CONTENTS OF A RESEARCH REPORT Dr. Neeru Sharma Department of Home Science
RESEARCH REPORT American Psychological Association <ul><li>TITLE PAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Author’s n...
ABSTRACT <ul><li>Briefly states the salient features of the article in 200-250 words. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly tells abou...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Informs the reader what the study is all about </li></ul><ul><li>Gives nature, scope and justificatio...
Questions to be asked in the end <ul><li>Is the problem clearly stated? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the problem properly delimite...
REVIEW OF LITERATURE <ul><li>Involves thorough search from sources- Libraries, documentation centers, private collections,...
<ul><li>If you begin sorting and organizing your annotations by themes, issues of concern, common shortcomings  a pattern ...
Questions to be asked <ul><li>Is it adequately covered? </li></ul><ul><li>Are important findings noted? </li></ul><ul><li>...
METHOD OF RESEARCH <ul><li>Techniques used for carrying out the work </li></ul><ul><li>Sample- size, location, techniques ...
QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED <ul><li>Is the research design described in detail? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it adequate? </li></ul><ul>...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION <ul><li>Presents the data and statistical analyses without discussing the implications of the findi...
DISCUSSION <ul><li>Includes analysis, interpretation and meaning of findings </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the implications ...
QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED <ul><li>Is the discussion clear and concise? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the problem or hypothesis restated...
SUMMARY <ul><li>Wrap up the things </li></ul><ul><li>Clinch the issue under discussion </li></ul><ul><li>The main points f...
QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED <ul><li>Is the statistical  treatment appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the appropriate use made of ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Thank all the people who helped in carrying out the study </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks are due to the...
APPENDIX <ul><li>Superfluous tables are given in the end </li></ul><ul><li>Tools used for the study </li></ul><ul><li>Your...
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Contents Of A Research Repor Tppt

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Contents Of A Research Repor Tppt

