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4G Wireless Technology 
Bhujbal Knowledge City 
MET's Institute Of Engineering 
Adgaon, Nashik - 422003. 
ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
A SEMINAR 
ON 
““4G TEHNOLOGY”” 
SUBMITTED IN 
DEPARTMENT OF MCA 
GUIDED BY 
Prof. …………………… 
PRSENTED BY 
Mr. Safal Agrawal 
MCA 
ROLL NO. ..
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
4G 
The Next Generation Wireless Network Technology
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
INDEX 
1. Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 04 
2. Wireless Area Networks -------------------------------------------------------- 05 
2.1 Major components and elements of a wireless network 
2.2 Classifications 
3. 4G Wireless Evolutions ---------------------------------------------------------- 07 
3.1 History 
3.2 1G (First Generation) 
3.3 2G (Second Generation) 
3.4 3G (Third Generation) 
3.5 Two Distinct 3G Families 
3.6 4G (Fourth Generation) 
3.7 Two Characteristics of 4G 
4. Beyond 3G --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 
5. 4G Wireless Technology ----------------------------------------------------------- 12 
5.1 Features of the 4G systems 
5.2 Fourth Generation Development 
6. 4G Architecture --------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 
6.1 4G Wireless Standards 
6.2 Wireless Networks 
6.3 Advantages of 4G Networks 
6.4 Disadvantage of 4G 
7. 4G Network Systems ------------------------------------------------------------- 17 
7.1 Potential “4G” Network Ideas 
7.2 Self-organizing Ad-hoc networks for 4G 
7.3 4G Networks Advances 
7.4 4G Investment Hotspots 
8. 4G Design Challenges ------------------------------------------------------------- 20 
8.1 Key Challenges
4G Wireless Technology 
9. The Impact of 3G & 4G Wireless Technology on Carriers 
Network Development Strategies ---------------------------------------------- 23 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
9.1 Objectives 
9.2 Principle Technologies 
9.3 Impact of 3G and 4G 
10. 4G Mobile Computing Applications ----------------------------------------- 25 
10.1 4G Mobile Network Features 
10.2 Future Outlook 
11. Technology - Parameters of 3G Vs 4G -------------------------------------- 28 
12. 4G Air Interfaces ----------------------------------------------------------------- 29 
12.1 4G Forums 
13. Summary -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 
14. Glossary --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 
15. Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 32 
16. Bibliography ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 33
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
1. INTRODUCTION 
The use of G, standing for generation in mobile technology covers the major advances of the 
past 20-30 years. Since the first generation of so-called “analogue” mobile radio networks 
was created in 1980, the mobile telephone has seen many upheavals. 1G technology involved 
the first widely available mobile phones. 2G technology, which began in the early 1990s, 
switched to a digital format and introduced text messaging. In 1991, with the appearance of 
GSM, second-generation (or 2G) mobile telephony, it became a veritable phenomenon. 
Gradually, almost everyone started to have a mobile phone. 2002 saw the arrival of UMTS, 
and 3G was born. 3G technology improved the efficiency of how data is carried, making it 
possible to carry enhanced information services such as websites in their original format. The 
latest iPhone is the best known example of 3G technology. 
To define a new generation of mobile systems that would see the 
light of day by 2010, the notion of 4G was introduced in the early 2000s. The idea was to 
perpetuate the logic of replacing one mobile generation with another every 10 years.4G 
mobile is yet established as increasing data transfer speeds, 4G mobile should use enhanced 
security measures. Another goal is to reduce blips in transmission when a device moves 
between areas covered by different networks. 4G mobile networks should also use a network 
based on the IP address system used for the internet.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
2. WIRELESS NETWORK 
Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly 
associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is 
implemented without the use of wires. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally 
implemented with some type of remote information transmission system that uses 
electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, for the carrier and this implementation usually 
takes place at the physical level or "layer" of the network. 
2.1 Major components and elements of a wireless network: 
1. Different range of wireless towers 
 Cellular towers 
 Base stations 
 Access points (APs) 
a) These antennae transceivers communicate with all types of wireless devices, 
exchange data or voice with them. 
b) They transmit that information through relays and cables eventually back to the 
wires of the Internet. 
c) Different types of wireless devices - based on radios. 
2.2 Classifications 
Types of wireless networks: 
- Wireless analog network - based on analog circuit-built connections 
- Wireless digital network - based on package-switched connections 
Three types of Wireless Internet Networks: 
- Wide Area Network (WAN) 
- Wireless Local Area Network (Wireless LAN) 
- PAN (Personal Area Network), such as Bluetooth, Infrared 
Other classifications: 
- large, public, cellular phone networks 
- private in-building wireless networks 
- room-wide networks
4G Wireless Technology 
Figure: 1 Wireless Area Networks 
Figure: 2 Wireless Personal Area Networks 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
3. 4G WIRELESS EVOLUTION 
3.1 History 
At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designed 
for users in cars to the public land-line based telephon e network. Then in the sixties, a 
system launched by Bell Systems, called IMTS, or “Improved Mobile Telephone Service", 
brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very first 
analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s. The 
systems were called "cellular" because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or 
"cells", each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. 
3.2 First Generation (1G) 
First generation analog cellular networks were built strictly for voice calls in the early 
1980s.All 1G networks are based on Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), an air 
interface that guarantees a dedicated frequency and circuit to each caller. 
The Japanese began national service in 1979. The U.S. service, Advanced Mobile Phone 
Service (AMPS), operates at 800 MHz’s each country has its own 1G air interface protocol. 
Major features: 
 Circuit-switched network 
 Analog signals 
 Voice only 
 AMPS in U.S. 
3.3 Second Generation (2G) 
 What is a 2G network? 
- The 2G networks have digital cellular air interfaces. 
- They were all brought to market in the early 1990s. 
- The 2G network includes data services, fax, and email. Almost every wireless, 
device sold in 2002 uses one of the second-generation air interfaces.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
Major features: 
 Circuit-switched network 
 Digital signals 
 Voice or data overlay 
 9 kbps or 19 kbps 
 Dial-up service 
 TDMA, CDMA, PDC, or GSM air interfaces 
3.4 Third Generation (3G) 
3G networks are designed to support digital packet cellular. 
What is a 3G network? 
3G is the wireless Internet transmitting voice, data, photos, audio and video–all bits running 
on a wireless packet-based cellular network. 
Major features: 
 Packet switched, Transport roaming. 
 Dynamic allocation of voice or data. 
 Quality sound and video. 
 Data transmission at 2 Mbps. 
 Identification of caller location. 
 W-CDMA, CDMA 2000, TDD, UWC, FDD air interfaces. 
Transparent roaming – The ability to continue a data or voice call over multiple networks 
without dropping the call. 
The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT Do Como in Japan. Although 3G 
is relatively an infant, the technology is growing fast, with more and more wireless technology 
companies developing devices with 3G capabilities, such as Nokia, Siemens and Sony Ericsson. With 
coverage over all of Europe, the USA, China, Japan, and the rest of the world, with seamless 
integration between all of these countries and more.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
3.5 Two Distinct 3G Families: 
 3GPP and 3GPP2. 
