Study Of Gita Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar


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Study Of Gita Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar

  1. 1. STUDY OF GITA Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar
  2. 2. November 4, 2009, 10:30 am GURURBRAHMA GURURVISHNUH GURURDEVO MAHESHVARAH GURUH SAKSHAT PARABRAHMA TASMAISHRI GURAVE NAMAH I salute my Guru, who is Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh called Gunamaya i.e. the penultimate truth; and the Parabrahma; i.e. the ultimate truth. Apparently I wanted to study something world famous and ultimate in every sense; and hence I began the study of Gita. But now it appears that there was much more to it than this. Whether I studied Gita or Gita herself made me study her, is a moot question and I feel; the latter may be truer. When I seriously began to study Gita; about twenty years ago, I found many contradictions in her. For example, in 4th chapter, Lord Krishna says in the same verse, (Chaturvarnayam maya srustam…) that he created four VARNAs and also he did not create them. Also, even as Lord Krishna advocates the war (tasmat uttishtha kaunteya yuddhaya kruta
  3. 3. nishchaya…2nd chapter, nirashi nirmamo bhootva yuddhaya kruta nishchaya.. 3rd chapter), he also upholds nonviolence and control of mind in most of the chapters e.g. (ahinsa satyamakrodham.. 16th chapter, moodhagrahenamatnoyat …17th chapter, ) as a virtue. Similarly, Lord Krishna disapproves Arjuna’s arguments in 1st chapter about VARNA SANKAR, which means indisciplined and unrestricted marriages directed by mere attraction; in different groups, (ashochyana va shochastvam prajnya vadanscha bhashase.. 2nd chapter.. ) he uses the same argument (yadi hyaham na varteyam …and utside yurime lokam… 3rd chapter). In 2nd chapter his argument (akirtim cha pi bhutani….and bhayat ranat uparatam… etc) about “what people would say”, appears to be too superficial and enlightening or philosophical. One can quote many such contradictions, but that is not the purpose of this writing. The purpose of this writing is; to share my experiences and perceptions as I went on studying Gita. Apparently; the reason why I kept on studying and by hearting inspite of contradictions was; I realized the
  4. 4. need to contemplate on the vast canvas of all 700 verses at any given point of time and possibly resolve the contradictions; even while traveling or walking and without having to refer a book! But in reality, I have not quite understood why I kept on reciting and by hearting Gita, inspite of the contradictions! It appears now, that the light in Gita consumed my consciousness, without me being aware of it and kept on absorbing my being in her! The persistence inspite of pains and agony of disagreement, being beyond my desire or voluntary will, may be because of the roots it has in my previous birth. All this may be a continuation of what I had to leave half way in my last birth. You don’t have to believe in this; but I must not hesitate to state it! Life is ANUBANDHA and NITYAGA i.e. linked up and continues; and the continuity is evident in such phenomena. One may appreciate this or discard as a flight of imagination! I leave it to one’s own perceptions and experience! I had tried to write on Gita about ten to twelve years back, but later I stopped as I was not quite satisfied and was not at ease; with my own interpretations. Now I am convinced that Gita enlightens us for the journey that beings from ignorance, individuality and
  5. 5. timed and mortal existence and heads towards the self realization; universality and trans-temporal immortal consciousness respectively! Gita deals with various physical, instinctual, emotional and intellectual activities at individual level, the relationship of these with the universe and the relationship of all these with past, present and future; and the all encompassing nature of our cosmic being. Gita deals with the principles involved in what happens in an individual, society, and in universe, from all eternity to all eternity, which may be termed cosmic dynamics or cosmic orchestra! I have realized that I may not understand Gita, I may misunderstand Gita or I may partially understand Gita. In any case it is useful; because; that kick starts the exciting voyage of enlightenment and blossoming! Complete understanding of Gita is impossible, because it is trans-intellectual i.e. beyond the three levels of consciousness (SWPANA, SUSHUPTI and JAGRUTI) and four modes of communication (VAACHA viz. PARA, PASHYANTI, MADHYAMA and VAIKHARI). However, I have the freedom to keep on studying Gita and merge with my own cosmic consciousness and be empowered enough to quit “my” intellectual,
  6. 6. instinctual, emotional and instinctual realms, “my” material possessions and “my” body, at appropriate time; smoothly and diligently akin to a blossoming flower that emanates its pleasant fragrance! Now before I go ahead, I must state here, that NAMASMARAN enabled the much necessary paradigm shift for understanding Gita and Gita made it possible to adhere to apparently meaningless and unglamorous activity such as NAMASMARAN. But most importantly it is the cosmic consciousness (Guru) that has made all this possible for the benefit of everyone! I am planning to write on individual chapters as and when it becomes feasible. But in as much as I don’t want to keep any copyrights; so that anybody in the world; could utilize these shared perceptions freely, I would also like to clarify that; just as well meaning use of these would aid in universal blossoming; the plagiarism of this material in any form with vested interests and mercenary motives; would prove detrimental to the plagiarists and their readers; and hence to everyone. November 4, 2009, 4:30 pm.
