Impact of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Mining on Biodiversity & Climate In Korba & Raigarh District In Chhattisgarh Neeraj Paras...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Ekta Parishad </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Science and Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Adarsh Navyu...
Abstract <ul><li>In order to sensitize the critical issue of Coal Bed Methane Mining Project in Korba and Raigarh of Chhat...
Contents <ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Background of the problem </li></ul><ul><li...
Introduction & Background of the Problem <ul><li>Tribal Population of Korba and Raigarh residing in the   Nationalized res...
Purpose of the study  <ul><li>This study will help people and organizations to take account of local scenario of Korba and...
Significance of the study <ul><li>The study shares a local case study of the change in climate and environment and how it ...
Research Question <ul><li>“ What would be the impact of Coal Bed Methane Mining Project in Korba and Raigarh District of C...
Hypothesis of the study <ul><li>These are hypotheses taken for the study: </li></ul><ul><li>Coal Bed Methane Mining will s...
Methodology <ul><li>Qualitative research, where hypothesis is explored and discussed during the course of study. </li></ul...
Methodology: Qualitative Tools Used <ul><li>Focus Group Study </li></ul><ul><li>Experts advice </li></ul><ul><li>Internet ...
Methodology: Quantitative Tools Used <ul><li>MS Excel and SPSS </li></ul><ul><li>Fishbone Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Histog...
Methodology <ul><li>Qualitative research, where hypothesis is explored and discussed during the course of study. </li></ul...
Demographics <ul><ul><li>Region for study:  Local Region of Korba and Raigarh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Profili...
Coal Bed Methane Mining
Emission of methane (CH4) Methane emission from coal mining depends on the mining methods, depth of coal mining, coal qual...
Statistics <ul><li>Hospital Data </li></ul><ul><li>Whether Department Data </li></ul><ul><li>EIA report </li></ul><ul><li>...
Statistics <ul><li>Global Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Global Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Experts View </li></ul><ul><li>...
Environment Impact Assessment Report on CBM for Korba and Raigarh <ul><li>Area: 634 sq km of Raigarh & Korba dist. </li></...
Impact on biodiversity:   <ul><li>Impacts on biodiversity is poorly presented in the EIA.  on forest cover - for instance ...
CBM Mining Holes and Depth <ul><li>Misleading information on well depth - Executive summary states depth of each well vari...
Information provided in EIA Report on land use pattern 100 1.15 1.3 8 14.5 33.5 42.5 % of Study area in Executive Summary ...
Impact on water <ul><li>Methane extraction involves extraction of large quantity of water.  The main issue with water qual...
Risk assessment and disaster management   <ul><li>Risk assessment and disaster management plant is an important aspect par...
What is coal bed methane? <ul><li>Standard natural gas: CH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Methane forms along with coal </li></ul><ul...
How is CBM Removed? <ul><li>CBM is removed by removing water pressure which holds CBM in place.  Methane that was held in ...
Gas Water (production  fluid) Coal Bed
 
Process of Developing CBM <ul><li>Relieve pressure to release methane by removing water </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic wells c...
 
Pumping from wells lowers the water table.  This area is known as the cone of depression.  Groundwater flow is diverted to...
Stakeholders View – Community Perception
Stakeholders View- CBO /NGO
Coal Bed Methane Mining – Soil Contamination The major source of water pollution in the coal mines is the carry over of th...
Air Pollution <ul><li>Increase in temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in climate and weather </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutio...
Distress Migration Korba and Raigarh is hotspot of industrial migration
Deforestation <ul><li>Steel Plants, Thermal Power companies and Mining companies have changed the biodiversity of the regi...
Other Problems <ul><li>Noise Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Overburden management </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidence management (cr...
Living on the edge- Tribal
Naxalism
Coal Bed Methane Mining  Stalemate with Communities, Pressure groups and Vacuum of Govt. Policies
Hypothesis Testing <ul><li>These are hypotheses taken for the study: </li></ul><ul><li>Coal Bed Methane Mining will signif...
Key Findings  <ul><li>EIA report should be freshly drafted for MoEF. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Technology be opted </li><...