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 
3G networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows. 
 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps. 
 Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps. 
 UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps. 
 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14 Mbps. 
 LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps. 
GPRS deployments began in 2000, followed by EDGE in 2003. While these technologies are 
defined by IMT-2000, they are sometimes called "2.5G" because they did not offer multi-megabit 
data rates. 
3.6 Fourth Generation (4G) 
4G an acronym for fourth-generation wireless is a technology that will transform wireless 
communications in a completely new way. It is also known as “beyond 3G," since it provides 
a comprehensive and secure IP (Internet Protocol) solution. Users will enjoy high quality 
streaming video and "anytime, anywhere" voice and data at a much higher speed than 
previous generations. 
Some possible standards for the 4G system are 802.20, WiMAX (802.16), HSDPA, TDD, 
UMTS, UMTS and future versions of UMTS and proprietary networks from ArrayComm 
Inc., Navini Networks, Flarion Technologies, and 4G efforts in India, China and Japan. 
The design is that 4G will be based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) 
which is the key enabler of 4G technology. Other technological aspects of 4G are adaptive 
processing and smart antennas, both of which will be used in 3G networks and enhance rates 
when used in with OFDM. Currently 3G networks still send their data digitally over a single 
channel, OFDM is designed to send data over hundreds of parallel streams, thus increasing 
the amount of information that can be sent at a time over traditional CDMA networks.
4G Wireless Technology 
Note:- Fourth generation (4G) wireless was originally conceived by the Defense Advanced 
Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the same organization that developed the wired 
Internet. It is not surprising, then, that DARPA chose the same distributed architecture for the 
wireless Internet that had proven so successful in the wired Internet. 
3.7 Two characteristics have emerged as all but certain components of 4G: 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
1. End-To-End Internet Protocol (IP) 
2. Peer-To-Peer Networking 
Let’s define “4G” as “wireless ad hoc peer-to-peer networking.” 
Figure: 3 Evolutions (1G to 4G)
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
4. BEYOND 3G 
 Affordable broadband communication everywhere and on the move 
 All-IP network for all applications - voice, messaging and multimedia 
Figure: 4 Beyond 3G 
The mobile phone has become a ubiquitous part of our daily lives, with far-reaching effects 
on the way in which we communicate. Being connected any time, any place, anywhere has in 
fact become an integral part of telephony. In addition, with the democratization of mass-market 
broadband Internet and the ADSL access boom, everyone can now have access to 
digital contents. It has also led to the development of associated uses (photo, music, video, 
etc.). 
At a time of 3G and questions on what tomorrow’s mobile telephony will bring, one may 
wonder whether the joining of these two worlds is not irrevocable. Offering high speed 
access no matter where, no matter when, seems to be the logical next step both in terms of 
usage and technological opportunities.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
5. 4G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY 
4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS and rate requirements set by forthcoming 
applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video 
chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal services like 
voice and data, and other services that utilize bandwidth. 
4G is an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term used to describe the next level of 
evolution in the field of Wireless communications. The technology called 4G has redefined 
the whole concept of today’s sophisticated communication. According to the Wireless World 
Research Forum (WWRF),4G is a combination of wired and wireless networks in computer, 
consumer electronics and communication technology systems based on the internet 
technology that can merge applications like the Wi-Fi and WiMAX capable of transmitting 
at a speed ranging from 100 Mbps (in cell-phone networks) to 1 Gbps (in local Wi-Fi 
networks). 
This collection of technologies and protocols delivers high quality of service at 
both ends and high point security. Officially named by IEEE as Beyond 3G (B3G) it provides 
with the lowest cost wireless network. 
Figure: 5 Future Technology 4G
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
5.1 Features of the 4G systems 
 Support interactive multimedia, voice, video, wireless internet and other 
broadband services. 
 High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit. 
 Global mobility, service portability, scalable mobile networks. 
 Seamless switching, variety of services based on Quality of Service (QoS) 
requirements 
 Better scheduling and call admission control techniques. 
 Ad hoc networks and multi-hop networks. 
5.2 Fourth Generation Development 
 A Japanese company has been testing a 4G communication system prototype at 
100 Mbit/s while moving, and 1 Gbit/s while stationary. Recently reached 5 Gbit/s 
moving at 10 km/h, and is planning on releasing the first commercial network in 
2010. 
 An Irish company has announced that they have received a mobile 
communications license from Irish Telecoms regulator. This service will be issued 
the mobile code 088 in Ireland and will be used for the provision of 4G Mobile 
communications. 
 Sprint plans to launch 4G services in trial markets by the end of 2007 with plans 
to deploy a network that reaches as many as 100 million people in 2008.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
6. 4G ARCHITECTURE 
Figure: 6 4G Architecture in Detail 
6.1 4G Wireless Standards 
 WiMAX - 7.2 million units by 2010 (May include fixed and mobile) 
 Flash-OFDM - 13 million subscribers in 2010 (only Mobile) 
 3GPP Long Term Evolution of UMTS in 3GPP - valued at US$2 billion in 
2010 (~30% of the world population) 
 UMB in 3GPP2 
 IEEE 802.20
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
Figure: 7 Inner Architecture 
6.2 WIRELESS NETWORKS 
 Different type of wireless networks support mobile computing applications & 
platforms 
 Wireless Personal Area Networks (Bluetooth, Sensors, UWB, Zig-bees) 
 Wireless LANs (802.11 family) 
 Fixed Wireless Local loops 
 Cellular networks (1G to 4G) 
 Satellite systems 
 Lower level issues (e.g., signaling, error correction, smart antennas) 
 Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
6.3 Advantages of 4G Networks 
 From user driven perspective, the user has freedom and flexibility to select the 
service, at a reasonable price and QoS, anytime, anywhere. 
 Reconfigurability: Next-generation wireless network interfaces need to be able to 
switch seamlessly between different communications standards, in order to provide 
the most suitable level of service while the user moves across different environments. 
 Convergence: Network convergence is the key to the fourth generation. 
 Convergence is what 4G is about … Fixed, Cellular phone systems, WPANs, 
WLANs, Broadcasting/Satellite Communication. 
 Hierarchy of wireless networks: 4G will consist of a hierarchy of quality/bandwidth 
modes. 
 Seamless connectivity and global 7-8 across multiple networks. 
 4G will consist of a hierarchy of quality bandwidth modes. 
 Global mobility, service portability, scalable mobile networks. Better scheduling and 
call admission control techniques. 
6.4 Disadvantage of 4G 
 Battery usage is more 
 Hard to implement 
 Need complicated hardware
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
7. 4G NETWORK SYSTEM 
 System issues 
 Selected 4G network ideas 
 Self-organizing ,Ad-hoc network for 4G 
Figure: 8 4G System Issues (Protocol Evolution)
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
7.1 Potential “4G” Network Ideas 
A few techniques for achieving the 4G design goals discussed earlier: 
1) 3G/WLAN Hot-Spots 
Use of WLAN in hot-spots for lower system cost, better end-user performance and 
more total capacity. 