  7. 7. Amidst the cacophony of needs, wants, passions, infatuations, goals, dreams and aspirations, which I was conscious of, there was inexplicable undercurrent that seemed to give sometimes incomprehensible twists and turns to my life beyond my tolerance and forbearance. These twists and turns seemed to shake and stir me from deep within! Study of Gita even as it appeared to create turmoil within my intellectual and emotional framework; I could not get rid of it, till today. This is why, I feel it has link to my past life! The cosmic consciousness (guru) i.e. the field; guides throughout different contingent lives. It is just in recent times that I have started appreciating that Gita has the nectar of immortality that is beyond individual consciousness. But I must share with you that Gita kills one’s subjectivity, which is like a dying experience! This is why I felt it was brutally frightening to study and internalize Gita! But even then, Gita immersed me herself, which is why I feel it has link with my past life! Again, you may not believe this! Many worship Gita and many condemn it, but without studying it! They merely use some quotations from Gita for proving their point! I used to do it as well; to impress the audience and feel good with
  8. 8. myself. But now I know that it is like eating and either enjoying or hating the skin of the fruit! The words of Gita are so simple that often they appeared to be ridiculously simple! I never quite understood then, why Gita enjoyed such a coveted position and reigned supremacy in world literature! In India, Gita is recited, chanted, by hearted by many. Earlier I thought this was stupidity or slavish mentality. At times I thought this was blind belief. But I confess frankly that I was wrong. Today I feel Gita can benefit all the children in the world to develop and tone up their central nervous system (including the speech areas) and enhance their evolution during this life! This is true not merely for a child but for any and every person of any age in the world. As a student of physiology, I am sure that; by hearting of certain facts, meaningful hymns, philosophical or scientific sutras (e.g. those from Ayurveda, Gita, and Arithmetic), without questioning; lets the child build; the edifice of knowledge and then work on it. Up to a certain age there is no capacity in us to analyze and comprehend certain aspects of life and hence insistence of
  9. 9. clarification should not be encouraged. It can lead to arrogant and belligerent behavior detrimental to the building of the edifice of knowledge and grooming of any individual at any stage. After studying Gita I realized that questions should not be discouraged. They should always be asked. But it must also be clear that all questions may not be answered and if answered, the answers may not be understood. Hence respect and patience are very important. Hidden meanings are not understood by casual reading and/or egocentric approach under spell of egalitarian, utopian or any such philosophical thought. It can not be appreciated by individualistic trends hidden under the guise of analytical fervor and scientific temper. Patience (which is born from honesty, commitment and readiness to go beyond individual subjectivity and paradigms of every kind) opens the doors to enlightenment and blossoming at individual and global levels! Now I realize that study of Gita can empower a serious student of Gita to live with unconditioned acceptance, love and respect for every moment and situation, and work in consonance with nature; to one’s complete fulfillment and greatest satisfaction.
  10. 10. Gita enables one to blossom in such a way, that subjectivity gets shed off smoothly; while global unity and harmony begin to pulsate in one’s heart! It is worthwhile to share with you here; that opportunity to study Gita is the greatest treasure in my life for me. November 4, 2009 9:45 pm. During my first few years of study of Namasmaran, Vishnusahasranama and Gita, I was instinctively or intuitively convinced that the essence of the teachings of saints and philosophical literature was not in opposition to the idea of social justice and material abundance explicit in socialistic and leftist way of thinking. I felt that inequality and exploitation were aberrations and not teachings of saints and Hindu philosophy. During those days equality meant a lot to me; because inequality seemed to symbolize exploitation. But gradually it became clear that being not equal can mean merely being different and complimentary (and not necessarily unequal in the sense of constituting antagonistic relationship of exploiter and exploited)!
  11. 11. Hence I was possessed by only one question: How to show that Hindu philosophy acceptable in the mainstream society; is in favor of the essence of socialism and communism in terms of welfare of all? I was obsessed by only one concern: Showing that the philosophy of Hindu dharma and teachings of saints advocated more appropriate, more humane and more progressive complementarity and so I wrote my comments or interpretations on all these with this view in mind. But as the time passed, I started realizing that my efforts were honest but were subjective, incomplete and not absolute. I was really frustrated because I didn’t quite understand the subtle difference between subjective and objective perspectives. I was unable to see how my efforts; admired by most readers; could make no impact whatsoever on the society! My contention however did not dwindle. I still felt quite strongly that real spiritualism; if it is real; then must blossom the universe in every possible way. Gradually I began to realize that it was useless or counterproductive to simply despise both; my own short comings as well those present in what ever was
  12. 12. being marketed under the guise of spiritualism; constituting mainly devotional songs, dances and eating good food. There was no sense in getting frustrated i.e. blaming myself; or accepting defeat or blaming the “spiritual” activities, which many times were tarnished by a variety of accusations and allegations. What is required, is blossoming together and empowering one another; through the study and practice of NAMASMARAN and Gita. Everyone would then realize that being “spiritual” in absence of global blossoming is actually not being really spiritual but being actually escapist and/or schizophrenic. This conviction would enable everyone to grow from within; rather than remaining in fool’s paradise of so called spiritualism! Such blossoming would lead to intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical actions; in terms of globally nurturing and blossoming policy making, planning, administration and implementation would ensue. November5, 2009 10:00 am 1st chapter Initially when I began to read Gita, I felt that I am reading a story of war. I was rather put off by the list if names and the description of conches they blew.
  13. 13. Later I read about the repulsion of Arjuna about the idea of war and violence and his arguments about the disastrous effects of war. I felt that there was nothing intellectual and it all seemed to be too obvious to be stated. But I kept on by hearting it apparently; as a kind of exercise of memory and probably also to fill the void in me. I did not quite understand the exact meaning MOHA for long time. Some said that Arjuna was afraid and some said that it was his love for the family members. Some felt Arjuna was right and some said he was wrong. But I never seem to understand how this was related day to day life of a common man and me. Some said that the description of war was symbolic and actually Gita relates to the higher self in an individual with his lower self. This seemed impressive but could not explain the relevance of Arjuna’s arguments about VARNA SANKAR i.e. haphazard and lawless marriages
  14. 14. amongst different strata and groups in society and their ill effects. It seems that Gita actually deals with the individual, existence, universe, the time and cosmic consciousness. It also deals with different stages of human development from SADHAKA i.e. seeker and SIDDHA i.e. enlightened individual. It also deals with the various ways and techniques to attain the ultimate state of liberation. Initially I used to feel that Gita relates to individual emancipation and hence felt that there was nothing in terms of solution for the welfare of world. This could be because ego; which prevented me from seeing my unity with the universe (not necessarily unjustified or condemnable, but not accurate either) and developed the passion and mission born out of that ego that “I have to change the world for better”! Since I was expecting a kind blue print for the universal welfare; and since I did not find it; I used to feel that Gita is individualistic and hence of no consequences for the global welfare. Naturally I was not quite in love with Gita. In fact I read and studied it with reluctance and as if because somebody was pushing me from within to study it persistently.
