Generations tocome, it may be,will scarcelybelieve that sucha one as this everin flesh and bloodwalked upon thisearth- Einstein, 1944One of the greatestmen that everwalked on the faceof this earth.Mahatma Gandhi.The man largelyresponsible forIndias freedomthrough Ahimsafrom the imperialBritish rule afterapproximately 190years.
TRUTH• ".. BEING TRUE MEANS KEEPING ONES IDEALS, SOUL, AND THOUGHT INTACT OF ANY PROVOCATIONS AND IN ANY CIRCUMSTANCES..“• WHAT THEN IS TRUTH?•• THAT IT IS WHAT THE VOICE WITHIN TELLS YOU.• HUMAN MIND IS NOT THE SAME FOR ALL, IT FOLLOWS THAT WHAT MAY BE TRUTH FOR ONE MAY BE UNTRUTH FOR ANOTHER,
SATYAGRAHA• " (SATYA) IMPLIES TRUTH• (AGRAHA) FIRMNESS• ITS ROOT MEANING IS HOLDING ON TO TRUTH, HENCE TRUTH-FORCE.• GANDHI ALSO CALLED IT LOVE-FORCE OR SOUL-FORCE."• GANDHI ADVOCATED "SELF-SUFFERING" AS A MEANS OF PROTEST AGAINST ANY WRONG.
AHIMSA• "LITERALLY SPEAKING, AHINSA MEANS NON-VIOLENCE.• BUT IT HAS MUCH HIGHER, INFINITELY HIGHER MEANING.• NOT TO OFFEND ANYBODY BY ACTION OR THOUGHT INCLUDING OWN ENEMY• WHO FOLLOWS THIS DOCTRINE, THERE ARE NO ENEMIES.
Swaraj• If India got freedom from the British by brute force, political liberation would be achieved. This is one meaning of swaraj or self-rule, a mere absence of external rule.• but there is another deeper meaning which in Gandhis eyes was more important.• Another side of Swaraj was a development and liberation of self through "self-restraint, self- regulation, and self-dependence".• Gandhis Swaraj included spiritual freedom.• For the Indian masses, Gandhi also presented Swaraj as "a movement of self- purification."
Swaraj• He meant that to achieve spiritual liberation, the evils in Indian Society - Hindu-Muslim clashes, untouchability, and unequal distribution of wealth - would have to be conquered and eliminated.• Swaraj was the banner under which Gandhi and his contemporary Indian leaders appealed to the minds of the Indian people.
Swaraj• There is another idea that is linked in Gandhis thought to Swaraj and that is Swadeshi, which has a range of meaning such as self-sufficiency, self-reliance and even patriotism.• Specific expressions of swadeshi during the freedom struggle included production of khadi to boycott of foreign cloth.• He also emphasized on the importance of change with time and introducing new ideas while moving on path of development
Swaraj• The Swaraj which was achieved at independence in 1947 was not true swaraj, in a number of respects.• The greatest disaster was partition of two nations on religious basis.• People who had been neighbours and friends became enemies.• And enmity increased with passage of time to a explosive situation
True Swaraj• It would be characterised by a relatively• strong base of nearly self-sufficiency through small scale local production activities,• self-governing villages containing independent, well-educated individuals.• All adults would elect a small body (panchayat) to deal with disputes and crime, and also relevant political and economic matters.• Higher education, certain industries and services which are desirable but are unable to be provided at village level would be provided by the larger units.
Moving away from true swaraj• Today most societies are urban,• In the foreseeable future it seems unlikely that there will be a return to the village as the centre of life for most people.• The increasing size of private companies whose power extends around the globe and whose purpose is primarily to perpetuate their own existence is one that Gandhi surely would have been highly critical of.• The enviromental impact of economic activity has become much greater in the 50 years since Gandhis death,• low impact lifestyle is implicit in Gandhis approach.• Gandhis starting point was the individual self development to be extended to groups of increasing size up to the whole world community.
Important quotes• Nature provides enough for everybodys needs but not for anybodys greed• "Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest man whom you may have seen and ask yourself if the step you contemplate is going to be of any use to him.• In other words, will it lead to Swaraj for the hungry and spiritually starving millions?"
Need for body protection• Protection of body from the fury of weather (Heat, cold, rain) must be need of human being from the beginning• There must be use of animal hides and skin for body covering• Conversion of plant fibres into ropes, twisting of plant fibres into yarn and interlacement into fabric must have come through creative minds of human being.• These innovations over a period of time led to the development of fibre spinning and weaving processes for fabric manufacture. Obviously through hand spinning and hand weaving operations.