2) Self-organizing, ad-hoc wireless access networks 
Ad-hoc wireless network protocols which support multi-hop and peer-to-peer service 
models, particularly for low-tier uses (in-home, sensors, etc.). 
3) Content-based multicasting 
New network service paradigms for location- and person-aware information delivery 
to mobiles. 
7.2 Self-organizing Ad-hoc networks for 4G 
1. 4G Mobile Network features 
Some desirable new features for 4G networks are: 
 Unified IP-based protocol architecture with support for multiple radios 
 Multicasting, caching and security features, etc. 
 Hierarchical support of high-tier (cellular), med tier (WLAN) and low-tier 
(personal area, sensor nets) 
 Self-organizing, ad-hoc wireless discovery & routing 
2. 4G Mobile Networks: Hierarchy & Self-Organization 
Hierarchical, self-organizing network concept currently under consideration, 
based on: 
 3 service tiers (cellular, WLAN, personal area) 
 BS’s, AP’s, FN’s (forwarding radio nodes), user devices automatic discovery 
and power management protocols hierarchical, ad-hoc multi-hop routing.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
7.3 4G Networks Advances 
1. Seamless mobility (roaming) 
 Roam freely from one standard to another 
 Integrate different modes of wireless communications – indoor networks (e.g., 
wireless LANs and Bluetooth); cellular signals; radio and TV; satellite 
communications 
2. 100 Mb/se full mobility (wide area); 1 Gbit/s low mobility (local area) 
3. IP-based communications systems for integrated voice, data, and video 
 IP RAN(Remote Area Network) 
4. Open unified standards 
5. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) 
 Successor to “SS7”; replacement for TCP 
 Maintain several data streams within a single connection 
6. Service Location Protocol (SLP) 
 Automatic resource discovery 
 Make all networked resources dynamically configurable through IP-based 
service and directory agents 
7. Diameter 
 Successor to “Radius” 
 Unified authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) 
8. Integrated LAN card and Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs) 
9. HSS 
 Unified Subscriber Information 
10. Application developers, Service providers, and content creators
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
7.4 4G INVESTMENT HOTSPOTS 4G 
8. 4G DESIGN CHALLENGES 
1. Although 3G is an important first step, several basic issues still need to be 
addressed for next generation wireless systems: 
2. Fast/reliable broadband radios (PHY/MAC) with QoS ~100 Kbps 1-10 Mbps 
with adaptively, link reliability & Qos. 
3. Scalable system capacity for mass-market services high service penetration 
implies ~ Gbps/Sq-Km 
4. Integration of multiple radio technologies into single IP network unified mobility 
architecture. 
5. New networking modes, e.g. multicast, multi-hop & peer-to-peer, lower-cost 
infrastructure, networks that grow organically.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
8.1 Key Challenges 
1. Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM) 
 Base band process using parallel equal bandwidth sub channels 
 MC-CDMA; OFDM 
 Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK); Multilevel Quadrature Amplitude 
Modulation (M-QAM); Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 
 Add cyclic extension or guard band to data 
 Challenges of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Peak to Average Ratio (PAVR) 
2. Signal Processing and optimizations 
 Handling extremely large number of users 
 Synchronous and asynchronous transmissions 
 Orthogonally / correlation of large number of codes 
 Spectrum Pollution 
 Multi path re-enforcement / interference 
 Multi User Detection (MUD) and Adaptive Interference suppression techniques 
(ISI and MAI) 
3. Smart / Intelligent Antennas 
 Dynamically adjust beam pattern based on CQI 
 Switched beam Antennas; adaptive arrays 
 Coverage limitations due to high frequencies (> 5 GHz) 
4. Security and Levels of Quality of Service (QoS) 
 Encryption Protocols; Security and “trust of information” 
 Different rates, error profiles, latencies, burstiness, dynamic optimization of 
scarce resources.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
5. Web AI service / Interactive Intelligent Programs 
 Smart applications in the web; intelligent agents 
 Web Adaptiveness – global database schemes, global error corrective feedback, 
logic layer protocol, learning algorithms, Symbolic manipulation. 
 Derive specifically targeted knowledge from diverse information sources 
6. More Efficient and Sensitive Trans-receiver Designs 
 Noise figure, gain, group delay, bandwidth, sensitivity, tunable filters, spurious 
rejection, power consumption 
 Frequency Reuse; linearity techniques 
 Tight closed Loop power control 
 Dynamic Frequency selection and packet assignments 
 Multi band, wide band, and flexible radios 
 Error Correction Coding 
 Perfect Synchronization / phase alignment between Sender and Receiver 
7. All IP Network 
 Tunneling and Firewalls 
 Fast Handoff control, authentication, real time location tracking, distributed policy 
management 
 Media Gateways for handling packet switched traffic 
 Transcoders, echo cancellations, media conversions Planetary Interoperability 
8. Integration across different topologies 
 Multi Disciplinary Cooperation 
 Adaptive digitization of speech and multimedia signals 
 A/D and D/A transformations
4G Wireless Technology 
9. THE IMPACT OF 3G & 4G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY ON 
CARRIERS NETWORK DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES 
The Impact of 3G & 4G Wireless Technology on Carriers Network Development Strategies 
concludes that WiMAX will have a significant role to play in the evolution of mobile 
networks. A survey of manufacturers and network operators indicates that they are making 
plans to incorporate 4G technology as a value-adding adjunct to existing mobile 
infrastructure and services. 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
9.1 Objectives 
4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS and rate requirements set by forthcoming 
applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video 
chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal services like 
voice and data, and other services that utilize bandwidth. 
The 4G working group has defined the following as objectives of the 4G wireless 
communication standard: 
 A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bits/s/Hz/site). 
 High network capacity more simultaneous users per cell. 
 A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds 
relative to the station, and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed 
positions as defined by the ITU-R. 
 A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world. 
 Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks. 
 Seamless connectivity and global 7-8 across multiple networks 
 High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high 
speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc) 
 Interoperability with existing wireless standards 
 And all IP, packet switched network. 
In summary, the 4G system should dynamically share and utilize network resources to meet 
the minimal requirements of all the 4G enabled users.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
9.2 Principle Technologies: 
1. Base band Techniques - 
 OFDM: To exploit the frequency selective channel property 
 MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency 
 Turbo Principle: To minimize the required SNR at the reception side 
2. Adaptive radio interface 
3. Modulation, spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO 
4. Relaying, including fixed relay networks (FRNs), & the cooperative relaying concept 
known as multi-mode protocol. 
