, </li></ul><ul><li>dirt-repellent, </li></ul><ul><li>anti-adhesive and </li></ul><ul><li>self-cleaning finishing to textiles </li></ul><ul><li>available since the beginning of 2001. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Nanosphere <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Certain plant leaves, beetle shells and insect wings always stay clean </li></ul><ul><li>Water or dirt find difficulty to stick to their infinitesimal rough, structured surfaces, </li></ul><ul><li>letting even the lightest rainfall clean the surface. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Nanosphere <ul><li>Schoeller was able to emulate this principle through years of exhaustive research and the advent of nano-technology. </li></ul><ul><li>formation of a micro-rough, three-dimensional surface structure, from which water and dirt particles effortlessly and quickly roll off. </li></ul><ul><li>Substances like ketchup, honey, red wine and blood are simply repelled or rinsed off with water quickly and effortlessly. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Lotus leaf structure Microstructure surface Natural wax 100 nm
  25. 28. Sliding drop Rolling drop
  26. 29. Water drop on lotus leaf Honey on Nanosphere finished fabric
  27. 30. Features <ul><li>The water repellent function of NanoSphere® treated materials is considerably higher compared existing methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathability is not affected </li></ul><ul><li>there is considerable improvement in abrasion resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>The finish is resistance to repeated washing. </li></ul>
  28. 31. Features <ul><li>Easy stain removal </li></ul><ul><li>reduced Water and detergent consumption leading to a lower environmental impact </li></ul><ul><li>Meets the bluesign® Environment standard. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Application areas <ul><li>outdoor, leisure and sports clothing, </li></ul><ul><li>business suits </li></ul><ul><li>protective clothing </li></ul><ul><li>home furnishing </li></ul><ul><li>medical applications. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Nisshinbo Industries Japan <ul><li>Antibacterial and Deodorant finishes based on nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Giocot : Industrial work wear </li></ul><ul><li>Ag Fresh: Apparel </li></ul>
  31. 34. Gaicot <ul><li>It is an inorganic zeolite/cotton complex </li></ul><ul><li>Zeolite is a crystalline mineral consisting of aluminum, silicon and sodium with many micropores,. </li></ul><ul><li>Very efficient adsorbent used for </li></ul>
  32. 35. Gaicot <ul><li>removal of odor, and harmful gasses, preservation of food </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast to the traditional method of fixing zeolite on the fiber surface using a binder (fixing agent), </li></ul><ul><li>Nisshinbo has created a Zeolite/cotton complex by penetration of nano size zeolite within the interior of fiber (cellulose molecules) during finishing application </li></ul>
  33. 36. Zeolite-cotton complex
  34. 37. Properties <ul><li>Absorption of unpleasant odors of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, trimethylamine and methyl mercaptan. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity for absorbing ammonia gas is twice that of active carbon. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Properties <ul><li>Safe in terms of </li></ul><ul><li>oral toxicity, </li></ul><ul><li>fish toxicity and </li></ul><ul><li>skin sensitizing properties </li></ul>
  36. 39. 'Ag fresh' <ul><li>The anti-bacterial properties of silver are scientifically recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Nisshinbo has incorporated silver particles in a minute size of around 4nm into fiber through the use of the latest nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>A material of superior antibacterial, deodorant properties with good laundering fastness has been brought about by letting silver particles penetrate into the fiber itself. </li></ul>
  37. 40. 'Ag fresh' <ul><li>The 'Ag fresh' antibacterial, deodorant finish has been developed for use mainly in </li></ul><ul><li>garments worn close to the skin, </li></ul><ul><li>Further applications of this technology are being planned for use in uniforms, casual wear, shirts, bedding, nightwear, underwear, polo shirts and handkerchiefs. </li></ul>
