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Bruno pot

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Bruno pot

  1. 1. Probiotics and mucosal immunity interactions in early life Bruno Pot Bactéries Lactiques et Immunité des Muqueuses Institut Pasteur de Lille Institut de Biologie de Lille Vrije Universiteit Brussel The Pharmabiotic Research Institute
  2. 2. • The dynamics of the microbiota • The required signals from the environment • Not all signals (probiotics!) are alike • Can probiotics do the job? • Conclusions Today’s talk…
  3. 3. Aleksandar D. Kostic, Michael R. Howitt and Wendy S. Garrett; Genes Dev. 2013 27: 701-718 Microbiota: the consequence of evolution ! Phylum levels
  4. 4. Human Microbiota: a mutual, evolutionary interplay • Composition determined by – Immune system – Neural system (stress) – Nutritional status – External interventions (infection, drugs, …) • The µbiome has influence on – Immune system – Neural system – Nutritional status – … Fredrik Backhed et al., 2012, Cell Host & Microbe.
  5. 5. Microbiota: a lifetime dynamics Bacteroidetes Firmicutes Acinobacteria Proteobacteria Variable/other Aleksandar D. Kostic, Michael R. Howitt and Wendy S. Garrett; Genes Dev. 2013 27: 701-718 3 Yrs: more diverse ‘‘adult-like’’ structure adulthood elderly
  6. 6. Pfefferle & Renz, F1000 Prime Reports 2014 Early life-time is very important with life- long impact! How do we know?
  7. 7. Immune responses are key! But complex and diverse!
  8. 8. • The dynamics of the microbiota • The required signals from the environment • Not all signals (probiotics!) are alike • Can probiotics do the job? • Conclusions Today’s talk…
  9. 9. Pregnant women get ready for delivery! Koren et al., Cell, 2012 Fecal bacteria of 91 pregnant women with varying pre-pregnancy BMIs and gestational diabetes status were compared (16S rRNA gene). Differences are apparently not related to diet, antibiotics or presence or absence of gestational diabetes or pre-pregnancy BMI. First Trimester (T1) Third Trimester (T3)
  10. 10. (T1)(T3) Koren et al., Cell, 2012
  11. 11. Not only the gut microbiota… Aagaard et al., PLoS One, 2012 68 vaginal samples from 24 healthy pregnant women (at 18 to 40 weeks) were compared to 301 samples of 60 non-pregnant control women Pregnancy reduces diversity of, but with an increase of streptococci and certain lactobacilli. Pregnant Non-pregnant
  12. 12. • Breast milk itself is also a source of bacteria and contains up to 10 exp 9 bacteria / L in healthy mothers. • The most frequently encountered bacterial groups include staphylococci, streptococci, corynebacteria, lactobacilli, micrococci, propionibacteria and bifidobacteria. • Lactobacilli were isolated in 55.3% of colostrum samples of 116 Chilean mothers, with concentrations of 3.33 ± 0.55 (log CFU/ml). • The predominant species were L. plantarum (64%), L. fermentum (16%) and L. pentosus (9%). .. and there is more… R Wall et al., 2009 Clinical Medicine: Pediatrics
  13. 13. A programmed change throughout? Lactobacilli and streptococci are well-known commensal lactic acid producing bacteria, some of which are capable to (i) selectively interact with the innate and the adaptive immune system of their host, able to (ii) prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria and (iii) assist in digestion and are (iv) less anaerobic, more acid resistant (v) their growth is promoted by breast milk  Suggesting a natural increase of levels of these bacteria, early in life, and  Suggesting the possibility of ‘artificially’ increasing levels through food supplements or adapted nutritional interventions, to (i) promote a healthy development of a balanced microbiota (ii) protect against accidental dysbiosis in early life phases.
  14. 14. Can it really work? How and when? • Also a group of pregnant mice were orally inoculated with a genetically labelled E. faecium strain previously isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman. • The labelled strain could be isolated and PCR-detected from meconium of the inoculated animals obtained by caesarean section one day before the predicted date of labor. PCR detection of E. faecium JLM3 among colonies isolated from meconium. Lane 1, 100 bp ladder (Bioline, London, UK); lane 2, PCR positive control (genomic DNA obtained from transgenic soy); lanes 3e7, colonies obtained from group A mice that grew on MRS-Cm agar plates; lanes 8e12, colonies obtained from group B mice; lane 13, PCR-negative control (E. faecium HA1).