9.3 Impact of 3G and 4G 
 Data Speed – 70 mbps 
 Starting to invest serious time 
 Wireless technologies
4G Wireless Technology 
10. 4G MOBILE COMPUTING APPLICATIONS 
1. Enable the business initiatives by supporting mobility of 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
a) Customers 
b) Suppliers and Businesses 
c) Employees 
2. Mobile computing applications 
a) Wireless messaging (e.g. SMS) 
b) Mobile ecommerce (M-Commerce) and its variants 
 Positional commerce (p-commerce) 
 Voice commerce (v-commerce) 
 Television commerce (T-Commerce) 
c) Mobile ebusiness applications (MEBAs), e.g. M-CRM, M-portal, N-SCM 
Specialized applications – Many areas of research 
 Location sensitive apps (E911) 
 Wireless sensor network apps 
 Mobile agent apps 
3. Two views: 
a) Mobile applications are fundamentally new applications. 
b) Mobility is another dimension of the existing applications 
4. Research in every aspect
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
10.1 4G Mobile Network Features 
1 Some desirable new features for 4G networks are: 
 Unified IP-based protocol architecture with support for multiple radios 
 Multicasting, caching and security features, etc. 
 Hierarchical support of high-tier (cellular), med tier (WLAN) and low-tier 
(personal area, sensor nets) 
 Self-organizing, ad-hoc wireless discovery & routing 
2 4G Mobile Networks: Hierarchy & Self-Organization: 
A. Hierarchical, self-organizing network concept currently under 
consideration, based on: 
 3 service tiers (cellular, WLAN, personal area) 
 BS’s, AP’s, FN’s (forwarding radio nodes), user devices 
 Automatic discovery and power management protocols 
 Hierarchical, ad-hoc multi-hop routing 
10.2 Future Outlook 
 4G is coming quicker 
 Wireless is cheaper
4G Wireless Technology 
Figure: 12 4G Mobile Networks (Network of wireless networks) 
Global IP 
Network 
(Internet) 
Open Wireless Architecture (OWA) across wireless and 
LAN 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
Handse 
t 
PCMCIA-Card 
Phone 
Personal 
Intelligent 
Communicator 
Noteboo 
k 
Smartphon 
e 
End 
to 
End 
IP 
r 
G 
Figure: 13 End-To-End (E2E) IP Mobile Network
4G Wireless Technology 
11. TECHNOLOGY - PARAMETERS OF 3G Vs 4G 
3G will be driven by services that offer better quality (e.g., voice, video, multimedia), more 
sophistication in the association of a large quantity of information, and improved 
personalization. 4G proponents will serve as complements or upgrades to advance the 3G 
limitation to deliver video/TV and high speed Internet access. These are some of the 
parameters which shows different attributes related to 3G Vs 4G: - 
Attribute 3G 4G 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
Major Characteristic 
Predominantly voice- data 
as add-on 
Converged data and VoIP 
Network Architecture Wide area Cell based 
Hybrid – Integration of Wireless LAN 
(WiFi), Blue Tooth, Wide Area 
Frequency Band 1.6 - 2.5 GHz 2 – 8 GHz 
Component Design 
Optimized antenna; multi-band 
adapters 
Smart antennas; SW multi-band; wideband 
radios 
Bandwidth 5 – 20 MHz 100+ MHz 
Data Rate 385 Kbps - 2 Mbps 20 – 100 Mbps 
Access WCDMA/CDMA 2000 MC-CDMA or OFDM 
Forward Error Correction 
Convolution code 1/2, 1/3; 
turbo 
Concatenated Coding 
Switching Circuit/Packet Packet 
Mobile top Speed 200 kmph 200 kmph 
IP Multiple versions All IP (IPv6.0) 
Operational ~2003 ~2010
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
12. 4G AIR INTERFACES 
 Higher bit rates than 3G (20 Mbps < peak < 200 Mbps) 
 Higher spectral efficiency and lower cost per bit than 3G 
 Air interface and MAC optimized for IP traffic 
 Adaptive modulation/coding with power control, hybrid ARQ 
 Smaller cells, on average than 3G 
 However, cell size will be made as large as possible via: 
 High power base station to boost downlink range 
 Adaptive antenna options 
 Higher frequency band than 3G (below 5 GHz preferred) 
 RF channel bandwidths of 20 MHz and higher 
 OFDM is promising for downlink 
12.1 4G Forums 
1. Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in Europe 
2. Next-Generation Internet (NGI) 
 Led by and focused on US Fed Agencies (DoD, DoE, NASA, NIH etc.) 
 High Performance networks: VBNS (NSF), NREN (NASA), DREN (DoD), 
ESnet (DoE), 
3. Internet 2 
 US Universities Initiated 
 Focus on Gigabit/sec Points of Presence (giga-PoPs)
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
13. SUMMARY 
 Mobile Intelligent Internet and multimedia applications 
 Seamless Roaming, substantially high and selectable user bandwidth, customized 
QoS, Intelligent and responsive user interface 
 Mobile IP, Radio Routers, smart Antennas 
 Continued advances and challenges from 1G - 4G 
 Modulation techniques, Transreceiver advances, fast manipulations, user interfaces, 
IP tunneling and firewalls 
 Spectrum usage, regulatory decisions, “one” standard, authentication and security, 
multi disciplinary co-operation 
 Packing so much intelligence in smaller and smaller physical space, especially, User 
Equipment (UE) 
 IP + WPAN + WLAN + WMAN + WWAN + any other stragglers = 4G 
IP in the sky with diamonds.
4G Wireless Technology 
14. GLOSSARY 
GPRS: 
Global Packet Radio Service - This evolution of the GSM standard (which uses the same 
frequency range as the latter) adds a packet system to the GSM circuit network, allowing data 
sharing. GPRS, or the 2.5G network, gives bit rates of up to 40 Kbps in optimal conditions. 
Bluetooth – 802.15: 
Bluetooth is the standard for wireless personal area networks or WPAN. It allows high speed 
transmission of data over very short distances. Bluetooth is normally used for transferring 
data between laptops, or in Internet Kiosk type applications where roaming is not needed. 
EDGE: 
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution - An intermediary solution between GPRS (2.5G 
network) and UMTS (3G), which is why it is sometimes called 2.75G. 
UMTS: 
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System - So-called “Third-generation” (3G) wireless 
communication standard that allows peak bit rates of 2 Mbps in the CDMA Version. 
ADSL: 
Asymmetric DSL - One of the first DSL technologies with asymmetric bit rates. ADSL is a 
technique by which analogous phone services and high-speed services Can be transported 
simultaneously on an existing telephone pair at up to 6-8 Mbps Downstream (exchange to 
user) as opposed to 640 kbps in the upstream direction (user to exchange). 
3GPP: 
3rd Generation Partnership Project - Collaboration agreement dating back to December 1998, 
and which unites a number of telecommunication-standardizations bodies. 
IEEE: 
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers - American equivalent of ETSI, the European 
Telecommunications and Standardization Institute. 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
15. CONCLUSION 
 
Figure – 14 4G Model 
 4G is showing tremendous promise and has the capacity to revolutionize our world. 
Migration to 4G networks will be evolutionary 
 Before the realization of the 4G wireless society, very difficult but interesting 
technical challenges are waiting for us. 
 4G convergence of networks, technologies, applications and services, 
will offer a personalized and pervasive network to the users. 