  38. 41. Ag nanoparticle penetration in fibre
  39. 42. Ag Fresh Application <ul><li>Bedding, </li></ul><ul><li>uniforms and industrial materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Further expansion is planned into the field of </li></ul><ul><li>nursing care goods and bedding for the elderly, </li></ul><ul><li>medical uniforms, </li></ul><ul><li>filters for air conditioners and water purifiers. </li></ul>
  40. 43. Nano Tex Durable press 100% cotton Nano Press Combination of synthetic and cotton features Nano-Touch Durable hydrophilic finishing of synthetics Nano-Dry Highly durable water-and-oil repellent finishing Nano-Pel Next generation carefree finishing Nano-Care Function Trade name
  41. 44. Nano Tex Finishes Durability of all Nano Tex finishes 50 home launderings Synthetic sports wear, under garments Hydrophilic finish PET, NY, Acrylic Nano Dry Interior furnishing, Bed linen, home clothing Water and oil repellent Cellulosic, wool, silk, PET, NY, Acrylic, blends Nano Pel All Cotton wear Wrinkle resistance, water and stain repellent Cellulosic Nano Care End use Functions Fibre suitability Finish
  42. 45. Nano Tex Finishes Wrapping on PET microfibres to produce highly twisted Georgette, Crepe de chine, Chiffon Silk substitute. Wrapping on acrylic to produce light weight hydrophilic sweater Cellulose wrapping on synthetics Synthetics Nano Touch End use Functions Fibre suitability Finish
  43. 46. Nano Tex Finishes Cotton trousers and shirts Durable press without loss in strength 100% cotton Nano Press End use Functions Fibre suitability Finish
  44. 47. Commercialization 74 patents Lincensed to 40 Textile mills world wide 25 License agreements leading apparel and interior furnishings brands, Includes Levi, Gap, Old Navy, Lee, Nike, Champion, Marks & Spencer and Simmons. Nano-Tex finished products are sold throughout North America and in select locations in the United Kingdom Several South East Asian mills have joined in mass production of thick Nano-Care cotton fabrics.
  45. 48. Commercialization Several cotton and synthetic manufacturers in China, South Korea and Taiwan have recently joined and started commercial production of Nano-Dry and Nano-Pel. Nano-Touch and Nano-Care International textile management consulting (ITMC) agency in Japan has recently started promotion of nanotex finished fabrics on an exclusive basis India Arvind mills and Ashima have recently acquired license for nanotex technology
  46. 49. Brand name strategy affixation of a Nano-Tex tag on every piece of fabric and garment produced through licensed technologies to promote recognition of their particular advantages among consumers. This is similar to the leading semiconductor manufacturer Intel Corporation, US, with the sticker 'Intel inside' on every computer containing its chips for worldwide brand recognition. At present, operations are facilitated with no direct royalty payments, which are included in the price of finishing agents instead.
  47. 50. Ciba Specialty Chemicals <ul><li>Microencapsulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of desirable chemicals in the textiles through nano capsules </li></ul><ul><li>controlled release of </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrances </li></ul><ul><li>biocides </li></ul><ul><li>antifungals </li></ul><ul><li>Odour absorbing chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Brand name </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Freshness you can wear” </li></ul>
  48. 51. Temperature regulation to textiles <ul><li>Ciba Specialty Chemicals is introducing Ciba® ENCAPSULENCE® PC140 (Phase change material) </li></ul><ul><li>Ciba® ENCAPSULENCE® PC140 represents a radical shift from traditional trapped-air insulation </li></ul><ul><li>The new textile treatment offers a high degree of temperature regulation, </li></ul><ul><li>resulting in a very consistent level of thermal comfort. </li></ul><ul><li>these capsules work interactively with the wearer's body. </li></ul>
  49. 52. Temperature regulation to textiles Ciba Specialty Chemicals is introducing Ciba® ENCAPSULENCE® PC140 (Phase change material Ciba® ENCAPSULENCE® PC140 represents a radical shift from traditional trapped-air insulation The new textile treatment offers a high degree of temperature regulation, resulting in a very consistent level of thermal comfort these capsules work interactively with the wearer's body.