  15. 15. In the mean time…  Bacteria were isolated from - umbilical cord blood of healthy neonates, and - placenta from mothers - amniotic fluid and meconium obtained of mice (after caesarean section) Dasanayake, A.P., Li, Y., Wiener, H., Ruby, J.D., Lee, M.J. (2005) Salivary Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 2 and Lactobacillus casei levels predict pregnancy outcomes. Journal of Periodontology 76, 171e177 Jimenez, E., Fernandez, L., Marın, M.L., Martın, R., Odriozola, J.M., Nueno-Palop, C., et al. (2005) Isolation of commensal bacteria from umbilical cord blood of healthy neonates born by caesarean section. Current Microbiology 51, 270e274. Pettker CM, Buhimschi IA, Magloire LK, et al. Value of placental microbial evaluation in diagnosing intra- amniotic infection. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109(3):739–49.  Prenatal mother-to-child efflux of commensal bacteria exists  Likely an active strategy to prepare the infant for future contact with commensals (and pathogens)
  16. 16. • The dynamics of the microbiota • The required signals from the environment • Not all signals (probiotics!) are alike • Can probiotics do the job? • Conclusions Today’s talk…
  17. 17. Aleksandar D. Kostic, Michael R. Howitt and Wendy S. Garrett; Genes Dev. 2013 27: 701-718 The co-evolutionary aspect! Phylum levels
  18. 18. Not all bacteria / signals are alike! Germ-free (GF) mice were colonized with mouse microbiota (MMb) or human microbiota (HMb) to test whether immune maturation depends on a host-specific microbiota relationship (co-evolution driven). Chung et al., Cell, 2012 Bacterial numbers and phylum abundance were similar in MMb and HMb mice, but bacterial genera / species differed Mouse Microbiota Human Microbiota family
  19. 19. Not all signals are alike! HMb mouse intestines had many characteristics of GF mice - low levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells - few proliferating T-cells - few dendritic cells - low antimicrobial peptide expression Chung et al., Cell, 2012 More similar
  20. 20. Not all signals are alike! Mouse-segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) partially restored the T-cell numbers in HMb mice, suggesting that SFB and other host specific MMb organisms are required for full immune maturation in mice. Chung et al., Cell, 2012
  21. 21. • The dynamics of the microbiota • The required signals from the environment • Not all signals (probiotics!) are alike • Can probiotics do the job? • Conclusions Today’s talk…
  22. 22. Data from clinical trials that included either prenatal or the prenatal and postnatal or postnatal intervention phase of probiotics, prebiotics, or both. PFEFFERLE, PRESCOTT, AND KOPP, 2013, J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL Prenatal Pre & post natal
  23. 23. Continued … PFEFFERLE, PRESCOTT, AND KOPP, 2013, J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL Postnatal
  24. 24. And the results PFEFFERLE, PRESCOTT, AND KOPP, 2013, J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL
  25. 25. Continued … PFEFFERLE, PRESCOTT, AND KOPP, 2013, J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL In about 1 out of 2 studies, some positive parameters could be measured… Probably not only the pro- / prebiotic ALONE is responsible, but other factors will determine the effect they can have.
  26. 26. PFEFFERLE, PRESCOTT AND KOPP, 2013 J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL Possible mechanisms of prenatal and postnatal induction of tolerance by microbial components (1) Prebiotics and probiotics can influence the mother’s gut microbiome, potentially inducing regulatory cytokines that might pass the placenta and prime the fetal immune system toward tolerance. (2) Through vaginal birth, the newborn’s gut acquires the maternal vaginal microbiome. (3) Oral application of prebiotics/probiotics might support a homeostatic colonization of the infant’s gut.
  27. 27. PFEFFERLE, PRESCOTT AND KOPP, 2013 J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL Possible mechanisms of prenatal and postnatal induction of tolerance by microbial components (1) Prebiotics and probiotics can influence the mother’s gut microbiome, potentially inducing regulatory cytokines that might pass the placenta and prime the fetal immune system toward tolerance. (2) Through vaginal birth, the newborn’s gut acquires the maternal vaginal microbiome. (3) Oral application of prebiotics/probiotics might support a homeostatic colonization of the infant’s gut.