 Convergence is heading towards an advent of a really exciting and 
disruptive concept of 4th generation mobile networks. 
 Scope of wireless networks is expanding. 
 Intelligent applications and user interfaces need to develop.
4G Wireless Technology 
Submitted By Safal Agrawal 
16. BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 ‘Wikipedia’ – title: 4G 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4G 
 www.networkworld.com 
 www.researchandmarkets.com/.../the_impact_of_3g_and_4g 
 Next-Generation Wireless, Ben May 2, 2003 4gwireless.pdf 
 http://www.slideworld.com/ 
 Visit 4Gmobile.com 
 www.remon-4g.org.il 
 http://pdfdatabase.com/index.php?q=4g+wireless+system 
 URL: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/gaojerry 
 4G Wireless Systems http://users.ece.gatech.edu/~jxie/4G 
 4G Wireless Standard http://www.nd.edu/~mhaenggi/NET/wireless/4G/ 
 Motorola, etc. http://www.wireless-world-research.org/ 
 www.mobilecomms-technology.com 
 www.ebookpdf.net 
 www.dxportal.com 
 www.pdf-search-engine.com/4g-pdf.html

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4gtechnology

  • 1. 4G Wireless Technology Bhujbal Knowledge City MET's Institute Of Engineering Adgaon, Nashik - 422003. ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 Submitted By Safal Agrawal A SEMINAR ON ““4G TEHNOLOGY”” SUBMITTED IN DEPARTMENT OF MCA GUIDED BY Prof. …………………… PRSENTED BY Mr. Safal Agrawal MCA ROLL NO. ..
  • 2. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 4G The Next Generation Wireless Network Technology
  • 3. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal INDEX 1. Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 04 2. Wireless Area Networks -------------------------------------------------------- 05 2.1 Major components and elements of a wireless network 2.2 Classifications 3. 4G Wireless Evolutions ---------------------------------------------------------- 07 3.1 History 3.2 1G (First Generation) 3.3 2G (Second Generation) 3.4 3G (Third Generation) 3.5 Two Distinct 3G Families 3.6 4G (Fourth Generation) 3.7 Two Characteristics of 4G 4. Beyond 3G --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 5. 4G Wireless Technology ----------------------------------------------------------- 12 5.1 Features of the 4G systems 5.2 Fourth Generation Development 6. 4G Architecture --------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 6.1 4G Wireless Standards 6.2 Wireless Networks 6.3 Advantages of 4G Networks 6.4 Disadvantage of 4G 7. 4G Network Systems ------------------------------------------------------------- 17 7.1 Potential “4G” Network Ideas 7.2 Self-organizing Ad-hoc networks for 4G 7.3 4G Networks Advances 7.4 4G Investment Hotspots 8. 4G Design Challenges ------------------------------------------------------------- 20 8.1 Key Challenges
  • 4. 4G Wireless Technology 9. The Impact of 3G & 4G Wireless Technology on Carriers Network Development Strategies ---------------------------------------------- 23 Submitted By Safal Agrawal 9.1 Objectives 9.2 Principle Technologies 9.3 Impact of 3G and 4G 10. 4G Mobile Computing Applications ----------------------------------------- 25 10.1 4G Mobile Network Features 10.2 Future Outlook 11. Technology - Parameters of 3G Vs 4G -------------------------------------- 28 12. 4G Air Interfaces ----------------------------------------------------------------- 29 12.1 4G Forums 13. Summary -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 14. Glossary --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 15. Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 32 16. Bibliography ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 33
  • 5. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 1. INTRODUCTION The use of G, standing for generation in mobile technology covers the major advances of the past 20-30 years. Since the first generation of so-called “analogue” mobile radio networks was created in 1980, the mobile telephone has seen many upheavals. 1G technology involved the first widely available mobile phones. 2G technology, which began in the early 1990s, switched to a digital format and introduced text messaging. In 1991, with the appearance of GSM, second-generation (or 2G) mobile telephony, it became a veritable phenomenon. Gradually, almost everyone started to have a mobile phone. 2002 saw the arrival of UMTS, and 3G was born. 3G technology improved the efficiency of how data is carried, making it possible to carry enhanced information services such as websites in their original format. The latest iPhone is the best known example of 3G technology. To define a new generation of mobile systems that would see the light of day by 2010, the notion of 4G was introduced in the early 2000s. The idea was to perpetuate the logic of replacing one mobile generation with another every 10 years.4G mobile is yet established as increasing data transfer speeds, 4G mobile should use enhanced security measures. Another goal is to reduce blips in transmission when a device moves between areas covered by different networks. 4G mobile networks should also use a network based on the IP address system used for the internet.
  • 6. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 2. WIRELESS NETWORK Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented with some type of remote information transmission system that uses electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, for the carrier and this implementation usually takes place at the physical level or "layer" of the network. 2.1 Major components and elements of a wireless network: 1. Different range of wireless towers  Cellular towers  Base stations  Access points (APs) a) These antennae transceivers communicate with all types of wireless devices, exchange data or voice with them. b) They transmit that information through relays and cables eventually back to the wires of the Internet. c) Different types of wireless devices - based on radios. 2.2 Classifications Types of wireless networks: - Wireless analog network - based on analog circuit-built connections - Wireless digital network - based on package-switched connections Three types of Wireless Internet Networks: - Wide Area Network (WAN) - Wireless Local Area Network (Wireless LAN) - PAN (Personal Area Network), such as Bluetooth, Infrared Other classifications: - large, public, cellular phone networks - private in-building wireless networks - room-wide networks
  • 7. 4G Wireless Technology Figure: 1 Wireless Area Networks Figure: 2 Wireless Personal Area Networks Submitted By Safal Agrawal
  • 8. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 3. 4G WIRELESS EVOLUTION 3.1 History At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designed for users in cars to the public land-line based telephon e network. Then in the sixties, a system launched by Bell Systems, called IMTS, or “Improved Mobile Telephone Service", brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s. The systems were called "cellular" because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells", each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. 3.2 First Generation (1G) First generation analog cellular networks were built strictly for voice calls in the early 1980s.All 1G networks are based on Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), an air interface that guarantees a dedicated frequency and circuit to each caller. The Japanese began national service in 1979. The U.S. service, Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), operates at 800 MHz’s each country has its own 1G air interface protocol. Major features:  Circuit-switched network  Analog signals  Voice only  AMPS in U.S. 3.3 Second Generation (2G)  What is a 2G network? - The 2G networks have digital cellular air interfaces. - They were all brought to market in the early 1990s. - The 2G network includes data services, fax, and email. Almost every wireless, device sold in 2002 uses one of the second-generation air interfaces.