  15. 15. Due to my honest (though subjective) concern; I was obsessed by global welfare, of which I had faint sketch in mind. But I was neither I was finding any reflections of the sketch in reality; nor I was completely convinced by it. I was probably looking for clearer blueprint in Gita. But since Gita does not give any such blueprint, I was rather getting depressed by reading Gita. However in this turmoil gradually began to subside when I started to realize that the role of Gita is not to provide any blueprint but to inspire a universal blueprint conducive to blossoming of everyone in the world in a most democratic way! Some people thought Gita was produced on battlefield, some felt that it was not a creation of one individual. Some said that many people have added different verses out of context and relevance. I felt that such criticism had nothing to do what I was looking for in Gita and hence did not bother. I was not concerned whether it was created by one or many and whether it was narrated on battlefield or elsewhere! Some people said that it was not proper to read Gita at home as it leads to conflicts in home and some
  16. 16. people said that it was inauspicious to read it because it was read after some one’s demise. All these things disturbed me while studying Gita but not enough to deter me from studying it! I however felt that Gita was not very pleasant like a romantic poetry and did not generate elation or ecstasy. It seemed to ruthlessly remind unwanted, unnecessary and unrelated questions and problems such of war and death! Arguments that Gita preaches violence and the opinion that it promotes inequality and exploitation appeared too superficial based on casual reading with preformed notions. Many people in the world alleged then and do so even today; that; Hindu scriptures such as VEDAs, SMRUTIs (Compilations of rules, regulations and practical techniques for social stability, growth and harmony) advocate inequality and exploitation. This was because of the labor division that continued through generations, in a structured form. It is true that various influences such as military invasions and religious persecutions tore apart the fabric of holistic Hindu philosophy and way of life, into arbitrary, coercive and at times absurd traditions and
  17. 17. conventions, but it does not render the Hindu philosophy exploitative, outdated and counterproductive. I began to understand the Hindu philosophy and the revelations in the scriptures depict the cosmic dynamics and how an individual be a part of this eternal orchestra to his or her fullest satisfaction; simultaneously aiding the blossoming of the universe. Those studying it superficially could not see this potential in the Hindu scriptures, which could rejuvenate, regenerate and even revive the chaotic and turbulent human civilization all over the world. I realized this sooner or latter and felt greater and greater need to explore the heart of Gita. I started getting as if haunted by a beautiful and barely seen blurred picture of the core of Gita. The Gita begins with the description of legions of Kauravas and Pandavas on the Kurukshetra. Thus Gita directly begins with the most crucial situation one can have in life viz. the question of life and death. All conflicts in life are concentrated in this situation. Gita deals war of higher self with the lower self in an individual, where there is too much attachment about
  18. 18. likes and dislikes of the lower self. This attachment is depicted in terms of attachment (like that for suicidal and destructive addiction) for the relatives even if they were social psychopaths. This attachment leads to despondent retreat to lower self and passive acceptance of and involvement in degeneration and decay of one’s own true self (and that of the universe). This is MOHA of Arjuna, which I guess is common to most people in the world (which is why Gita is universal). The Gita simultaneously deals with the actual war also; because it looks at the individual and society in a holistic way. It conceives and teaches to appreciate that the condition of war within and our response to that war; naturally manifest in family and social life. I think, I can appreciate this previously unpleasant but unavoidable and eternal war within and out! Strange though it may appear, it is true that this internal and external war is a product of evolution! Animals have no choice! They neither can glorify their instincts nor can they condemn it! Neither are they endowed with the freedom to choose indulgence or are they free to opt for abstinence! Arjuna’s response of MOHA is a response to inner war (that invariably manifests in the society)! Such
  19. 19. despondent response to the lower self of an individual is invariably reflected in the form of retreat to the lower self of the society i.e. psychopathic and detrimental elements in the society. Gita not only depicts the individual and global despondency; but it also depicts an intellectual explanation and justification of such despondency in the form of apparently sublime values and concerns. Thus Arjuna is dismissing the idea of killing teachers, brothers and other loved ones by forecasting the social holocaust in terms of the ruining of families and the exploitation of widows and mutilation of social discipline and harmony leading to ill effects on the departed souls and the abyss thereof! Thus Gita creates a strong case for individual and social mediocrity, individualism, pettiness, gullibility, defeatism, and despondency with intellectual explanations and justifications, which span from individual and social life and even life after death! Through depicting the individual and social despondence (represented by ARJUNA VISHADA) Gita creates a ground for an eternal discourse to shun the individual, social and universal tendencies to sink and decay!
  20. 20. Gita enters into 2nd chapter and then offers the omnipotent and omniscient panacea (to such despondence and decay that surfaces repeatedly in the human civilization throughout history); from the very source of eternally provident cosmic consciousness that rejuvenates the mankind from millennia to millennia and time and again! November 5, 2009; 10:00 pm After creating a strong case for the despondence; like a devil’s advocate; in 1st chapter; the propounder of Gita straight a way proclaims the aphorism that you don’t die; in 2nd chapter! This aphorism can cause a massive shock for any serious reader and I was no exception. Isn’t it natural that normally our mindset cannot understand, agree, believe or realize the concept of immortality of soul? I however; kept on reading it, but without really understanding, agreeing, believing and of course realizing! In fact this all discussion made me feel miserably torn in two conceptual premises! Neither could I agree with the claim, which was beyond my comprehension and even imagination; as I could never imagine myself discarding my body like old clothes or in live in absence of the body, nor
  21. 21. could I dismiss the claim; because I “knew” (though I had not personally realized) that a) nothing is destroyed b) consciousness; thoughts, feelings, time, space, energy etc do not have the same kind of existence, birth or death and c) ‘beginning and end’ are human concepts; derived from the limitations of physiological state, consciousness, perceptions, thinking, feelings and the information processing in the neurons and their network! Arjuna has indicated his disgust for a war that involves killing of near and dear ones. He is selfless and has no interest in any gains from such a war that involves shading of blood of his teachers, brothers and other close ones. So Arjuna is NOT afraid of war like a timid creature, but his conscience has paralyzed him! Arjuna like any sensitive, honest, brave and conscientious individual despised the killing of his brothers. I am sure that any sensitive and conscientious individual would relate with the plight of Arjuna; because it results from information processing through neuroendocrine, autonomic and central nervous systems; and hence is universal! But having said that; as I went on studying Gita, it started becoming clearer, that human beings are not merely physiological; they are potentially much more than that!