  28. 28. Antibiotics can disturb the signaling! Sebastian Zeissig & Richard S Blumberg, 2014, Nature CORRECT COMMENSAL COLONIZATION = REQUIRED FOR MATURATION Windows of opportunity Immune development is only during certain window of opportunity
  29. 29. J-F Bach et al. N Engl J Med, Vol. 347, No. 12 September 19, 2002
  30. 30. Antibiotics can disturb the signaling! Sebastian Zeissig & Richard S Blumberg, 2014, Nature CORRECT COMMENSAL COLONIZATION = REQUIRED FOR MATURATION Windows of opportunity During window of opportunityProbiotics Prebiotics
  31. 31. After: Susan L Prescott, Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology, June 2008 Logical approaches to promote tolerance: * Optimise colonisation and gut maturation / permeability (probiotics / prebiotics) * Allergen exposure - optimise timing, dose, interval, route (rather than avoidance) * Breast feeding - promotes tolerogenic conditions during allergen encounter * Immunomodulatory factors (omega-3 fatty acids; requires further studies) Birth 3-4? 6-7? >12 months ? ? Tolerance induction window risk risk resolution Window of opportunity? Be sure not to miss it…
  32. 32. How does it work? Presumed
  33. 33. Epigenetic changes? • Durable epigenetic changes might contribute to persistent effects of microbial regulation of host immunity • Strategies to reverse epigenetic changes could suggests a possible therapeutic manipulation of epigenetic modifications, providing a suitable approach for restoring immunological defects acquired as a consequence of missed opportunities for host-microbe interactions • An interesting story: the Quebec Ice Storm Babies Sebastian Zeissig & Richard S Blumberg, 2014, Nature Coa-Lei et al. 2014. PLoS One.
  34. 34. • The dynamics of the microbiota • The required signals from the environment • Not all signals (probiotics!) are alike • Can probiotics do the job? • Conclusions Todays talk…
  35. 35. Conclusions • Already in utero, the mother, her microbiota and the baby coexist, as a kind of interconnected meta-organism (the co-evolution aspect). • The purpose is to deliver to the baby, in a timely matter, a commensal composition of bacteria able to assist in the healthy maturation of its immune- and metabolic system. • There is some evidence that this involves epigenetic changes that will take place during specific time slots (limited!). • Although underlying mechanisms are unknown in detail, we can learn from observed defects how the microbiota and immune systems co- evolve and how metabolic phenotypes reflect the myriad of functions encoded in the human genome and the gut microbiome. • These findings underscore the need to systematically consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations. • Further insghts and research may reveal how to reverse epigenetic changes to restore a healthy situation.
  36. 36. Can probiotics do ‘the’ job? Yes, some, and probably not ALONE Within a (limited?) window of opportunity which unfortunately is not yet well defined
  37. 37. Thanks to my team in Lille! Jeanne Agard Jérôme Breton Denise Boutillier Benoit Foligné Catherine Daniel Véronique Dennin Joëlle Dewulf Corinne Grangette Sabine Poiret Coline Plé (Elise Macho-Fernandez) (Véronique Valenti) & Marie-Christine Renaud
  38. 38. Probiotics are (y)our invisible friends! Thank you for yor attention! Questions welcome / Answers hopefully
  39. 39. Epigenetic changes: The Ice Storm Babies • “There’s quite a large body of literature suggesting that early life experiences are registered in methylation changes,” • “The main problem in humans is that you can’t easily test whether the changes in methylation are caused by genetics or by experiences.” • “ When you have a natural disaster like the 1998 Quebec ice storm, it’s random; it doesn’t select who it affects based on genetics” Moshe Szyf, McGill University Coa-Lei et al., 2014, PLoS One.
  40. 40. Ice Storm Babies experiment • Five months after the 1998 Quebec ice storm, women who were pregnant during the storm or had conceived shortly afterward were recruited. • The scientific question: What is the effect on the babies of extreme stress during pregnancy …? • In 2011, the Ice Storm Babies—now in their teens provided blood samples for analysis. • A total of 36 agreed to participate in the follow-up, 33 of whom had also provided saliva samples at age 8 for genetic analysis. Coa-Lei et al. PLoS One.
  41. 41. Results • 1675 methylation sites in the genomes of Ice Storm Babies were associated with levels of maternal stress during the storm: – The longer a mother was without power or the higher she ranked her stress levels, the more likely (or less likely, in some cases) these sites would be methylated in her child. • It was verified whether the genes had been methylated in the saliva provided five years before to exclude that the methylation changes happened later in life.
  42. 42. The methylations were strong and organized, concentrated in functional genes, mostly related to the immune system. The top pathway the genes fed into was the CD28 signaling pathway in T helper cells, required for T cell activation. Coa-Lei et al. 2014. PLoS One. Genes with altered methylation patterns were clustered in immune pathways.
  43. 43. Follow up and conclusion • What the methylation changes mean for the children’s immune systems was not yet studied. • The hypothesis: “An exposure to stress in utero may prepare to be exposed to stress during later life”. • and “It makes sense that these changes would impact the immune system, one of the body’s front lines against stress”. • Further studies may pave the way toward understanding how methylation is established throughout fetal development. • Focus will be on how stress hormones that cross the placenta into an embryo’s bloodstream interact with pathways altering methylation. What about the importance of the Microbiota in stress conditions? Coa-Lei et al. 2014. PLoS One.

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