Rich textile heritage• Records indicate that cotton was cultivated in India 8000 years ago. And the art of spinning and weaving was practiced in India 5000 years ago• All the fabrics which were produced before industrial revolution in 18th century were hand spun and hand woven• India has a very rich a tradition of producing exclusive hand spun hand woven fabrics even today.• Such fabrics were named by Mahatma Gandhi as khadi fabric during the swadeshi movement for freedom.
Industrial revolution• 1771 first cotton mill in England was established followed by dozens of similar mills.• To keep the mills running cotton was imported from India at cheap rates• In return England exported woven fabric to India at high price• As a result no cotton was available for hand spinning and weaving in India.• millions of spinners and weavers throughout India were rendered unemployed.• Deprived of the only means to earn their livelihood• Left free to die of starvation.
Swadeshi Movement• The unchecked detrioration of Indian economy and fast spreading of misery amongst Indian masses , specially artisans attracted the attention of patriotic leaders• In 1876 Dadabhai Naoroji published his famous book “The poverty of India” exposing the deprivation of Indian people by Britishers and the miserable existence of Indian people at the verge of starvation.• All the leaders felt that India’s acute poverty was the direct result of destruction of cottage industries by British regime.• The nationalist leaders urged the people to use only Indian goods to the exclusion of British goods and gave a clarion call for swadeshi.
Khadi• Mahatma Gandhi is not only the father of nation but father of khadi.• In 1908 he discovered Charakha (Spinning wheel) in London during discussion with fellow Indians regarding the social and political conditions in India.• “I saw as in a flash that without spinning wheel there was no swaraj (Self rule) I knew at once that every one has to spin”• He had a clear vision of his programme of reviving ancient industry for economic gains and also as a tool of political awakening and achieving freedom.• He returned to India in 1915 during which swadeshi movement and boycott of foreign goods specially cloth was going on.
Khadi• In 1919 Gandhi launched the Khadi programme in the country.• In 1920 Indian national congress decided to encourage khadi producing activities.• 1925 All India spinners association or charkha sangh was established.• Gandhi firmly believed that charkha was his best gift to the nation contributing to its all sided development economic, political, social and moral• I may deserve the curse for many mistakes of omission and commission but I am confident of earning blessings of nation for suggesting a revival of charkha, because every revolution of wheel spins peace, goodwill and love.
After independence• The importance of khadi continued even after independence in 1947• 1948 Government policy on cottage and village industries including khadi.• 1953 All India khadi and village industries board• 1957 Khadi and village industries commission (KVIC)• Responsibility : to plan, organize and implement the programmes of promoting and developing khadi and village industries
Present status• KVIC works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Agro and Rural Industreies.• KVIC has a 10 member commission at the policy making level.• one of whom is Chairman), t• Two expert members and• Two official members (the Chief Executive officer and the Financial Advisor).• The Chairman, CEO and FA are full time members.• The head quarters of KVIC is in Mumbai• it has its State and Regional Offices in all the States.• It has training, production and Sales centres through out the country.
Present status• KVIC is having 30 State khadi and village industries board,• over 3500 institutions and• over 29000 co-operative societies.• There are around 14200 sales outlets in the country in KVI Sector. I• t is having 46% women participation in its activities.• 30% beneficiaries belongs to SC/ST.• KVI Boards assist over 5 lakh artisans.• It has reached 2.35 lakhs villages.
A COMPARISION OF MILL AND KHADI SECTORSR. MILL KHADI KHADI AS % ITEMNO. SECTOR SECTOR OF MILL SPINDLE 1.861. 28.09 million 6.6 INSTALLED million YARN 211 lac2. PRODUCTION 16230 lac kgs. 1.4 kgs. (COTTON)3. EMPLOYMENT 10.1 lacs 14.93 lacs 146.4
FABRIC PRODUCTION (MILION SQ. METER)SR. ALL KHADI AS % OF ITEM KHADINO. SECTOR ALL SEC1. COTTON 16343 89.22 0.552. WOOLLEN 109 10.61 9.733. SILK 211 5.43 2.57
Village industries• Group-I : Mineral based industry• Group-II : Forest based Industry• Group-III :Agro based and food industry• Group-IV : Polymer and chemical based industry• Group-V : Engineering & non- conventional ene• Group-VI : Textile Industry• Group-VII : Service Industry