  22. 22. November 6, 08:20 pm After listening to Arjuna’s plight, Lord Krishna, who is cosmic consciousness, personified; (and hence can see; what others don’t; and is conscious of what others are not); sees that Arjuna is not able to see the truth beyond the physiologically restricted sensory perceptions, like most people in the world! This inability to see beyond physiological boundaries, leads to either arrogance or despondence. Lord Krishna notes that Arjuna has been paralyzed (inappropriate conation or response) due to inappropriate feelings (affect) resulting from this erroneous perception (cognition). This syndrome is called MOHA. Lord Krishna therefore sets out to explores and salvage the human potential of Arjuna (and mankind) that and wake him to his immortal self, (and thereby rectify cognition, affect and conation) from the despondent slumber of physiological confinements. Lord Krishna does this in a step by step manner, with different explanations.
  23. 23. As a friend, philosopher and guide; he disapproves Arjuna’s response as totally unbecoming for Arjuna. He declares it as totally inappropriate. He explains to Arjuna that love and attachment to the bodies of all the warriors representing sociopathic elements; (and lower elements in us which cloud our perceptions, vulgarize our feelings and deteriorate our actions) is inappropriate. Such wars keep repeating over millennia in as much as wars between the lower self and the higher self in an individual keep recurring from time to time. Lord Krishna shows that waking up and rising to one’s immortal existence engenders the appropriate actions and one should not get deterred by any considerations born out of MOHA. Lord Krishna further clarifies, that the warring factions and the war (which also goes on in the individual as well as in the universe); had beginning and end but its core (cosmic consciousness) is immortal and one should realize it (by evolving through the various means described in scriptures such as NAMASMARAN), and express it enthusiastically with all might, in such a war (which is actually a golden opportunity, because, animals do
  24. 24. have such a choice!) against the forces of darkness (within and outside). This is called DHARMYA YDDHA because it is in tune with cosmic consciousness. This is similar to clinically accurate surgical treatment; which can be required for the health of the whole body (and society) and is totally different from indiscriminate violence or indiscriminate nonviolence, born out of ignorant and subjective premises. It has to be remembered that through out hereafter; Lord Krishna keeps describing how one can conquer the physiological (individualistic and petty) elements in body (which mar the consciousness and cause MOHA). He further also shows that uninterrupted (conscious) union with immortal soul is called YOGA and the actions born through it are accurate, precise and appropriate; and in tune with the infallible cosmic principles! He enlightens Arjuna (and the world) that such state of being (in union with immortal consciousness) and actions springing therefrom; as SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna guides Arjuna about this state and assures him that this state brings peace (for that individual and the universe) even in the face of bodily death.
  25. 25. Since Lord Krishna talked so much about this state of union with immortality, which makes us desireless; the next question would be “Why not remain united with the immortal and be peaceful, instead of warring?” Arjuna asks this question in the 3rd chapter. But before I go ahead to 3rd chapter; and share my understanding (?) about Gita, I must make it clear, that study of Gita, Vishnusahasranama and NAMSMARAN probably compliment each other tremendously. I have a feeling that NAMASMARAN; which I call a mega-fusion, a mega-process; or a mega- fountainhead; is sure to absorb the whole universe in itself i.e. immortal cosmic consciousness and in turn, as and when consciousness adequately blossoms in an individual through NAMASMARAN, the concepts of immortality in Gita would become tangible! The vice versa could also be true! It is this awakening to one’s immortality; that I think; one (and the people of world) could gain from Gita; and that is more precious than anything else in the world; and even the world itself!
  26. 26. November 7, 2009; 12:10 pm In 2nd chapter Lord Krishna declares the aphorism of immortality of the core of universe and individual; and human potential to realize this core that embodies cosmic consciousness. But Arjuna (and student of Gita) cannot experience the immortality right away! Lord Krishna therefore (apart from explaining the ways to rise and conquer the obstacles in the way of cosmic consciousness) gives other supportive arguments to emphasize the importance of SWADHARMA i.e. behavior born from the state of union with cosmic consciousness. Thus Lord Krishna indicates to Arjuna that the greatest value in life is SWADHARMA and hence any person who goes astray (due to his subjective paradigm) from this SWADHARMA; is bound to be ridiculed as coward! This essence of value system is eternal glory of Gita that has been revitalizing mankind from millennia to millennia! Further, Lord Krishna reiterates that all the efforts of human civilization viz. VEDAs are essentially born from and culminate into cosmic consciousness; and
  27. 27. get expressed through individuals according to their constitutions. Those who know this; are always connected with the cosmic consciousness (YOGA); and do not get distracted by the illusive results and those who do not know this; get cut off from the cosmic consciousness and their perceptions, feelings and the quality, methodology and the elegance of their actions get marred. They develop the illusion that their limited existence is the doer of everything; (treating the subordinate as master); and vacillate between pride and pain from the changing results of their inappropriate actions. The 3rd chapter begins with Arjuna’s reluctance to participate in the war, and be contented without bothering about the gains of a bloody war! But Lord Krishna identifies the subtle nihilism, cynicism or pessimism hidden in this attitude. He identifies this darkness and drives the point such “ascetic” extremism is suicidal and not conducive to liberation! Lord Krishna guides Arjuna that it is impossible to live without action. (Isn’t it true that irrespective of whether we want or not, billions of biophysical and biochemical activities go on in our body and mind?). He clarifies that any one who tries to live in inaction,
  28. 28. deceives himself or herself. The only way to liberation is to practice SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna says whether the cosmic consciousness expresses itself in actions or the actions reach you to the cosmic consciousness; both are essentially not different. The first is called JNANAYOGA, where apparently consciousness is predominant and latter is called KARMAYOGA, where apparently; the actions are predominant. Thus the actions which spring from the cosmic consciousness (as a result of the practice of NAMASMARAN), are the ones which lead to realization of cosmic consciousness and hence are called liberating or freeing actions! Lord Krishna then highlights the cycle of nature in which universe manifests from and again dissolves into the consciousness and suggests that when the society and the individual conform to the innate principle of nature, then they blossom together. He also points out that those who don’t conform to these principles, never blossom themselves and also become obstacles in the blossoming of others. This happens because of their being overwhelmed by their own subjectivity and individualistic whims and compulsions. This can happen also because of the superiority or inferiority complex developed about their environment, conditions and apparently