  • 9. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal Major features:  Circuit-switched network  Digital signals  Voice or data overlay  9 kbps or 19 kbps  Dial-up service  TDMA, CDMA, PDC, or GSM air interfaces 3.4 Third Generation (3G) 3G networks are designed to support digital packet cellular. What is a 3G network? 3G is the wireless Internet transmitting voice, data, photos, audio and video–all bits running on a wireless packet-based cellular network. Major features:  Packet switched, Transport roaming.  Dynamic allocation of voice or data.  Quality sound and video.  Data transmission at 2 Mbps.  Identification of caller location.  W-CDMA, CDMA 2000, TDD, UWC, FDD air interfaces. Transparent roaming – The ability to continue a data or voice call over multiple networks without dropping the call. The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT Do Como in Japan. Although 3G is relatively an infant, the technology is growing fast, with more and more wireless technology companies developing devices with 3G capabilities, such as Nokia, Siemens and Sony Ericsson. With coverage over all of Europe, the USA, China, Japan, and the rest of the world, with seamless integration between all of these countries and more.
  • 10. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 3.5 Two Distinct 3G Families:  3GPP and 3GPP2. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows.  General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps.  Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps.  UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps.  High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14 Mbps.  LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps. GPRS deployments began in 2000, followed by EDGE in 2003. While these technologies are defined by IMT-2000, they are sometimes called "2.5G" because they did not offer multi-megabit data rates. 3.6 Fourth Generation (4G) 4G an acronym for fourth-generation wireless is a technology that will transform wireless communications in a completely new way. It is also known as “beyond 3G," since it provides a comprehensive and secure IP (Internet Protocol) solution. Users will enjoy high quality streaming video and "anytime, anywhere" voice and data at a much higher speed than previous generations. Some possible standards for the 4G system are 802.20, WiMAX (802.16), HSDPA, TDD, UMTS, UMTS and future versions of UMTS and proprietary networks from ArrayComm Inc., Navini Networks, Flarion Technologies, and 4G efforts in India, China and Japan. The design is that 4G will be based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) which is the key enabler of 4G technology. Other technological aspects of 4G are adaptive processing and smart antennas, both of which will be used in 3G networks and enhance rates when used in with OFDM. Currently 3G networks still send their data digitally over a single channel, OFDM is designed to send data over hundreds of parallel streams, thus increasing the amount of information that can be sent at a time over traditional CDMA networks.
  • 11. 4G Wireless Technology Note:- Fourth generation (4G) wireless was originally conceived by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the same organization that developed the wired Internet. It is not surprising, then, that DARPA chose the same distributed architecture for the wireless Internet that had proven so successful in the wired Internet. 3.7 Two characteristics have emerged as all but certain components of 4G: Submitted By Safal Agrawal 1. End-To-End Internet Protocol (IP) 2. Peer-To-Peer Networking Let’s define “4G” as “wireless ad hoc peer-to-peer networking.” Figure: 3 Evolutions (1G to 4G)
  • 12. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 4. BEYOND 3G  Affordable broadband communication everywhere and on the move  All-IP network for all applications - voice, messaging and multimedia Figure: 4 Beyond 3G The mobile phone has become a ubiquitous part of our daily lives, with far-reaching effects on the way in which we communicate. Being connected any time, any place, anywhere has in fact become an integral part of telephony. In addition, with the democratization of mass-market broadband Internet and the ADSL access boom, everyone can now have access to digital contents. It has also led to the development of associated uses (photo, music, video, etc.). At a time of 3G and questions on what tomorrow’s mobile telephony will bring, one may wonder whether the joining of these two worlds is not irrevocable. Offering high speed access no matter where, no matter when, seems to be the logical next step both in terms of usage and technological opportunities.
  • 13. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 5. 4G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY 4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal services like voice and data, and other services that utilize bandwidth. 4G is an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term used to describe the next level of evolution in the field of Wireless communications. The technology called 4G has redefined the whole concept of today’s sophisticated communication. According to the Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF),4G is a combination of wired and wireless networks in computer, consumer electronics and communication technology systems based on the internet technology that can merge applications like the Wi-Fi and WiMAX capable of transmitting at a speed ranging from 100 Mbps (in cell-phone networks) to 1 Gbps (in local Wi-Fi networks). This collection of technologies and protocols delivers high quality of service at both ends and high point security. Officially named by IEEE as Beyond 3G (B3G) it provides with the lowest cost wireless network. Figure: 5 Future Technology 4G
  • 14. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 5.1 Features of the 4G systems  Support interactive multimedia, voice, video, wireless internet and other broadband services.  High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit.  Global mobility, service portability, scalable mobile networks.  Seamless switching, variety of services based on Quality of Service (QoS) requirements  Better scheduling and call admission control techniques.  Ad hoc networks and multi-hop networks. 5.2 Fourth Generation Development  A Japanese company has been testing a 4G communication system prototype at 100 Mbit/s while moving, and 1 Gbit/s while stationary. Recently reached 5 Gbit/s moving at 10 km/h, and is planning on releasing the first commercial network in 2010.  An Irish company has announced that they have received a mobile communications license from Irish Telecoms regulator. This service will be issued the mobile code 088 in Ireland and will be used for the provision of 4G Mobile communications.  Sprint plans to launch 4G services in trial markets by the end of 2007 with plans to deploy a network that reaches as many as 100 million people in 2008.
  • 15. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 6. 4G ARCHITECTURE Figure: 6 4G Architecture in Detail 6.1 4G Wireless Standards  WiMAX - 7.2 million units by 2010 (May include fixed and mobile)  Flash-OFDM - 13 million subscribers in 2010 (only Mobile)  3GPP Long Term Evolution of UMTS in 3GPP - valued at US$2 billion in 2010 (~30% of the world population)  UMB in 3GPP2  IEEE 802.20
  • 16. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal Figure: 7 Inner Architecture 6.2 WIRELESS NETWORKS  Different type of wireless networks support mobile computing applications & platforms  Wireless Personal Area Networks (Bluetooth, Sensors, UWB, Zig-bees)  Wireless LANs (802.11 family)  Fixed Wireless Local loops  Cellular networks (1G to 4G)  Satellite systems  Lower level issues (e.g., signaling, error correction, smart antennas)  Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
  • 17. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 6.3 Advantages of 4G Networks  From user driven perspective, the user has freedom and flexibility to select the service, at a reasonable price and QoS, anytime, anywhere.  Reconfigurability: Next-generation wireless network interfaces need to be able to switch seamlessly between different communications standards, in order to provide the most suitable level of service while the user moves across different environments.  Convergence: Network convergence is the key to the fourth generation.  Convergence is what 4G is about … Fixed, Cellular phone systems, WPANs, WLANs, Broadcasting/Satellite Communication.  Hierarchy of wireless networks: 4G will consist of a hierarchy of quality/bandwidth modes.  Seamless connectivity and global 7-8 across multiple networks.  4G will consist of a hierarchy of quality bandwidth modes.  Global mobility, service portability, scalable mobile networks. Better scheduling and call admission control techniques. 6.4 Disadvantage of 4G  Battery usage is more  Hard to implement  Need complicated hardware
  • 18. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 7. 4G NETWORK SYSTEM  System issues  Selected 4G network ideas  Self-organizing ,Ad-hoc network for 4G Figure: 8 4G System Issues (Protocol Evolution)
  • 19. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 7.1 Potential “4G” Network Ideas A few techniques for achieving the 4G design goals discussed earlier: 1) 3G/WLAN Hot-Spots Use of WLAN in hot-spots for lower system cost, better end-user performance and more total capacity. 2) Self-organizing, ad-hoc wireless access networks Ad-hoc wireless network protocols which support multi-hop and peer-to-peer service models, particularly for low-tier uses (in-home, sensors, etc.). 3) Content-based multicasting New network service paradigms for location- and person-aware information delivery to mobiles. 7.2 Self-organizing Ad-hoc networks for 4G 1. 4G Mobile Network features Some desirable new features for 4G networks are:  Unified IP-based protocol architecture with support for multiple radios  Multicasting, caching and security features, etc.  Hierarchical support of high-tier (cellular), med tier (WLAN) and low-tier (personal area, sensor nets)  Self-organizing, ad-hoc wireless discovery & routing 2. 4G Mobile Networks: Hierarchy & Self-Organization Hierarchical, self-organizing network concept currently under consideration, based on:  3 service tiers (cellular, WLAN, personal area)  BS’s, AP’s, FN’s (forwarding radio nodes), user devices automatic discovery and power management protocols hierarchical, ad-hoc multi-hop routing.
