Lecture 4
 It defines what is good or bad, right or wrong
 They guide our behavior wherever we go
 They are the primary sources o...
 Socially blessed ways to achieve our needs
 Contain a judgmental element as they showcase
a person’s ideas as to what i...
 Theoretical: through reasoning & systematic thinking
 Economic: leads to accumulation of wealth
 Aesthetic: Interest i...
Terminal
 Represent goals to
be achieved
 Ex: comfortable
life
 Inner security
 Social recognition
Instrumental
 Repr...
 Provide understanding of attitudes, motivation, and
behaviors
 Influence our perception of the world around us
 Repres...
 Refers to a stable set of opinions
 Also known as frames of references
 It is a cognitive element, remains inside a
pe...
 An attitude is the predisposition of the individual to evaluate some
objects in a favourable or an unfavourable manner.
...
 Determine meanings: If one has a overall
favorable attitude towards a person, one
tends to judge his activities as good ...
 Attitude organizes facts: events can be
differently perceived by different people
because of different attitudes. Meanin...
Cognitive Component:
 Includes the beliefs that individual has
about certain person, object or situation
 Learned belief...
Affective Component
 Refers to a person’s feelings that result from
his or her beliefs
 A person who believes hard work ...
Behavioral Component
 Refers to the individual’s behavior that
occurs as a result of his feelings about
persons, objects,...
 Job Satisfaction- happens when a job fulfils the attainment of
individual goals & dissatisfaction occurs when the job bl...
 Direct Experience- attitudes can develop from a personally
rewarding & punishing experience with an object. Attitudes th...
ATTITUDE VALUE
1. Attitudes exhibit predisposition to respond. 1. Values represent judgemental ideas like
what is right.
2...
 A positive attitude towards one’s job is
known as job satisfaction
 It is basically an emotional response to a job
situ...
 The work itself: the extent to which the job
offers the individual with interesting tasks &
opportunities for learning
...
 Impacts mental health: Job satisfaction helps in
psychological adjustment & happy living of a
person
 Influences physic...
 Innovative jobs: people are more satisfied with
jobs which they enjoy rather than those that are
dull & boring
 Fair re...
Values by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )
Values by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )
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Values by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

  1. 1. Lecture 4
  2. 2.  It defines what is good or bad, right or wrong  They guide our behavior wherever we go  They are the primary sources of our actions  It provides standards of competence & morality  They are more central to the core of a person
  3. 3.  Socially blessed ways to achieve our needs  Contain a judgmental element as they showcase a person’s ideas as to what is right or wrong  These are emotionally charged priorities & are passionately defended  They are moralistic in nature  Are relatively permanent in nature & resistant to change
  4. 4.  Theoretical: through reasoning & systematic thinking  Economic: leads to accumulation of wealth  Aesthetic: Interest in beauty, form & artistic harmony  Social: Interest in human relationships  Political: Interest in gaining power & influencing people  Religious: Interest in unity
  5. 5. Terminal  Represent goals to be achieved  Ex: comfortable life  Inner security  Social recognition Instrumental  Represent the means to achieve the goals  Ex:Ambitious  Broad minded  Logical
  6. 6.  Provide understanding of attitudes, motivation, and behaviors  Influence our perception of the world around us  Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”  Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others 5-6
  7. 7.  Refers to a stable set of opinions  Also known as frames of references  It is a cognitive element, remains inside a person  Individual’s attitude is reflected in his behavior
  8. 8.  An attitude is the predisposition of the individual to evaluate some objects in a favourable or an unfavourable manner.  The most pervasive phenomenon is “attitude”. People at work place have attitudes about lots of topics that are related to them.  Attitudes are different from values. Values are the ideals, whereas attitudes are narrow, they are our feelings, thoughts and behavioural tendencies toward a specific object or situation.  Attitude is a predisposition to respond to a certain set of facts.  Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable concerning the objects, people or events. Attitudes, Values, Ethics And Job Satisfaction
  9. 9.  Determine meanings: If one has a overall favorable attitude towards a person, one tends to judge his activities as good or superior.  Reconcile contradictions: With a proper attitude as a background, intelligent people can reconcile or rationalize contradictions with others. Ex: when a worker takes a little rest, a superior considers it as “idling”
  10. 10.  Attitude organizes facts: events can be differently perceived by different people because of different attitudes. Meanings can be communicated to others by changing the attitudes of people  Attitude select facts: From the plethora of environmental facts, one tends to select those which are in coordination with one’s cherished beliefs.
