Fundamentals of Computer
Applications
Shaveta
Assistant Professor
CSE
SHARDA University
Defining Computers
The Computer Defined
 Electronic device
 Converts data into information
 Modern computers are digital
Two digits combi...
The Computer Defined
 Older computers were analog
A range of values made data
Defining Computers 4
Shaveta
The Computer Defined
 Older computers were analog
A more manageable type -- the old-fashioned slide rule
Defining Comput...
Basic Organization of Computer
6Defining Computers
Shaveta
CPU
 It is a core component of the computer. It executes user’s
instructions and processes calculations.
 Like the chief...
Basic units of CPU
It has basically to main units
 CU(Control Unit)
 ALU(Arithmetic and Logic Unit)
Control
unit
Arithme...
Control Unit
 The control unit executes the instructions, sends control
signals to and receive control signals from perip...
Arithmetic and Logic Unit
Arithmetic and
Logic Unit
Arithmetic unit
Logic unit
handles arithmetic
calculations
performs lo...
Registers
 When the control unit and the arithmetic and logic unit
operate, they store the information and instruction te...
Program Executions
 The diagram shows how the CPU executes an instruction:
Main memory
Fetch
Arithmetic and
logic unit
Co...
Fetching
Program Executions
 The control unit gets the next program instruction from the
main memory.
Decoding
 The cont...
Executing
Program Executions
 The ALU executes arithmetic and logical instructions.
It means that the ALU controls and pe...
Classification of Computers
Computers for Individual Use
 Computers can
be shared by
multiple users
but can be used
by only one
person at a time.
1A-...
Computers for Individual Use
 Although PCs are used by individuals,
they also can be connected together to create network...
Computers for Individual Use
 Desktop computers
The most common type of computer
Sits on the desk or floor
Performs a ...
Computers for Individual Use
 Desktop computers
Different design types
1A-
19Defining Computers
Shaveta
Computers for Individual Use
 Workstations
Specialized computers
Optimized for science or graphics
More powerful than ...
Computers for Individual Use
 Notebook computers
Small portable computers
Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds
1A-
21Defining ...
Computers for Individual Use
 Notebook computers
About 8 ½ by 11 inches
Typically as powerful as a desktop
1A-
22Defini...
Computers for Individual Use
 Tablet computers
Newest development
in portable
computers
Input is through
a pen
Run spe...
Computers for Individual Use
 Handheld computers, palm computer
Very small computers
Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)
...
Computers for Individual Use
 Smart phones
Hybrid of cell
phone and PDA
Web surfing,
E-mail access
1A-25Defining Compu...
Computers for Organizations
 Network servers
Centralized computer
All other computers connect
1A-
26Defining Computers
...
Computers for Organizations
 Network servers
Flexibility to different kinds of tasks
1A-
27
Computers for OrganizationsC...
Computers for Organizations
 Network servers
Users use the Internet as a means of connecting
even if away from the offic...
Computers for Organizations
 Mainframes
Used in large organizations
Handle thousands of users
Users access through a t...
Computers for Organizations
 Mainframes
Large and powerful systems
1A-
30Defining Computers
Shaveta
Computers for Organizations
 Minicomputers
Called midrange computers
Power between mainframe and desktop
Handle hundre...
Computers for Organizations
 Supercomputers
The most powerful
computers made
Handle large and
complex calculations
Pro...
Computers in Society
 More impact than any other invention
Changed work and leisure activities
Used by all demographic ...
Computers in Society
 Impact of computers
Like the Impact of automobile
1A-
34Defining Computers
Shaveta
Computers in Society
 The benefits of using computers
As varied as users
1A-
35Defining Computers
Shaveta
Computers in Society
 Computers at home
Many homes have multiple computers
Computers are used for Communication
1A-
36D...
Computers in Society
 Computers at home
Computers are used for
Business
Entertainment
Schoolwork
Finances
1A-
37Defi...
Computers in Society
 Computers in education
Computer literacy required at all levels
1A-
38Defining Computers
Shaveta
Computers in Society
 Computers in small business
Makes businesses more profitable
Allows owners to manage
1A-
39Defini...
Computers in Society
 Computers in industry
Computers are
 used to design
 products
Assembly
 lines are
 automated
...
Computers in Society
 Computers in government
Necessary to track data for population
Police officers
Tax calculation a...
Computers in Society
 Computers in health care
Revolutionized health care
New treatments possible
Scheduling of patien...
Memory
 Memory refers to the physical devices used to store programs
(sequences of instructions) or data (e.g. program st...