  29. 29. unglamorous or despised nature of their SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna elaborates that since everybody is not exactly the replica of another person and the constitutions are different; the nature of SWADHARMA varies. He reiterates that even in such a situation it is important not get bogged down by the deceptive external and internal influences and persist on one’s SWADHARMA, even if one has to die! This appears a bit harsh. But when I keenly thought over, I realized that living devoid of SWADHARMA is itself like death! Hence SWADHARMA is preferably even in the face of death because it is the express highway of individual and global blossoming! November 7, 2009, 3:30 pm. In the 4th chapter, Lord Krishna expands this concept of SWADHARMA and informs Arjuna that this is the knowledge that has run through generations and millennia. Like any physiological individual, Arjuna also doubts Lord Krishna’s statement and then Lord Krishna reveals to him his immortal and true nature and that it is he (cosmic consciousness) that keeps re-
  30. 30. manifesting as and when the universe becomes oblivious of him. (I feel that this is true in an individual, society as well as universe!). Lord Krishna asserts; that he manifests (probably through rising mass consciousness) and annihilates the demonic and devilish forces of darkness, which obstruct the blossoming of individuals, society and the whole universe and one, who realizes this, unites with immortal consciousness! After revealing his cosmic nature, Lord Krishna elucidates how from the consciousness different VARNAs i.e. four main characteristic personalities manifest (though the consciousness does not produce them; in the physical sense of that word) and how they function! He also states that people work according to their stage of evolution; through different yajnas, pranayamas, and humble dialogue with a guide and reach enlightenment. Lord Krishna points out how the conflicts between upper and lower nature can sabotage one’s progress and assures that SWADHARMA or YOGA liberate and the individual (and society and the universe) and hence appeals Arjuna to get rid of any doubt
  31. 31. whatsoever and tread the path of SWADHARMA single mindedly. November 8, 2009 11:30 am In 5th chapter the discussion begins with a doubt; about the choice between SANYASA and YOGA. I think the word SANYASA here, pertains to renunciation or asceticism; i.e. departure from all the day to day activities required for the normal social life and YOGA pertains to participation in these activities; by following SWADHARMA. Why should Arjuna repeat this question? The answer is; understanding supremacy of SWADHARMA is not adequate. Because, in spite of understanding; the inertia keeps on surfacing and prompting an individual; to escape from the worldly responsibilities giving one excuse or another. In India; there were tides of ideologies glorifying irresponsible “asceticism” from time to time. Even today, there are various breeds of “spiritualism” and “SANYASA” spreading like pandemics in the world and cause masses to move into irresponsible inaction, indolence and parasitism probably as a reaction to harrowingly and violently stressful petty pursuits.
  32. 32. Arjuna’s repetition of the question underlines the importance, span and sway of such irresponsible “asceticism”. Lord Krishna reiterates the vital or shall we say life saving importance of SWADHARMA for individual, social and global growth and blossoming. He confirms that SWADHARMA more meritorious than “asceticism” in which one may conquer one’s petty selfishness but can succumb to the escapist, defeatist and irresponsible indolence and inertia, which drags the individuals, society and the world into abyss of misery! Lord Krishna makes it clear that SANYASA i.e. external renunciation (due to incidental cause) is usually impulsive and not true renunciation. Such renunciation is because of repulsion for day to day activities (SWADHARMA); which appear mediocre; but can serve the purpose of blossoming one and all and engenders misery. It is true that some individuals are born more evolved than the rest and hence neither get interested nor get involved in the day to day transactions of family and society. They renounce the world and accept SANYASA just as ripe fruit falls from the tree. Some
  33. 33. other individuals understand and realize the true nature of the world through SANKHYA philosophy without going through the experiences a common goes through. Being aware of this, Lord Krishna clarifies that we should not get enamored by the SANYASA and SANKHYA philosophy but stick to our SWADHARMA, because even as the SANYASA, SANKHYA and YOGA (SWADHARMA) look different; ultimately culminate into the same pedestal of cosmic consciousness! Having said this Lord Krishna elaborates the sublime characteristics of practitioner of SWADHARMA, which elevates the individual in a blissful state that is beyond physiological boundaries and beyond all petty and subjective considerations of life! November 8, 2009, 4:30 pm In 3rd chapter it is stated that one who cooks and eats merely for his petty pleasures (which are actually detrimental to his blossoming) is a thief. This is a very important aspect of Gita.
  34. 34. Gita encourages individuals to be active physically, instinctually, emotionally and intellectually and according to one’s capabilities and skills, but with the goal getting freed from the subjectivity and merging with the cosmic consciousness. Gita states that one should never dissuade (which is referred to as BUDDHIBHEDA) any other person from his or her activities of livelihood such as crafts, arts and other skilled and productive activities; and in fact encourage and try to do all such activities in life; but with the sole aim of conforming to the absolute truth. Lord Krishna reiterates this even in 5th chapter. The 6th chapter Lord Krishna reinforces this point and describes certain ways by which man can merge with the objective reality. He therefore makes it clear right in the beginning that any one who works without attachment to the results, is a SANYASI and also a YOGI and not the one who does not do his duties as prescribed by the scriptures (with the intention of individual and global blossoming).
  35. 35. Just as he imparts the insight in SANYASA by pointing out the dangers of inaction and indolence and importance of getting rid from the results, he also espouses and elucidates the nature of YOGA (which means all activities done to merge with the absolute); in the sense that YOGA is impossible in presence of SANKALPA i.e. subjective (erroneous) projections or utopia! You can imagine that SANKALPA or individual or subjective goals act as leakages and hinder the merger of individual consciousness with the absolute consciousness! It is exactly like leakages in the pipes through which you cannot pump water to higher floors. Even though these concepts pertain to individual and global blossoming, they also make sense in day to day activities. Thus if you don’t depend on results you can avoid self destructive responses (out of excitation or depression) to results. But it has to be appreciated; that in everyday life action is usually associated with results. Thus some understanding and anticipation of results is bound to be there and has to be there, so that you can perform the action elegantly and diligently. Gita upholds such continued improvement in technique and does not contradict such anticipation; on which your feelings don’t depend!