  11. 11. Cognitive Component:  Includes the beliefs that individual has about certain person, object or situation  Learned beliefs, such as, “you need to work long hours to get ahead in this job”, lead to attitudes that have an impact on behavior in the workplace.  It is basically a mental process of evaluation
  12. 12. Affective Component  Refers to a person’s feelings that result from his or her beliefs  A person who believes hard work earns promotions may feel anger or frustration when he or she works hard but is not promoted.  Blood pressure & body language reflects changes in emotions
  13. 13. Behavioral Component  Refers to the individual’s behavior that occurs as a result of his feelings about persons, objects, things  An individual may complain, request a transfer, or be less productive because he feels dissatisfied with work.  The behavioral component of an attitude can be measured by observing behavior or by asking a person about behavior or intentions
  14. 14.  Job Satisfaction- happens when a job fulfils the attainment of individual goals & dissatisfaction occurs when the job blocks such attainment. It refers to an individual’s general attitude towards his job. High level of job satisfaction leads to better performances & a positive attitude towards his job.  Job Involvement- it is the degree to which a person actively participates in the proceedings of his job. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with & really care about the kind of work they do.  Organisational Commitment- Is the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organisation & its goals & wishes to maintain membership in the organisation. High organisational commitment means identifying with one’s employing organisation. Attitudes, Values, Ethics And Job Satisfaction
  15. 15.  Direct Experience- attitudes can develop from a personally rewarding & punishing experience with an object. Attitudes that are not learned from direct experience are not available & therefore we do not recall them easily.  Classical Conditioning – people develop associations between various objects & the emotional reactions that accompany them  Operant Conditioning- Attitudes that are re in forced tend to be maintained.  Vicarious Learning- in which a person learns something through the observance of others  Social Learning- Opinions formed from social interactions  Social learning can take place through the following ways  The Family: through imitation of parents  Peer Groups: friend circle have a deep impact on the minds of individuals  Modelling: by observing others
  16. 16. ATTITUDE VALUE 1. Attitudes exhibit predisposition to respond. 1. Values represent judgemental ideas like what is right. 2. Attitudes refer to several beliefs relating to a specific object or situation. 2. Values represent single belief focused on objects or situations. 3. Attitudes are one’s personal experiences. 3. Values are derived from social and cultural mores. Differences Attitudes, Values, Ethics And Job Satisfaction
  17. 17.  A positive attitude towards one’s job is known as job satisfaction  It is basically an emotional response to a job situation  It is a result of employee’s perception of how well their job offers those things which are viewed as important
  18. 18.  The work itself: the extent to which the job offers the individual with interesting tasks & opportunities for learning  Pay: the amount of financial remuneration received  Promotion opportunities: the chances of career growth  Supervision: the amount of technical help provided by superior  Coworkers: the degree to which fellow workers are technically helpful  Working conditions: clean, attractive surroundings in which work is actually carried out
  19. 19.  Impacts mental health: Job satisfaction helps in psychological adjustment & happy living of a person  Influences physical well being: dissatisfaction leads to stress which upsets the health of an individual  Company goodwill: people who feel positively about their work life are likely to voice favorable opinions about the company to the general public  Reduces turnover: a happy & satisfied individual can find it easy to stay with the company for a long time
  20. 20.  Innovative jobs: people are more satisfied with jobs which they enjoy rather than those that are dull & boring  Fair rewards: people who believe that their organization's pay systems are fair tend to be more satisfied with their jobs  Jobs that match interest: the more people find that they are able to fulfill their interests while on the job, the more they will be satisfied with the jobs  Challenging assignment: most people like jobs that are interesting to handle & challenging to confront

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