 The term "storage" is often (but not always) used in separate
computers of traditional secondary memory such as tape, ma...
Classification of Memory
Memory
Volatile Non-Volatile
computer memory that requires
power to maintain the stored
informati...
Full Form Type Function
RAM Read and Write
Memory
Volatile RAM is a form of data storage that can be
accessed randomly at ...
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Fundamental of computers by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

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Fundamental of computers by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Computer Applications Shaveta Assistant Professor CSE SHARDA University
  2. 2. Defining Computers
  3. 3. The Computer Defined  Electronic device  Converts data into information  Modern computers are digital Two digits combine to make data (0, 1) Defining Computers 3 Shaveta
  4. 4. The Computer Defined  Older computers were analog A range of values made data Defining Computers 4 Shaveta
  5. 5. The Computer Defined  Older computers were analog A more manageable type -- the old-fashioned slide rule Defining Computers 5 Shaveta
  6. 6. Basic Organization of Computer 6Defining Computers Shaveta
  7. 7. CPU  It is a core component of the computer. It executes user’s instructions and processes calculations.  Like the chief commander of the army, the CPU controls and coordinates various devices in the computer system.  Without the CPU, the devices cannot work together and so the computer cannot function.  It is often a etched on a chip and is usually called a microprocessor. 7Defining Computers Shaveta
  8. 8. Basic units of CPU It has basically to main units  CU(Control Unit)  ALU(Arithmetic and Logic Unit) Control unit Arithmetic and logic unit Some registers 8Defining Computers Shaveta
  9. 9. Control Unit  The control unit executes the instructions, sends control signals to and receive control signals from peripheral devices.  In other words, it controls the whole computer, and directs the entire system to carry out instructions. 9Defining Computers Shaveta
  10. 10. Arithmetic and Logic Unit Arithmetic and Logic Unit Arithmetic unit Logic unit handles arithmetic calculations performs logical calculations and makes judgement like “if A > B is true”. 10Defining Computers Shaveta
  11. 11. Registers  When the control unit and the arithmetic and logic unit operate, they store the information and instruction temporarily in registers. 11Defining Computers Shaveta
  12. 12. Program Executions  The diagram shows how the CPU executes an instruction: Main memory Fetch Arithmetic and logic unit Control unit ExecuteDecode This is called machine cycle. Shaveta 12Defining Computers  Before a computer executes instructions, they are first placed in the main memory.
  13. 13. Fetching Program Executions  The control unit gets the next program instruction from the main memory. Decoding  The control unit decodes what the instruction means. Shaveta 13Defining Computers
  14. 14. Executing Program Executions  The ALU executes arithmetic and logical instructions. It means that the ALU controls and performs the actual operation on the data. Shaveta 14Defining Computers
  15. 15. Classification of Computers
  16. 16. Computers for Individual Use  Computers can be shared by multiple users but can be used by only one person at a time. 1A- 16Defining Computers Shaveta
  17. 17. Computers for Individual Use  Although PCs are used by individuals, they also can be connected together to create networks. 1A- 17Defining Computers Shaveta
  18. 18. Computers for Individual Use  Desktop computers The most common type of computer Sits on the desk or floor Performs a variety of tasks 1A- 18Defining Computers Shaveta
  19. 19. Computers for Individual Use  Desktop computers Different design types 1A- 19Defining Computers Shaveta
  20. 20. Computers for Individual Use  Workstations Specialized computers Optimized for science or graphics More powerful than a desktop 1A- 20Defining Computers Shaveta
  21. 21. Computers for Individual Use  Notebook computers Small portable computers Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds 1A- 21Defining Computers Shaveta
  22. 22. Computers for Individual Use  Notebook computers About 8 ½ by 11 inches Typically as powerful as a desktop 1A- 22Defining Computers Shaveta
  23. 23. Computers for Individual Use  Tablet computers Newest development in portable computers Input is through a pen Run specialized versions of office products 23Defining Computers Shaveta
  24. 24. Computers for Individual Use  Handheld computers, palm computer Very small computers Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) Note taking or contact management Data can synchronize with a desktop 1A- 24Defining Computers Shaveta
  25. 25. Computers for Individual Use  Smart phones Hybrid of cell phone and PDA Web surfing, E-mail access 1A-25Defining Computers Shaveta
  26. 26. Computers for Organizations  Network servers Centralized computer All other computers connect 1A- 26Defining Computers Shaveta
  27. 27. Computers for Organizations  Network servers Flexibility to different kinds of tasks 1A- 27 Computers for OrganizationsComputers for Organizations Defining Computers Shaveta
  28. 28. Computers for Organizations  Network servers Users use the Internet as a means of connecting even if away from the offices. 1A- 28Defining Computers Shaveta