  36. 36. November 8, 2009 7:pm There are many postures, mudras, pranayamas etc apart from proper nutrition, sleep etc. which are important aspects of life, which ought to be cultivated right from childhood, so that YOGA becomes possible. Lord Krishna does not elaborate in details on this, but suffice it to say that once the goal viz. self realization is identified and given topmost priority and importance, then one can adopt suitable techniques according to one’s physical and social environment, conducive to reach the goal! Lord Krishna reassures Arjuna (and everyone) that dedication and consistent study and practice of make YOGA possible. Lord Krishna also maintains that even if an individual loses his body before reaching the goal, his efforts are never wasted and realizes the YOGA i.e. self realization in the next birth, adorned with the necessary qualities. Lord Krishna also clarifies the importance of YOGA in terms of actual practice (which seems to beneficially evolve the physiology) rather than mere reading and understanding and further emphasizes
  37. 37. the importance the focus on the goal viz. self realization i.e. complete submission of the subjectivity to Lord Krishna i.e. objective or cosmic consciousness. This chapter (like the 16th,17th and 18th chapters) is important for any educationist, education policy maker, educational administrator, teacher or trainer in the world, so as to work holistically because it outlines the actual factors which contribute to the process of blossoming, including diet and nutrition in brief! 10:00 pm It is easy to understand how this would have far reaching and beneficial impact on the world in terms of perspective, policies, plans and implementation; for individual and global blossoming, which is imperative today, because; no individual nation can grow or perish in isolation, without beneficial or adverse impact on the other nations; for long period. The practical relevance of this is on policy making. For example, global reduction in the production of two wheelers and small cars; in preference to mass transport vehicles such as buses, has impact on global environment, fuel consumption, traffic jams,
  38. 38. accidents, pollution, wearing out of roads, crowding of local trains (in metros) and so on. If principles of Gita (the essential nutrients for individual and global blossoming) are imbibed and digested by decision makers of the world, then such globally beneficial policies can emerge in all the fields of life. In 7th chapter Lord Krishna narrates his omnipresent nature to Arjuna and indicates how only few realize this nature and how others do not realize this! He explains that he is the light beyond the physical light and remains unseen by eyes!! November 9, 2009 11:30 am In 1st chapter, there is depiction of subjective; and hence inspite of being very conscientious; erroneous perception, feelings and response of Arjuna. In 2nd chapter there is elaborate explanation of cosmic consciousness and contingent nature of physical existence of the nonliving and living world! There is also a detailed account of the characteristics of the individual who realizes this immortality and expresses accurate cognition, affect and conation.
  39. 39. It is obvious that even as reading per se; is not enough to bring about the transformation in an individual and the world; it is also true that the role reading and understanding; in terms of knowing the “road map of blossoming” in the process of conscious evolutionary transformation of an individual and thereby the world; can not be denied. The 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th chapters describe the concept SWADHARMA and some of the relevant techniques in brief; but which can vary according to geographical, historical, social, religious and other circumstances. 7th chapter is meant for reinforcing these ideas by pointing out how people in, crisis, need, greed or intellectual and emotional yearning may get attracted to the absolute truth. In 7th chapter Lord Krishna reveals his omnipresent nature and indicates how he i.e. cosmic consciousness; is present in every visible and invisible aspect of the universe and how only few realize this nature and how rest others; do not realize this! This can become clear to a discerning student; when he would appreciate the stanza elucidating how Lord Krishna is a light beyond the physical light and remains inaccessible to most!
  40. 40. Throughout 6 chapters; one finds the common idea of the rising of consciousness in an individual and the world; and thereby getting freedom from petty, mean and trivial but strong bondages. In 7th chapter there is endorsement of this and also further buttressing of this point by indicating how the cosmic consciousness encompasses every living and nonliving matter and space and how awareness of this enables one to reunite with immortal self. Naturally Arjuna would ask about the nature of the universe and relevance of it to human life. Thus cosmic dynamics is described by Lord Krishna in 8th chapter. Lord Krishna assures Arjuna that a person blossoms to get freed from the shackles of subjectivity and reunites with one’s true self, through the knowledge of inseparable nature of the cosmic panorama, an individual and their relationship! But before we discuss this further, I think it is important to talk about nonviolence. AHIMSA i.e. nonviolence; appears in chapters such as 16th. In my view this AHIMSA refers to negation or disapproval of violence committed indiscriminately and/or under the influence of utter
  41. 41. darkness of ignorance (a variety of self activities destructive to self, society and the universe). Unqualified and indiscriminate nonviolence is NOT advocated in Gita, which is clear from the repeated appeal by Lord Krishna to Arjuna to participate tin the war (against darkness and destruction). It is important to realize this to avoid perennial schizophrenic state of upholding indiscriminate nonviolence, (without being completely convinced) and practicing violence for with petty selfish motives (again without being fully convinced). In our society violence (almost indiscriminate) is legitimately practiced by killing animals to eat, killing people of other countries for the so called national interest, pride and profit, killing alleged criminals by death sentence and implementing a variety of deterrent punishments and most importantly unleashing policies detrimental to everyone in all the fields. If we understand that AHIMSA means NOT indiscriminate nonviolence, protection of everything conducive to individual and global blossoming and destruction of everything that jeopardizes the blossoming of individuals and universe, then it would
  42. 42. resolve the conflicts in the minds of all young and old and everywhere in the world and promote practice of SWADHARMA and blossoming of individuals and universe. If we keep on talking about nonviolence, then it can create value crisis and semblance of schizophrenia (contrasting, conflicting and contradictory thoughts/feelings and actions); in everyone and everywhere. 2:00 pm I found that the prescription of blossoming and merging with the absolute consciousness through various techniques and through comprehension of the nature and interactions between the cosmos and the individual; and practicing SWADHARMA; in 7 chapters; are not as simple as they appear! In daily routine we tend to get overwhelmed and confused or bewildered (and cut off from our true self) by the deceptive influences coming from our body, family, society, world and the products of all these in terms of literature, art, media, education etc. This makes the self realization (dissolving the subjectivity in objective truth) and self expression i.e. SWADHARMA, which are mutually nurturing and promoting; very difficult.