Key Findings & Way forward <ul><li>National Green Tribunal Bill to be tabled. </li></ul>
Effluent Standards   <ul><li>The standards for effluent discharge into sewer/stream/land, are given below : </li></ul><ul>...
CLEAN COAL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>The most popular of these technologies are Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC). </li...
News Standards of CBM in Canada and North America <ul><li>Companies will not be allowed to surface discharge produced wate...
Bibliography and References <ul><li>Industrial Development and Displacement: The People of Korba - By  Vasudha   Dhagamwar...
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"IMPACT OF COAL BED METHANE MINING IN KORBA AND RAIGARH DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH" - Envirenmental Cause

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Neeraj Parashar, has presented a case study on Coal Bed Methane Mining in Korba and Raigarh District of Chhattisgarh State, India to draw attention how EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) Reports are rigged to seek approval for greenfield projects in Ministry of Environment and Forest.

Published in: News & Politics

"IMPACT OF COAL BED METHANE MINING IN KORBA AND RAIGARH DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH" - Envirenmental Cause

  1. 1. Impact of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Mining on Biodiversity & Climate In Korba & Raigarh District In Chhattisgarh Neeraj Parashar Prtyancha Education & Welfare Society, Bhopal (Research paper read in Feb, 2010, at International Conference on “Land-Water Resources, Biodiversity and Climate Change” at BSSS College, Bhopal)
  2. 2. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Ekta Parishad </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Science and Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Adarsh Navyuvak Mandal </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Ritu Ghosh, UNDP, MPCG. </li></ul><ul><li>Kelo Pravah, Local Newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Community leaders of Korba and Raigarh </li></ul>
  3. 3. Abstract <ul><li>In order to sensitize the critical issue of Coal Bed Methane Mining Project in Korba and Raigarh of Chhattisgarh, this research work was conducted by Neeraj Parashar, Prtyancha Education and Social Welfare Society, an NGO, in association with, local NGOs of Korba and Raigarh like Ekta Parishad . This study highlights present and possible affects of CBM project through qualitative and quantitative assessment of secondary data like EIA report submitted in Union Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) and its own ground observations. Key findings of the study, on the basis of globally accepted parameters of climate change and biodiversity, precisely indicates the existence/possibility of critical factors which further lead to risk of public health, contamination of soil, water and air, climate change and damage to biodiversity of Korba and Raigarh district. This study aims to draw attention of government and environmental agencies towards such toxic development and its long term impact on a large number of population . It will also give an academic conformation of the efforts of community protest for this CBM project. This paper compiles all the aspects of this project and stakeholders response which it can cover in 1 month of study and 5 member team. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Contents <ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Background of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Key Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Annexure </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction & Background of the Problem <ul><li>Tribal Population of Korba and Raigarh residing in the Nationalized resources (Mines and Forest) having are at risk of conventional forest based living, similarly agro-based rural population have also started to migrate owing to loss of soil fertility and contamination of water due to extensive mining . </li></ul><ul><li>For the last 70 years in both the regions Raigarh and Korba district coal bed mining is undergoing but, with replacement of gas as fuel over oil, has opened a new phase of imperialistic exploitation, where local population have to involuntarily sacrifice public health and their natural resources on the name of national interest, against which no rehabilitation mechanism supports them in misery, resulting in revolts like naxalism and instances of Mass Migration and Calamities. This study tries to highlight the eye witness account through qualitative and quantitative tools to fathom the miseries of local population with respect to climate change, biodiversity and intoxication of land and water resources. The Chhattisgarh State before its formation in 2001 and after, persistently exploited by outside population and industrial interest, COAL BED METHANE MINING is actually opens a new chapter of risk of public health and damage to climate and biodiversity of Korba and Raigarh region against the greed and myopic vision of government and industrialized world. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Purpose of the study <ul><li>This study will help people and organizations to take account of local scenario of Korba and Raigarh of climate change and damage to biodiversity, water and land resources with CBM mining project. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitize communities globally to aware and unite to protest against CBM Mining risk and their after effects. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Significance of the study <ul><li>The study shares a local case study of the change in climate and environment and how it risk of communities’ existence. It also provide an exploratory overview of the situation in a scenario that can form an opinion about climate change effects in long term and short term. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities will be made aware of their practices and consequences thereof, its will also help them to develop new system and practices to establish balance between nature and modern developmental path. </li></ul><ul><li>Help Government to formulate policies and regulations protecting the interest of local population while mainstreaming their interest with modern developmental initiatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict bottlenecks and streamlining resolutions are suggested to protect all stakeholders interest. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research Question <ul><li>“ What would be the impact of Coal Bed Methane Mining Project in Korba and Raigarh District of Chhattisgarh ” </li></ul><ul><li>This study tries to find out indicators and parameters to draw a picture of affects that CBM project will cause in this region. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hypothesis of the study <ul><li>These are hypotheses taken for the study: </li></ul><ul><li>Coal Bed Methane Mining will significantly impact the biodiversity, climate, land and water resources of Korba and Raigarh. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a conflict of interest between stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Aspects of CBM mining is ignored over Industrial and Economic Interest. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Methodology <ul><li>Qualitative research, where hypothesis is explored and discussed during the course of study. </li></ul><ul><li>The study is concluded by taking qualitative and quantitative data and inputs, covering all relevant aspects of the case study. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Methodology: Qualitative Tools Used <ul><li>Focus Group Study </li></ul><ul><li>Experts advice </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Search </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Root Cause Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Review of Secondary literature </li></ul><ul><li>Community Networks </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methodology: Quantitative Tools Used <ul><li>MS Excel and SPSS </li></ul><ul><li>Fishbone Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Histogram </li></ul><ul><li>Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Pie Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Field Visits </li></ul>
  13. 13. Methodology <ul><li>Qualitative research, where hypothesis is explored and discussed during the course of study. </li></ul><ul><li>The study is concluded by taking qualitative and quantitative data and inputs, covering all relevant aspects of the case study. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Demographics <ul><ul><li>Region for study: Local Region of Korba and Raigarh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Profiling: On the basis of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Occupation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caste and Ancestral Background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholders Aspects Account </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Communities changing living pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases </li></ul><ul><li>Modern lifestyle and environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial production and global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources, mining, water and land </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation ecological balance </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Flaura and Fauna threat </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal Population, Chhattisgarh </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination of Kello and Parvati River </li></ul><ul><li>Community Health a </li></ul><ul><li>Weather and Temperature </li></ul>
  15. 15. Coal Bed Methane Mining
  16. 16. Emission of methane (CH4) Methane emission from coal mining depends on the mining methods, depth of coal mining, coal quality and entrapped gas content in coal seams. An estimate of methane gas emission per tonne of coal production is given in Estimate of methane emission in coal mining [Sou: The climate change Agenda - An Indian Perspective - TERI - 1993] Degree I :A seam in which the inflammable gas in the general body of air at any place in the underground working exceed 0.1% and rate of emission of gas is less than 1 m3 per tonne of coal mined. Degree II :A seam in which the inflammable gas in the general body of air at any place in the underground working exceed 0.1% and rate of emission of gas is less than 1 m3 per tonne of coal mined or rate of emission of gas 1 m3 per tonne or more but less than 10 m3 per tonne of coal mined. Degree III : A seam in which the rate of emission of gas in more than 10 m3 per tonne of coal mined.