  29. 29. Computers for Organizations  Mainframes Used in large organizations Handle thousands of users Users access through a terminal Shaveta
  30. 30. Computers for Organizations  Mainframes Large and powerful systems 1A- 30Defining Computers Shaveta
  31. 31. Computers for Organizations  Minicomputers Called midrange computers Power between mainframe and desktop Handle hundreds of users Used in smaller organizations Users access through a terminal 1A- 31Defining Computers Shaveta
  32. 32. Computers for Organizations  Supercomputers The most powerful computers made Handle large and complex calculations Process trillions of operations per second Found in research organizations Shaveta
  33. 33. Computers in Society  More impact than any other invention Changed work and leisure activities Used by all demographic groups  Computers are important because: Provide information to users Information is critical to our society Managing information is difficult 1A- 33Defining Computers Shaveta
  34. 34. Computers in Society  Impact of computers Like the Impact of automobile 1A- 34Defining Computers Shaveta
  35. 35. Computers in Society  The benefits of using computers As varied as users 1A- 35Defining Computers Shaveta
  36. 36. Computers in Society  Computers at home Many homes have multiple computers Computers are used for Communication 1A- 36Defining Computers Shaveta
  37. 37. Computers in Society  Computers at home Computers are used for Business Entertainment Schoolwork Finances 1A- 37Defining Computers Shaveta
  38. 38. Computers in Society  Computers in education Computer literacy required at all levels 1A- 38Defining Computers Shaveta
  39. 39. Computers in Society  Computers in small business Makes businesses more profitable Allows owners to manage 1A- 39Defining Computers Shaveta
  40. 40. Computers in Society  Computers in industry Computers are  used to design  products Assembly  lines are  automated 1A- 40Defining Computers Shaveta
  41. 41. Computers in Society  Computers in government Necessary to track data for population Police officers Tax calculation and collection Governments were the first computer users 1A- 41Defining Computers Shaveta
  42. 42. Computers in Society  Computers in health care Revolutionized health care New treatments possible Scheduling of patients has improved Delivery of medicine is safer 1A- 42Defining Computers Shaveta
  43. 43. Memory  Memory refers to the physical devices used to store programs (sequences of instructions) or data (e.g. program state information) on a temporary or permanent basis for use in a computer or other digital electronic device.  Primary memory is used for the information in physical systems which are fast (i.e. RAM), as a distinction from Secondary memory, which are physical devices for program and data storage which are slow to access but offer higher memory capacity. Primary memory stored on secondary memory is called "virtual memory". 43Defining Computers Shaveta
  44. 44.  The term "storage" is often (but not always) used in separate computers of traditional secondary memory such as tape, magnetic disks and optical discs (CD-ROM and DVD-ROM). The term "memory" is often (but not always) associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i.e. integrated circuits consisting of silicon-based transistors, used for example as primary memory but also other purposes in computers and other digital electronic devices.  There are two main types of semiconductor memory: volatile and non-volatile. Examples of non-volatile memory are flash memory (sometimes used as secondary, sometimes primary computer memory) and ROM/PROM/EPROM/EEPROM memory (used for firmware such as boot programs). Examples of volatile memory are primary memory (typically dynamic RAM, DRAM), and fast CPU cache memory (typically static RAM, SRAM, which is fast but energy-consuming and offer lower memory capacity per area unit than DRAM) . 44Defining Computers Shaveta
  45. 45. Classification of Memory Memory Volatile Non-Volatile computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information. computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. •RAM •DRAM (e.g., DDR SDRAM) •SRAM •Cache •ROM •PROM •EPROM •EEPROM •Flash memory 45Defining Computers Shaveta
  46. 46. Full Form Type Function RAM Read and Write Memory Volatile RAM is a form of data storage that can be accessed randomly at any time, in any order and from any physical location. DRAM Dynamic RAM Volatile that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. SRAM Static RAM Volatile Each bit in an SRAM is stored on four transistors (M1, M2, M3, M4) that form two cross-coupled inverters CACHE Volatile Cache is a kind of RAM which a computer system can access more responsively than it can in regular RAM. ROM Read only Memory Non-Volatile Read-only memory or ROM is also a form of data storage that can not be easily altered or reprogrammed. PROM Programmable read-only memory Non-Volatile is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse. EPROM Erasable programmable read only memory Non-Volatile is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off FLASH Non-Volatile which is intended to contribute to portable storage and a convenient transfer of data from one computer to another. 46Defining Computers

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