Group-I :Mineral based industry• 1. Cotttage pottery industry• 2. Lime Stone, Lime shell and other Lime products industry• 3. Stone Crushing, Crushing Carving and Engraving for Temples and Buildings.• 4. Utility articles made out of stone• 5. Slate and Slate pensil making• 6. Manufacture of Plaster of Paris• 7. Utensil Washing Power• 8. Fuel Brequetting• 9. Jewellery out of Gold, Silver, Stone,Shell and Synthetic materials.• 10. Manufacture of Gulal-Rangoli• 11. Manufacture of Bangles• 12. Manufacture of Paits, Pigments, Varnishes and Distemper
Group-II : Forest Based Industry13. Hand Made Paper14. Manufacture of Katha15. Manufacture of Gums and Resins16. Manufacture of Shellac17. Cottage Match Industry, Manufacutre of Fire Works and Agarbatties18. Bamboo and Cane Works19. Manufacture of Paper Cups, Plates, Bags and other paper containers20. Manufacutre of exercise book binding, envelope making register making including all other stationery items made out of papers21. Khus tattis and broom making22. Collection, Processing and Packing of Forest Products 23. Photo Framing24. Manufacutre of Jute Products (under Fibre Industry)
Group-III : Agro Based And Food Industry25. Processing, Packing and Marketting of Cereals, Pulses Spices, Condiments, Masala etc.26. Palmgur and other palm products industry27. Manufacture of Cane gur and khadisari28. Bee keeping29. Fruit and vegitables processing, Preservation and Canning, including Picles30. Ghani oil industry31. Fibre other than Coir32. Collection of Forest Plants and fruits for Medicinal purpose33. Processing of Maize and Ragi34. Pithwork - Manufacture of Pith Mata and garlands etc.35. Cashew Processing36. Leaf Cup Making37. Menthol
Group-IV : Polymer and Chemical Based Industry38. Flaying, curing and tanning of hides and skins and ancillary industries connected with the same and Cottage Leather Industry39. Cottage Soap Industry40. Manufacture of Rubber Goods (dipped latex products).41. Products out of Rexins, PVC etc.42. Horn and Bone including ivory products43. Candle, Camphor and sealing wax making44. Manufacture of Packaging items of Plastics45. Manufacture of Bindi46. Manufacture of Mehendi47. Manufacture of Essential Oils48. Manufacture of Shampoos49. Manufacture of Hair Oils50. Detergents and Washing Power making (Non-toxic)
Group-V : Engineering and Non-Conventional Energy Industry51. Carpentry52. Blacksmithy53. Manufacture of House-hold Aluminimum Utensils54. Manufacture and use of manure and methane (gobar gas from cowdung and other waste products such as flesh of dead animals, night soil etc.55. Manufacutre of Paper, Clips, Safety Pins, Stove pins etc. 56. Manufacture of decorative bulbs, bottles, glass etc.57. Umbrella assembling58. Solar and Wind Energy implements59. Manufacture of hand made Utensil out of Brass60. Manufacture of hand made Utensils out of Copper61. Manufacture of hand made Utensils out of Bell Metal62. Other articles made out of Brass, Copper and Bell Metal63. Production of Radios64. Prodction of Cassette Player whether or not fitted with Radio
Group-V : Engineering and Non-Conventional Energy Industry65. Prodction of Cassette Recorder with or without Radio66. Production of Volltage Stabiliser 67. Manufacture of Electronic Clocks and Alarm Time Pieces 68. Carved wood and Artistic Furniture making69. Tin Smithy 70. Motor Winding71. Wire Net Making72. Iron Grills Making73. Manufacture of Rural transport vehicles such as Carts, Bullock Carts, Small Boats, Assembly of Bi-cycles, Cycle-rikshaw, motorised carts etc. 74. Manufacture of Musical Instruments
Group-VI : Textile Industry75. Polyvastra (Blended fabric)76. Manufacture of Lok Vastra Cloth 77. Hosiery78. Tailoring and Preparation of reaqdymade Garments79. Batik work80. Toys and Doll making 81. Thread Balls and Woolen Balling, Lacchi making82. Embroideary83. Manufacture of Surgical Bandages84. Stove Wicks
Group-VII : Service Industry85. Laundry86. Barber87. Plumbing88. Servicing of Electrical wiring and Electronic domestic appliances and equipments89. Repairs of diesel engines, pump sets etc.90. Tyre Vulcanising Unit91. Agriculture servicing for sprayers, insecticides, pump sets etc.92. Hiring of sound systems like loudspeaker, amplifier, mike etc.93. Battery charging94. Art Board Painting95. Cycle repair shops and96. Masonry.
Achievements Production 1956 1985- 1991- 1993- 1993- 1994- -57 86 92 94 94 95A Khadi Qty.M.sq.mtrs 36.20 104.94 109.11 105.26 98.42 136.90 Value (In Rs. Crores) 8.23 195.01 328.64 353.64 357.28 445.50B. Village Industries value (In Rs.Crores) 12.72 929.03 2264.13 2523.45 2876.58 3433.50 Total value (In 20.95 1124.04 2592.77 2876.95 3233.86 3879.00 Rs.Crores)