  17. 17. Statistics <ul><li>Hospital Data </li></ul><ul><li>Whether Department Data </li></ul><ul><li>EIA report </li></ul><ul><li>Ekta Parishad Data </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group Study </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Data </li></ul><ul><li>Migration Tendency and Data </li></ul><ul><li>Naxalites Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries similar situations </li></ul>
  18. 18. Statistics <ul><li>Global Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Global Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Experts View </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>General Community Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Government Policies for Green Projects </li></ul><ul><li>CBO/ NGO view point </li></ul><ul><li>International Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits Rendered </li></ul>
  19. 19. Environment Impact Assessment Report on CBM for Korba and Raigarh <ul><li>Area: 634 sq km of Raigarh & Korba dist. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies: Arrow energy, Australian based company along with consortium partners GAL (India) and Swedish infrastructure company EIG (Energy infrastructure group) at Raigarh. </li></ul><ul><li>EIA report prepared by New Delhi-based Asian Consulting Engineers Private Limited Pvt Ltd. for this proposed greenfield site. </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of Reference as per MoEF : not addresses potential impacts on various physical, social and biological environment and try to mitigate by possible means but prepared EIA report failed to address significant issues such impact of CBM extraction on local and regional hydrology due to extraction of high quantity of water, impact of polluted water (CBM extracted water) on forest, agricultures, water bodies and on biodiversity. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Impact on biodiversity: <ul><li>Impacts on biodiversity is poorly presented in the EIA.  on forest cover - for instance executive summary states dense vegetation coverage is 8 %, soft copy of the EIA report provided to regulatory agency states 33.63 % of land is under dense vegetation, EIA report in hard copy states 34.8 %  – Three report of the same project gives three different information. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 59 % of the total land of proposed project is forest land, inspite of above, biodiversity assessment was undertaken very leniently and provided misleading information for instance, according to the EIA report, only wild animals found in the study area includes bear, hyena, monkey, leopard, fox and jackel and EIA report concluded that, “no rare and endangered animals species are found” (see 4.7.3.1, page4-18). However, out of above listed animals both leopard and bear fall in schedule 1 – it means animals are under threat and need immediate protection further leopard has been declared as rare and endangered animals. </li></ul>
  21. 21. CBM Mining Holes and Depth <ul><li>Misleading information on well depth - Executive summary states depth of each well varies from 200 m - 1000 m below the ground level. However EIA report says the well depth will be 600 to 800 meter. This is a clear indication of carelessness and lack of environmental sensitivity. </li></ul><ul><li>The proposed project is planned to dig 8 core hole and five productions well as it is mentioned in the executive summary, however in the EIA report at none of the place they have mentioned about the production well. Moreover, the both executive summary and EIA report failed to earmarked the location of the holes. This is important because, large part of the exploration area is under forest. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Information provided in EIA Report on land use pattern 100 1.15 1.3 8 14.5 33.5 42.5 % of Study area in Executive Summary Total Water Bodies Village Pockets Dense Vegetation Agricultural Land Sparse Vegetation Open Space Land Use 100 5.47 river and 1.15 lake 6. 1.92 5. 4.47 4. 15.56 3. 33.63 2. 42.05 1. % of Study Area in EIA S. No.  
  23. 23. Impact on water <ul><li>Methane extraction involves extraction of large quantity of water. The main issue with water quality is the amount of total dissolved solids (TDS) , consisting of sodium, calcium, magnesium, ammonia, selenium, boron, iron, radium, fluoride and various metals. However EIA report failed to provide information on quantity and quality of CBM water. According to one published literature - In the Powder River Basin the majority of CBM wells produce water with less than 5,000 mg/l total dissolved solids. It clearly indicates CBM water has high salt content. Further salt level increase with the increase in the depth of the well. However EIA report is completely silent on CBM water characteristic. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Risk assessment and disaster management <ul><li>Risk assessment and disaster management plant is an important aspect particularly in case of gas, which is flammable and explosive. As methane possesses flammable and explosive characteristic, this assessment become more important especially when majority of land is under forest and occupied by human habitation. EIA report has failed to assess the risk and disaster associated with storage of methane and pipelines once the well starts producing methane on commercial scale. </li></ul><ul><li>This clearly shows that the EIA has failed to capture significant impact associated with methane exploration and production. </li></ul>
  25. 25. What is coal bed methane? <ul><li>Standard natural gas: CH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Methane forms along with coal </li></ul><ul><li>It is held in the cleats with the coal </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial water pressure needed to keep methane in the coal: 400 to 1000 ft ? </li></ul>
  26. 26. How is CBM Removed? <ul><li>CBM is removed by removing water pressure which holds CBM in place. Methane that was held in place by water pressure tends to follow the water as it is pumped to the surface, where it is captured and transported through pipelines. Fraccing fluids are often first injected into the coal bed to break up the coal, making it easier for the water and gas to flow to the surface. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Gas Water (production fluid) Coal Bed
  28. 29. Process of Developing CBM <ul><li>Relieve pressure to release methane by removing water </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic wells completed in seams produce methane due to drawdown caused by nearby pumping </li></ul><ul><li>6-7 times more natural gas than in traditional natural gas fields </li></ul>
  29. 31. Pumping from wells lowers the water table. This area is known as the cone of depression. Groundwater flow is diverted towards the well as it flows into the cone of depression.