  • 20. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 7.3 4G Networks Advances 1. Seamless mobility (roaming)  Roam freely from one standard to another  Integrate different modes of wireless communications – indoor networks (e.g., wireless LANs and Bluetooth); cellular signals; radio and TV; satellite communications 2. 100 Mb/se full mobility (wide area); 1 Gbit/s low mobility (local area) 3. IP-based communications systems for integrated voice, data, and video  IP RAN(Remote Area Network) 4. Open unified standards 5. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)  Successor to “SS7”; replacement for TCP  Maintain several data streams within a single connection 6. Service Location Protocol (SLP)  Automatic resource discovery  Make all networked resources dynamically configurable through IP-based service and directory agents 7. Diameter  Successor to “Radius”  Unified authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) 8. Integrated LAN card and Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs) 9. HSS  Unified Subscriber Information 10. Application developers, Service providers, and content creators
  • 21. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 7.4 4G INVESTMENT HOTSPOTS 4G 8. 4G DESIGN CHALLENGES 1. Although 3G is an important first step, several basic issues still need to be addressed for next generation wireless systems: 2. Fast/reliable broadband radios (PHY/MAC) with QoS ~100 Kbps 1-10 Mbps with adaptively, link reliability & Qos. 3. Scalable system capacity for mass-market services high service penetration implies ~ Gbps/Sq-Km 4. Integration of multiple radio technologies into single IP network unified mobility architecture. 5. New networking modes, e.g. multicast, multi-hop & peer-to-peer, lower-cost infrastructure, networks that grow organically.
  • 22. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 8.1 Key Challenges 1. Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM)  Base band process using parallel equal bandwidth sub channels  MC-CDMA; OFDM  Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK); Multilevel Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM); Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)  Add cyclic extension or guard band to data  Challenges of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Peak to Average Ratio (PAVR) 2. Signal Processing and optimizations  Handling extremely large number of users  Synchronous and asynchronous transmissions  Orthogonally / correlation of large number of codes  Spectrum Pollution  Multi path re-enforcement / interference  Multi User Detection (MUD) and Adaptive Interference suppression techniques (ISI and MAI) 3. Smart / Intelligent Antennas  Dynamically adjust beam pattern based on CQI  Switched beam Antennas; adaptive arrays  Coverage limitations due to high frequencies (> 5 GHz) 4. Security and Levels of Quality of Service (QoS)  Encryption Protocols; Security and “trust of information”  Different rates, error profiles, latencies, burstiness, dynamic optimization of scarce resources.
  • 23. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 5. Web AI service / Interactive Intelligent Programs  Smart applications in the web; intelligent agents  Web Adaptiveness – global database schemes, global error corrective feedback, logic layer protocol, learning algorithms, Symbolic manipulation.  Derive specifically targeted knowledge from diverse information sources 6. More Efficient and Sensitive Trans-receiver Designs  Noise figure, gain, group delay, bandwidth, sensitivity, tunable filters, spurious rejection, power consumption  Frequency Reuse; linearity techniques  Tight closed Loop power control  Dynamic Frequency selection and packet assignments  Multi band, wide band, and flexible radios  Error Correction Coding  Perfect Synchronization / phase alignment between Sender and Receiver 7. All IP Network  Tunneling and Firewalls  Fast Handoff control, authentication, real time location tracking, distributed policy management  Media Gateways for handling packet switched traffic  Transcoders, echo cancellations, media conversions Planetary Interoperability 8. Integration across different topologies  Multi Disciplinary Cooperation  Adaptive digitization of speech and multimedia signals  A/D and D/A transformations
  • 24. 4G Wireless Technology 9. THE IMPACT OF 3G & 4G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY ON CARRIERS NETWORK DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES The Impact of 3G & 4G Wireless Technology on Carriers Network Development Strategies concludes that WiMAX will have a significant role to play in the evolution of mobile networks. A survey of manufacturers and network operators indicates that they are making plans to incorporate 4G technology as a value-adding adjunct to existing mobile infrastructure and services. Submitted By Safal Agrawal 9.1 Objectives 4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal services like voice and data, and other services that utilize bandwidth. The 4G working group has defined the following as objectives of the 4G wireless communication standard:  A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bits/s/Hz/site).  High network capacity more simultaneous users per cell.  A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station, and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R.  A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world.  Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks.  Seamless connectivity and global 7-8 across multiple networks  High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc)  Interoperability with existing wireless standards  And all IP, packet switched network. In summary, the 4G system should dynamically share and utilize network resources to meet the minimal requirements of all the 4G enabled users.
