Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas
Excel Books
7 – 1
C7
Basic
Motivation
Concepts
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas
Excel Books
7 – 2
C7Introduction
Motivation is the pro...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas
Excel Books
7 – 3
C7Properties of Motivation
 It is a...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas
Excel Books
7 – 4
C7Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas
Excel Books
7 – 5
C7Early Theories of Motivation
 Hie...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas
Excel Books
7 – 6
C7A. Hierarchy of Needs
Theory by Ab...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas
Excel Books
7 – 7
C7Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Needs
Hi...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
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Excel Books
7 – 8
C7B. The Motivation-Hygiene Theory o...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
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Excel Books
7 – 9
C7Traditional View:
 Job satisfacti...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
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Excel Books
7 – 10
C7Hygiene factors :
 Job dissatisf...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
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Excel Books
7 – 11
C7C. Expectancy Theory by Victor Vr...
Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS
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C7
Key components of this theory
• ...
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C7
 Model for the Expectancy Theor...
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C7Conclusion
Motivation is one of t...
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Motivation by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

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Motivation by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

  1. 1. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 1 C7 Basic Motivation Concepts
  2. 2. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 2 C7Introduction Motivation is the process of rousing and sustaining goal-directed behaviour. Motivation is one of the more complex topics in organizational behaviour. Because motivation is an internal force, we cannot measure the motivation of others directly.  Gray Starke “Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action”.  Stephen P Robbins “ We define motivation as the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual needs”. Basic Motivation Concepts
  3. 3. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 3 C7Properties of Motivation  It is an individual phenomenon – each individual is unique & thus their motivation factors are different & unique  Motivation is intentional – when an employee does something, it is because he or she has chosen to do it  Motivation has many facets – there are different aspects of motivation, how it is directed, when to use it etc  The purpose of motivation theories is to predict behaviour- motivation is what causes behaviour, if the behaviour is effective high performance will result Basic Motivation Concepts
  4. 4. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 4 C7Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES INTRINSIC MOTIVATION An activity is pursued as an end in itself because it is enjoyable and rewarding A person anonymously donates a large sum of money to a university to fund scholarship for deserving students A child reads several books each week because reading is fun EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION An activity is pursued to gain an external reward or to avoid an undesirable consequence A person agrees to donate a large sum of money to a university for the construction of a building, provided it will bear the family name. A child reads two books each week to avoid loosing television privileges. Source: - Samuel E Wood and Ellen Green Wood “The World of Psychology” Allyn and Bacen, Boston (2nd Edition) 1996 page 36. Basic Motivation Concepts
  5. 5. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 5 C7Early Theories of Motivation  Hierarchy of Needs Theory.  The Motivation-Hygiene Theory  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Basic Motivation Concepts
  6. 6. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 6 C7A. Hierarchy of Needs Theory by Abraham Maslow (1) Physiological Needs Need to satisfies the basic biological needs for food water, oxygen, sleep and elimination of bodily wastes (4) Esteem needs - Needs to achieve to gain competence to gin respect & precaution from others (3) Social Needs-Belongingness and love needs need to love and be loved need to affiliate with others and be accepted (2) Safety & Security Needs Need for safety and security Basic Motivation Concepts
  7. 7. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 7 C7Hierarchy of Needs Theory Needs Hierarchy Self-Actualization Needs Challenging projects, opportunities for innovation and creativity, training Esteem Needs Important projects, recognition, prestigious office location Belongingness Needs Good coworkers, peers, superiors customers Safety Needs Job security; benefits, like life insurance; safety regulations Physiological Needs Basic pay, work space, heat, water, company cafeteria Basic Motivation Concepts
  8. 8. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 8 C7B. The Motivation-Hygiene Theory or Two Factor Theory by Fredrick Herzberg Motivators Hygiene Factors Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Satisfaction No Satisfaction No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s View Source:- Stephen P Robbins “Organization Behavior – Concepts, Controversies, Applications” (seventh Edition) 1996 page 217 Basic Motivation Concepts
  9. 9. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 9 C7Traditional View:  Job satisfaction was one dimensional, that is, job satisfaction & dissatisfaction were viewed as opposite ends of the same line  This meant that if something caused job satisfaction , it would cause dissatisfaction as well if it is to be removed  But later on Herzberg discovered that this view was incorrect Herzberg’s view:  Work conditions related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain were labeled as hygiene factors  Work conditions related to satisfaction for psychological growth were labeled as motivation factors Basic Motivation Concepts
  10. 10. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 10 C7Hygiene factors :  Job dissatisfaction occurs when the hygiene factors are absent  However presence of these factors does not lead to higher level of satisfaction  These consists of bare minimum necessities without which an individual cannot survive  Example: Company policy, technical supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, salary & status Motivation factors :  High degree of job satisfaction occurs due to the presence of these factors  However the absence does not lead to dissatisfaction  Example: Responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement & the work itself  These factors help individuals grow & develop professionally Basic Motivation Concepts
  11. 11. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 11 C7C. Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom This theory states that a person’s motivation to behave in a certain way is determined by:  Outcomes the person sees as desirable and  The person’s belief that these desired outcomes can be attained. Basic Motivation Concepts
  12. 12. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 12 C7 Key components of this theory • Valence: is the value or importance that an individual places on a particular reward. The valence of an outcome is positive when an individual desires it • Expectancy: is the belief that efforts will lead to performance, “if I try harder, I can do better”. It establishes a relationship between a given level of efforts &performance • Instrumentality: Is the belief that performance is related to rewards. For example: “If I perform better, I will get more pay”
  13. 13. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 13 C7  Model for the Expectancy Theory Perceived Effort- Performance Probability Perceived Performance reward probability Perceived value of Reward Basic Motivation Concepts Effort Performance Reward What are my chances of getting the job done if I give the right efforts What are my chances of getting the rewards I value, if I complete the job satisfactorily What rewards do I value
  14. 14. Organizational BEHAVIOUR, P G AQUINAS Copyright © 2006, P G Aquinas Excel Books 7 – 14 C7Conclusion Motivation is one of the most frequently researched topics in OB. A number of motivation theories provide an insight into what motivation is. Motivation in the organisational context is concerned with effort towards organisational goals. Therefore effort that is directed toward and consistent with the organisational goals is the basis for out study of motivation. Motivation has a persistent dimension. Motivated employees stay with a task long enough to achieve their goals. Basic Motivation Concepts

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