  30. 32. Stakeholders View – Community Perception
  31. 33. Stakeholders View- CBO /NGO
  32. 34. Coal Bed Methane Mining – Soil Contamination The major source of water pollution in the coal mines is the carry over of the suspended solids in the drainage system of the mine sump water and storm water drainage. In some of the coal mines, acidic water is also found in the underground aquifers. In addition, waste water from coal preparation plant and mine water are other sources of water pollution.
  33. 35. Air Pollution <ul><li>Increase in temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in climate and weather </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution level </li></ul>
  34. 36. Distress Migration Korba and Raigarh is hotspot of industrial migration
  35. 37. Deforestation <ul><li>Steel Plants, Thermal Power companies and Mining companies have changed the biodiversity of the region </li></ul>
  36. 38. Other Problems <ul><li>Noise Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Overburden management </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidence management (cracks on surface and lowering of land) </li></ul><ul><li>Underground mine fire abatement </li></ul><ul><li>Land degradation during mining activity and its reclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation during mining activity and compensatory forestation </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned mines </li></ul>
  37. 39. Living on the edge- Tribal
  38. 40. Naxalism
  39. 41. Coal Bed Methane Mining Stalemate with Communities, Pressure groups and Vacuum of Govt. Policies
  40. 42. Hypothesis Testing <ul><li>These are hypotheses taken for the study: </li></ul><ul><li>Coal Bed Methane Mining will significantly impact the biodiversity, climate, land and water resources of Korba and Raigarh. (Correct) </li></ul><ul><li>There is a conflict of interest between stakeholders. (Not completely correct) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Aspects of CBM mining is ignored over Industrial and Economic Interest. (Correct) </li></ul>
  41. 43. Key Findings <ul><li>EIA report should be freshly drafted for MoEF. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Technology be opted </li></ul><ul><li>New standards of environmental protection be opted as globally accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Community Participation </li></ul>
  42. 44. Key Findings & Way forward <ul><li>National Green Tribunal Bill to be tabled. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Effluent Standards <ul><li>The standards for effluent discharge into sewer/stream/land, are given below : </li></ul><ul><li>PH - 5.5 to 9.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Suspended Solids - 100 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>- 200 mg/l (Land for irrigation) </li></ul><ul><li>Oil & Grease - 10 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury (Hg) - Absent </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate Nitrogen - 10 mg/l </li></ul>
  44. 46. CLEAN COAL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>The most popular of these technologies are Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC). </li></ul><ul><li>Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion Combined Cycle (PFBC). </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). </li></ul><ul><li>All these secrete lesser Sulphur, Methane and Nitrogen. </li></ul>
  45. 47. News Standards of CBM in Canada and North America <ul><li>Companies will not be allowed to surface discharge produced water. Any re-injected produced water must be injected well below any domestic water aquifer. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies must use the most advanced technology and practices that are commercially viable to minimize land and aesthetic disturbances.  </li></ul><ul><li>Companies must fully engage local communities and First Nations in all stages of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Coalbed methane is a natural gas found underground between coal seams. While the gas itself is clean, extraction may result in what is known by industry as produced water. This produced water may contain high saline and sodium content, making it unsuitable for agriculture or domestic use.  </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources Minister Richard Neufeld, Canada. </li></ul>
  46. 48. Bibliography and References <ul><li>Industrial Development and Displacement: The People of Korba - By Vasudha Dhagamwar , (Author), Subrata De , (Author), Nikhil Verma , (Author) </li></ul><ul><li>Cseindia.org, centre for science and enviorenment. </li></ul><ul><li>EIA report of Asian consultants, Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Ekta Parishad, Archieves </li></ul><ul><li>http:// cgwb.gov.in/CR/achi_hydroche_stu.html </li></ul>

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