  1. 1. CONTENTS OF A RESEARCH REPORT Dr. Neeru Sharma Department of Home Science
  2. 2. RESEARCH REPORT American Psychological Association <ul><li>TITLE PAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Author’s name </li></ul><ul><li>Running Head </li></ul><ul><li>ABSTRACT </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION (no heading) </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Background/ review </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose and rationale/hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Apparatus or instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS </li></ul><ul><li>Tables and figures </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical presentation </li></ul><ul><li>DISCUSSION </li></ul><ul><li>Support or nonsupport of hypo </li></ul><ul><li>Practical and theoretical implications </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>REFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>APPENDIX </li></ul>
  3. 3. ABSTRACT <ul><li>Briefly states the salient features of the article in 200-250 words. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly tells about the substantial and methodological issues involved and key conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Acronyms and abbreviations are excluded from abstracts </li></ul>
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Informs the reader what the study is all about </li></ul><ul><li>Gives nature, scope and justification of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical importance and practical significance also shown </li></ul><ul><li>Aims and objectives described </li></ul><ul><li>Shows writers grasp of the content </li></ul><ul><li>New facts and fresh insight brought to light </li></ul><ul><li>At the doctorate and post doctoral levels originality is expected </li></ul>
  5. 5. Questions to be asked in the end <ul><li>Is the problem clearly stated? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the problem properly delimited? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the significance of the problem recognized? </li></ul><ul><li>Are hypotheses clearly stated and testable? </li></ul><ul><li>Are assumptions, limitations, and delimitations stated? </li></ul><ul><li>Are important terms defined? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you hope to achieve? </li></ul>
  6. 6. REVIEW OF LITERATURE <ul><li>Involves thorough search from sources- Libraries, documentation centers, private collections, internet, catalogues, newspapers, periodicals, magazines, bibliographies, abstracts , archives etc </li></ul><ul><li>Discus with others working in the same field and exchange notes </li></ul><ul><li>Make best use of whatever is available </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogues are available authorwize, subject-wise and language or regionwize </li></ul><ul><li>Going through matter make notes </li></ul><ul><li>Passages copied verbatim are placed within quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Note the exact page from which copied </li></ul><ul><li>It is not permissible to change the original wording of material within inverted commas </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing may be done when direct quotation is not required. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>If you begin sorting and organizing your annotations by themes, issues of concern, common shortcomings a pattern would start emerging </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a potential modifiable outline for your literature early, </li></ul><ul><li>Footnotes and references should be complete in all respects </li></ul><ul><li>References may be arranged topic wise- alphabetically or numerically </li></ul><ul><li>Use reference cards. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to pass a draft to your supervisor early on </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to redraft two or three times. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Questions to be asked <ul><li>Is it adequately covered? </li></ul><ul><li>Are important findings noted? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it well organized? </li></ul><ul><li>Is an effective summary provided? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the literature directly relevant to the problem and hypotheses? </li></ul>
  9. 9. METHOD OF RESEARCH <ul><li>Techniques used for carrying out the work </li></ul><ul><li>Sample- size, location, techniques used selection, controls </li></ul><ul><li>Major demographic characteristics such as age, sex, SES may be included </li></ul><ul><li>Tools used for study- observation interview, experiment ,etc </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection- Procedure, problems encountered, pre testing etc </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis- Method of analysis- content or statistical </li></ul>
  10. 10. QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED <ul><li>Is the research design described in detail? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it adequate? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the samples described in detail? </li></ul><ul><li>Are relevant variables recognized? </li></ul><ul><li>Are appropriate controls provided to established experimental validity? </li></ul><ul><li>Are data gathering instruments appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Are validity and reliability of the instruments established? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the sample and the procedure be replicated based on the information and the references given? </li></ul>
  11. 11. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION <ul><li>Presents the data and statistical analyses without discussing the implications of the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Individual scores or raw data are presented in single subject or very small sample size studies </li></ul><ul><li>All relevant findings are presented including those that do not support the hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Tables and figures are useful to supplement textual material. </li></ul><ul><li>They should be used when the data cannot readily presented in few sentences in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Data in the text and in tables or figures should not be redundant </li></ul><ul><li>The level of significance for the statistical analyses should be presented. </li></ul>
  12. 12. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Includes analysis, interpretation and meaning of findings </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the implications of the study including whether the hypotheses were supported or should be rejected </li></ul><ul><li>It is appropriate to discuss both theoretical implications and practical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Brief discussion about limitations and proposals for future research </li></ul><ul><li>New hypotheses may be proposed if the data do not support the original hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions should also be included that reflect whether the original problem was better understood </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate concise statements with appropriate instances, anecdotes or cases to drive home your point </li></ul>
  13. 13. QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED <ul><li>Is the discussion clear and concise? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the problem or hypothesis restated appropriately? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the analyses objective? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the findings and conclusions justified by the data presented and analyzed? </li></ul><ul><li>Did the author generalize appropriately or too much? </li></ul>
  14. 14. SUMMARY <ul><li>Wrap up the things </li></ul><ul><li>Clinch the issue under discussion </li></ul><ul><li>The main points from the main body starting from brief introduction </li></ul><ul><li>including hypotheses and objectives; methodology, and important findings may be stated </li></ul><ul><li>Their implications for policy making are drawn </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for future research are made </li></ul><ul><li>New data are not brought in </li></ul><ul><li>Summary is not an abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the latter it may even refer to tables and figures in the main body of the report. </li></ul>
  15. 15. QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED <ul><li>Is the statistical treatment appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the appropriate use made of tables and figures? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the analysis of data relationships logical, perspective and objective? </li></ul>
  16. 16. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Thank all the people who helped in carrying out the study </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks are due to the respondents, community leaders etc </li></ul><ul><li>Thank the supervisor, friends and colleagues, family members </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid name dropping </li></ul>
  17. 17. APPENDIX <ul><li>Superfluous tables are given in the end </li></ul><ul><li>Tools used for the study </li></ul><ul><li>Your publications related to the study </li></ul><ul><li>Any other relevant information you want to share with the audience </li></ul>

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