  50. 53. Temperature regulation to textiles <ul><li>Phase change materials absorb, store or release heat as they cycle between solid and liquid forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat can be liberated on cooling and absorbed on heating. </li></ul><ul><li>During physical activity, the wearer's excessive body heat increases and is absorbed by the encapsulated phase change materials. </li></ul>
  51. 54. Temperature regulation to textiles <ul><li>As activity ceases, the body cools and the microcapsule returns the stored heat back to the wearer. </li></ul><ul><li>The phase change material is permanently entrapped in the fibre in its micro particle form meaning that the effect it offers is not diminished through use. </li></ul><ul><li>Outlast Technologies Inc., hold technology licenses to sell temperature regulation compounds to the fibre & textile industry. </li></ul>
  52. 55. Kanebo Spinning Corp of Japan <ul><li>Has produced a polyester yarn with thirty times the ability of normal polyester to absorb moisture. </li></ul><ul><li>The yarn, suitable for use in undergarments, has twenty nano layers for retaining moisture. </li></ul><ul><li>The layers have a total thickness of fifty nanometres. </li></ul>
  53. 56. Toray Industries, Inc. of Japan <ul><li>has developed a fabric containing bundles of ultra fine nanometre nylon threads that allow superior moisture absorption properties. </li></ul>
  54. 57. Teijin Fibres Ltd of Japan <ul><li>A polyester substrate is covered with approximately sixty nano layers of polyester and nylon that have different refractive indices for light. </li></ul><ul><li>The layers, which are only approximately sixty-nine nanometres thick, refract the light to create a ‘mystical’ hue that changes according the viewpoint of the observer and the angle the light hits the fabric. </li></ul>
  55. 58. Self cleaning clothes <ul><li>scientists from Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon </li></ul><ul><li>invented an efficient way to coat cotton cloth with tiny particles of titanium dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>These nanoparticles are catalysts that help break down carbon-based molecules, </li></ul><ul><li>require only sunlight to trigger the reaction. </li></ul>
  56. 59. Self cleaning clothes <ul><li>The inventors believe that these fabrics could be made into self-cleaning clothes that tackle </li></ul><ul><li>dirt, </li></ul><ul><li>environmental pollutants and </li></ul><ul><li>harmful microorganisms </li></ul>
  57. 60. Self cleaning clothes <ul><li>The titanium dioxide particles covering the fibres are 20 nm size </li></ul><ul><li>Application method </li></ul><ul><li>padding cotton fabric with aqueous slurry of nanosize titanium dioxide, </li></ul><ul><li>drying and heating at 97 0 C for 15 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Then three hours boiling in water completes the coating process.( Nature Science Update,) </li></ul>
  58. 61. Flame retardants <ul><li>Nyacol Nano Technologies, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>aqueous dispersions of nano-sized antimony trioxide to be used with halogenated flame retardants </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>textiles, </li></ul><ul><li>nonwovens, </li></ul><ul><li>flame retardant coatings . </li></ul>
  59. 62. Flame retardants <ul><li>Advantages over Conventional Antimony Trioxide Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Better penetration of the substrate.  </li></ul><ul><li>Easier handling and processing. Liquid dispersions will not clog spray guns.  </li></ul><ul><li>Translucency for coatings, films and laminates.  </li></ul><ul><li>Easy compounding; no special dispersing equipment required.  </li></ul><ul><li>High FR efficiency </li></ul>
  60. 63. A Nanosize particles Normal 0.03 micron size particles
  61. 64. Flame retardants <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>To 10 parts NYACOL 1550 or A1550 (supplied as aqueous dispersions at pH 7), </li></ul><ul><li>add 40 parts water with sufficient ammonia to bring the pH to 9, </li></ul><ul><li>mix the water and the A1550 or A1550, and add 50 parts PVC latex. </li></ul><ul><li>These ingredients are mixed, </li></ul><ul><li>sprayed onto the nonwoven material and heat cured. </li></ul><ul><li>Pad application for woven fabric is suggested </li></ul>
  62. 65. Conclusions <ul><li>Nano-Technology will bring second industrial revolution with wide range of applications in all areas of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Textile application has just made beginning with fascinating result and commercialization of few technologies </li></ul>
  63. 66. Conclusions <ul><li>Field is virgin for application in all areas of textile chemical processing and and production of new generation textile fibres for appaprel, home textiles and industrial textiles </li></ul><ul><li>To continue trend more research contribution and collaboration with other disciplines is essential for bright future of textile industry </li></ul><ul><li>Circumstances will make this to happen </li></ul>