  43. 43. The inappropriate perception generates agony and urgency to respond. But since the response is usually ineffective (because of not being in conformity or harmony with the nature) one becomes agitated and/depressed. Actually in such a situation the prescriptions in Gita, or the simplest means such as NAMASMARAN advocated by saints and seers from all over the world, must be practiced with greater conviction! But one can not “see” how it would rectify the perceived pathos in personal or global life (even if it be erroneous); and hence tends to enter in a vicious cycle of increasing distress. It is at this point that your SHRADDHA (which means unconditioned devotion and dedication without any petty motive) can rescue you from the vicious cycle of distress and help you enter in wellness cycle. In 6th chapter therefore it is reiterated by Lord Krishna that mind is fickle and likely to fluctuate and vacillate, but one should keep on keep on trying with victorious attitude! One may not see how holistic perspective can create the difference in different fields and may get nervous because of the agonizing plight of people in the world
  44. 44. due to callous and corrupt bureaucracy and leaders, but the SADHANA of any suitable nature according to one’s tradition or NAMASMARAN must never be stopped. To convey this strongly; Lord Krishna has assured that one would never fail if marches on this path! I have begun to realize; which I did not realize before; that all activities (especially NAMASMARAN) to reach the truth, have their impact, though it may not perceived immediately due to one’s subjectivity. The lesson from the 7 chapters therefore is to keep trying to reach the absolute and keep working in its light to the extent it is possible for you at any given time and in victorious manner. That is exactly the reason why I am writing this; and making available for free download for sharing with any one and everyone in the world without any precondition! Trying to keep yourself connected with cosmic consciousness; keeps you reassured on the one hand and active in an appropriate manner (engaged in SWADHARMA) on the other. 4:30 pm .
  45. 45. The idea of arbitrary suppression or unabated indulgence do not find place in Gita. Similarly regimentalized stereotypes procedures also do not find place in Gita. That makes Gita somewhat ambiguous initially, but as you go on internalizing it you find that she is basically universal in nature. In 3rd chapter, 4th chapter and also 6th chapters this is evident. Gita is universal because she show the light to any one and every one with whatsoever state of evolution and from anywhere in the world irrespective of his/her tradition and without being judgmental about anyone’s life style. In 8th chapter Lord Krishna clarifies that a person engaged in SWADHARMA through intellectual, emotional, instinctual activities actually is connected with the absolute and objective reality and hence does not get entangled and shackled in the repetitive basal cycles through different births. There is also a declaration applicable to bright and dark external and internal environments, which lead to the fate of an individual. Thus individual is influenced by adverse external physical, chemical and psychological activities and inner hormonal, autonomic and central nervous activities. But it is
  46. 46. also assured that any one who keeps trying to be connected reaches the summit of union with cosmic consciousness. Nov 10, 2009, 11:15 am I write on day to day basis rather than sticking serially and sequentially to chapters and verses. This has the advantages of being natural in expression rather than formal and also of repetition and/additional emphasis of more important points which reverberate in mind about with reference to some verses. Sometimes it also happens; that I skip many verses, at given point in time because I have nothing to say about them at that time, but latter additional perspective and insights develop in the flow writing; and deserve expression even if it may appear out of context of a give chapter. In the 2nd chapter it is taught that YOGA means (ultimate) elegance or perfection in skill and other way round; the greatest skill or perfection in life is to realize YOGA! There is elaborate discussion on how physical senses should be controlled. But if one takes into account the reference in 3rd chapter, then it becomes clear that the human life and experiences there in; have (and
  47. 47. appreciated by us that they have) one goal or destination; and that is SELF REALIZATION and there is one way to achieve it i.e. SWADHARMA. Gita is unique in the sense that she shows your ultimate goal and also shows you the path and method to tread it. Gita therefore does not advocate suppression or indulgence in an arbitrary manner, but inspires SWADHARMA; in which while enjoying the core or essence of all material pleasures you channellize them to blossoming of and all. This is really universal thought; in view of the different physiological and other needs of people in the world from different regions and cultures. Once the goal of individual and global blossoming and the way of SWADHARMA is identified and adhered to; rest of the dos and don’ts (which need not be regimentalized) follow the suit, in appropriate manner. In this context, one can appreciate the perspective born out Gita study. Thus the we should learn and teach the father and mother principles and parental care; so that we don’t develop disgust for sex and succumb to sexual aberrations on the one hand; and develop carnal sexual obsession and get trapped in unending and unsatisfactory indulgence in sex.
  48. 48. It is nice to share here that I found study of Gita different from study of many other books. The study of Gita elevates you from subjectivity to objectivity, i.e. getting in alignment with the nature. Gita gradually but surely changes your status of being effectual to being causative! This is certainly difficult to agree intellectually. But can only be experienced. Another point that struck me is: Gita teaches and trains us to enter the center of universe! Thus from the world of visible appearances she trains us to see and merge with the core. Thus Gita does not advocate renunciation of the world on the one hand and does not justify or glorify the unending and unsatisfactory retrogressive shackling in petty pursuits as well! This is very useful in day to day life. If you experience the core of your spouse’s heart, then the fear of loss of your spouse (or any loved one) gradually disappears to a large extent and the romance (and love in general) become superromance and super love! Thus Gita trains you supreme romance and super love.
  49. 49. Another interesting aspect of Gita is; you begin to refer to Gita as “she” and not it. Because Gita becomes even more valuable than “living” and “loving” mother! In 5th chapter Lord Krishna assures that you would not be born again if you realize the self. But in 4th chapter; he also assures that he would manifest or reincarnate as and when appropriate/necessary. The explanations to this contradictory statement are: 1. Lord Krishna’s reincarnation is represented by the awakening of consciousness in every individual from time to time. 2. The reincarnation is progressive sojourn of life of an individual (who is either already enlightened or gets enlightened) for guiding the mankind and is different from rebirth, which is full of shackles of ignorance. Gita guides us to develop the conceptual framework or blue print of our life and NAMSMARAN rejuvenates us from moment to moment to proceed. The other way round also may be true! It is like anatomy and physiology. Anatomical structure is essential and complementary to physiological function and vice versa. But when you go deeper; both seem to be indistinguishable!