  • 25. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 9.2 Principle Technologies: 1. Base band Techniques -  OFDM: To exploit the frequency selective channel property  MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency  Turbo Principle: To minimize the required SNR at the reception side 2. Adaptive radio interface 3. Modulation, spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO 4. Relaying, including fixed relay networks (FRNs), & the cooperative relaying concept known as multi-mode protocol. 9.3 Impact of 3G and 4G  Data Speed – 70 mbps  Starting to invest serious time  Wireless technologies
  • 26. 4G Wireless Technology 10. 4G MOBILE COMPUTING APPLICATIONS 1. Enable the business initiatives by supporting mobility of Submitted By Safal Agrawal a) Customers b) Suppliers and Businesses c) Employees 2. Mobile computing applications a) Wireless messaging (e.g. SMS) b) Mobile ecommerce (M-Commerce) and its variants  Positional commerce (p-commerce)  Voice commerce (v-commerce)  Television commerce (T-Commerce) c) Mobile ebusiness applications (MEBAs), e.g. M-CRM, M-portal, N-SCM Specialized applications – Many areas of research  Location sensitive apps (E911)  Wireless sensor network apps  Mobile agent apps 3. Two views: a) Mobile applications are fundamentally new applications. b) Mobility is another dimension of the existing applications 4. Research in every aspect
  • 27. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 10.1 4G Mobile Network Features 1 Some desirable new features for 4G networks are:  Unified IP-based protocol architecture with support for multiple radios  Multicasting, caching and security features, etc.  Hierarchical support of high-tier (cellular), med tier (WLAN) and low-tier (personal area, sensor nets)  Self-organizing, ad-hoc wireless discovery & routing 2 4G Mobile Networks: Hierarchy & Self-Organization: A. Hierarchical, self-organizing network concept currently under consideration, based on:  3 service tiers (cellular, WLAN, personal area)  BS’s, AP’s, FN’s (forwarding radio nodes), user devices  Automatic discovery and power management protocols  Hierarchical, ad-hoc multi-hop routing 10.2 Future Outlook  4G is coming quicker  Wireless is cheaper
  • 28. 4G Wireless Technology Figure: 12 4G Mobile Networks (Network of wireless networks) Global IP Network (Internet) Open Wireless Architecture (OWA) across wireless and LAN Submitted By Safal Agrawal Handse t PCMCIA-Card Phone Personal Intelligent Communicator Noteboo k Smartphon e End to End IP r G Figure: 13 End-To-End (E2E) IP Mobile Network
  • 29. 4G Wireless Technology 11. TECHNOLOGY - PARAMETERS OF 3G Vs 4G 3G will be driven by services that offer better quality (e.g., voice, video, multimedia), more sophistication in the association of a large quantity of information, and improved personalization. 4G proponents will serve as complements or upgrades to advance the 3G limitation to deliver video/TV and high speed Internet access. These are some of the parameters which shows different attributes related to 3G Vs 4G: - Attribute 3G 4G Submitted By Safal Agrawal Major Characteristic Predominantly voice- data as add-on Converged data and VoIP Network Architecture Wide area Cell based Hybrid – Integration of Wireless LAN (WiFi), Blue Tooth, Wide Area Frequency Band 1.6 - 2.5 GHz 2 – 8 GHz Component Design Optimized antenna; multi-band adapters Smart antennas; SW multi-band; wideband radios Bandwidth 5 – 20 MHz 100+ MHz Data Rate 385 Kbps - 2 Mbps 20 – 100 Mbps Access WCDMA/CDMA 2000 MC-CDMA or OFDM Forward Error Correction Convolution code 1/2, 1/3; turbo Concatenated Coding Switching Circuit/Packet Packet Mobile top Speed 200 kmph 200 kmph IP Multiple versions All IP (IPv6.0) Operational ~2003 ~2010
  • 30. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 12. 4G AIR INTERFACES  Higher bit rates than 3G (20 Mbps < peak < 200 Mbps)  Higher spectral efficiency and lower cost per bit than 3G  Air interface and MAC optimized for IP traffic  Adaptive modulation/coding with power control, hybrid ARQ  Smaller cells, on average than 3G  However, cell size will be made as large as possible via:  High power base station to boost downlink range  Adaptive antenna options  Higher frequency band than 3G (below 5 GHz preferred)  RF channel bandwidths of 20 MHz and higher  OFDM is promising for downlink 12.1 4G Forums 1. Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in Europe 2. Next-Generation Internet (NGI)  Led by and focused on US Fed Agencies (DoD, DoE, NASA, NIH etc.)  High Performance networks: VBNS (NSF), NREN (NASA), DREN (DoD), ESnet (DoE), 3. Internet 2  US Universities Initiated  Focus on Gigabit/sec Points of Presence (giga-PoPs)
  • 31. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 13. SUMMARY  Mobile Intelligent Internet and multimedia applications  Seamless Roaming, substantially high and selectable user bandwidth, customized QoS, Intelligent and responsive user interface  Mobile IP, Radio Routers, smart Antennas  Continued advances and challenges from 1G - 4G  Modulation techniques, Transreceiver advances, fast manipulations, user interfaces, IP tunneling and firewalls  Spectrum usage, regulatory decisions, “one” standard, authentication and security, multi disciplinary co-operation  Packing so much intelligence in smaller and smaller physical space, especially, User Equipment (UE)  IP + WPAN + WLAN + WMAN + WWAN + any other stragglers = 4G IP in the sky with diamonds.
  • 32. 4G Wireless Technology 14. GLOSSARY GPRS: Global Packet Radio Service - This evolution of the GSM standard (which uses the same frequency range as the latter) adds a packet system to the GSM circuit network, allowing data sharing. GPRS, or the 2.5G network, gives bit rates of up to 40 Kbps in optimal conditions. Bluetooth – 802.15: Bluetooth is the standard for wireless personal area networks or WPAN. It allows high speed transmission of data over very short distances. Bluetooth is normally used for transferring data between laptops, or in Internet Kiosk type applications where roaming is not needed. EDGE: Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution - An intermediary solution between GPRS (2.5G network) and UMTS (3G), which is why it is sometimes called 2.75G. UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System - So-called “Third-generation” (3G) wireless communication standard that allows peak bit rates of 2 Mbps in the CDMA Version. ADSL: Asymmetric DSL - One of the first DSL technologies with asymmetric bit rates. ADSL is a technique by which analogous phone services and high-speed services Can be transported simultaneously on an existing telephone pair at up to 6-8 Mbps Downstream (exchange to user) as opposed to 640 kbps in the upstream direction (user to exchange). 3GPP: 3rd Generation Partnership Project - Collaboration agreement dating back to December 1998, and which unites a number of telecommunication-standardizations bodies. IEEE: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers - American equivalent of ETSI, the European Telecommunications and Standardization Institute. Submitted By Safal Agrawal
  • 33. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 15. CONCLUSION  Figure – 14 4G Model  4G is showing tremendous promise and has the capacity to revolutionize our world. Migration to 4G networks will be evolutionary  Before the realization of the 4G wireless society, very difficult but interesting technical challenges are waiting for us.  4G convergence of networks, technologies, applications and services, will offer a personalized and pervasive network to the users.  Convergence is heading towards an advent of a really exciting and disruptive concept of 4th generation mobile networks.  Scope of wireless networks is expanding.  Intelligent applications and user interfaces need to develop.
  • 34. 4G Wireless Technology Submitted By Safal Agrawal 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY  ‘Wikipedia’ – title: 4G http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4G  www.networkworld.com  www.researchandmarkets.com/.../the_impact_of_3g_and_4g  Next-Generation Wireless, Ben May 2, 2003 4gwireless.pdf  http://www.slideworld.com/  Visit 4Gmobile.com  www.remon-4g.org.il  http://pdfdatabase.com/index.php?q=4g+wireless+system  URL: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/gaojerry  4G Wireless Systems http://users.ece.gatech.edu/~jxie/4G  4G Wireless Standard http://www.nd.edu/~mhaenggi/NET/wireless/4G/  Motorola, etc. http://www.wireless-world-research.org/  www.mobilecomms-technology.com  www.ebookpdf.net  www.dxportal.com  www.pdf-search-engine.com/4g-pdf.html