  50. 50. One of the most important things I learnt probably as a by product of studying Gita; is practice of the essence of Gita is immensely important. Repeated reading or recitation of Gita consolidates the convictions about the essence and thereby rejuvenates the enthusiasm to practice that essence (NAMASMARAN). It is like reading about bath, which develops conviction about the advantages of bath and actual practice of bath makes the difference. Thus both are perfectly complementary. One can compare it with the reading about the advantages of exercise and actual practice of exercise. The practice of NAMASMARAN in turn; reinforces the conviction about the essence of Gita and makes the repeated recitation of Gita a sublimely empowering experience! I also learnt in the course of time that we come across a number of situations in life, (due to internal and external environment) which shroud our consciousness, and we tend to forget our true self and i.e. the essence of Gita and this is a really a shattering and weakening experience. Hence in 6th chapter the importance of consistent practice is emphasized. In my view, even somewhat arbitrary and formal recitation, reading or chanting of Gita; proves very
  51. 51. useful (by acting at subconscious and conscious levels; in the process of blossoming. The repetition is important for another reason also, which has physiological basis. Thus repletion of Gita or NAMASMARAN is a central nervous system activity and probably leads to development of stronger connections and between cerebral cortex and the limbic system, (which are otherwise very weak). This underlines the difference between a well read individual and a self realized individual. Thus one’s happiness or sadness depends on the involuntary interactions amongst the cerebral cortex, limbic, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and endocrine and other systems of the body. The perceptions, feelings and actions are usually impulsive (and hence chaotic, conflicting and counter posed) because of weak control of cerebral cortex on the remaining systems. Repeated study and practice of Gita and NAMASMARAN probably enhance the integration of all systems, bring it under higher controls such as cerebral cortex, conscience and cosmic consciousness and effectively lead to harmonious behavior blossoming one and all. One can study the changes in the brain from this point of view, in a control group and the one involved
  52. 52. in NAMASMARAN, to verify the anatomical and physiological substrate (which may not be accessible to crude technology though,) of what could usher in the essence of global culture. One of the greatest lessons of Gita to the world is; whatever we eat, drink, see, listen, talk, write, learn, perform, use, relish and so on; should get culminated into the goal of individual and global blossoming. This makes our life itself the most meritorious activity i.e. YAJNA! This is a true and qualitative revolution in individual and global life. Sometimes I am tempted to call this “spiritual communism”; though it does not convey the spirit completely. Nov 11, 2009, 10:00 am One of the most interesting things I learnt and also got thoroughly convinced in the course of time from the practice of NAMASMARAN and Gita; is the fact that everyone is moving towards the same goal; the same destination. This fact usually remains concealed and one gets impatient to teach others “for their welfare”. This impatience though natural can create condescending attitude and develop subtle expectations such as even
  53. 53. publicity and growth of your (otherwise selfless) mission! This can take away your peace and mar the quality of your behavior. When this fact that we all are going in the same direction and towards the same goal, then true love (probably million time more than that evident amongst the pilgrims) can emerge and blossom. That is the greatest hallmark of world culture. One I get convinced and clear about this fact, then even the acts of impatience and ignorance (whether committed by me or others) do not disturb me any more to a significant extent. It is matter of great privilege for us to realize (deep experience) this love especially amongst family members, relatives, colleagues, coworkers and latter even the enemies! It is natural (and hence need not be despised) that; at various stages of development we keep shouting slogans from within and out, that this should happen and frantically wait for the results generally outside! It is also true that study of Gita can develop a doubt; “Why truth has to be shown by some else?” or “Why should I follow the ancestors when I am ‘more evolved’?” As the study proceeds, you gradually
  54. 54. realize that “truth” or “self” is beyond time. You develop superiority and inferiority complex; turn by turn because of your petty identity. If “I” learn Gita it is neither a matter of pride nor a matter of pity. It is matter of being happy to blossom together! In Gita, there is a reference to virtues in many places including 16th and 18th chapters. One of them is “truth”. In everyday practice, there is always a conflict between loyal description of facts (which can prove stupid and invite difficulties or at times be honored) and concealing or misrepresenting the facts, (which also can engender punishment or bring loads of profits). Hence there is ongoing conflict in every mind about the virtue viz. truth and Gita provides the answer to it. I began to appreciate the ‘true’ meaning of ‘truth’ gradually and distinguish it from “mere narration of apparent facts; even if done with 100%; loyalty and fidelity”, which can be naïve and gullible. I began to understand that realization of “truth”; is a process and it leads to expression of appropriate behavior,
  55. 55. conducive to blossoming of everyone and realization of truth! For this to happen; there are many precepts which ought to be followed from childhood, but most important and universally practicable in every condition and situation is NAMASMARAN. In 6th chapter there is a verse; which is very famous. UDDHARET ATMANATMANAM NATMANAM AVASADAYET ATMAIVA HYATMANO BANDHUH ATMAIVA RIPURATMANA Lord Krishna elucidates the nature of real self to Arjuna in the 2nd and 3rd chapters. He then advises Arjuna in 6th chapter, to rescue and uplift the other part of his consciousness (we can call it lower or actually physical consciousness; without being derogatory) that has been trapped in body systems; and prevent its further bondage; through his higher consciousness. He further states that If you do this you would realize your higher consciousness is friend of your lower consciousness and if you don’t then your higher consciousness is verily the enemy of your lower consciousness. It used appear strange that in 2nd chapter Lord Krishna has referred the war as great opportunity. I
  56. 56. used find this strange and not acceptable, because of my feelings about the violence. I used to think that war is avoidable and should be avoided. Later, I used to think that Lord Krishna was justifies because; he had tried avert the war sufficiently. But now I realize that this opportunity refers to the option to emancipate the lower consciousness by participating in the war of all physiological and social conflicts and contradictions. In my view this war of rescuing and emancipating the consciousness trapped in senses is described in HATHAYOGA texts as KUDALINI JAGRUTI. Hence in HATHAYOGA practices (described in 6th chapter of Gita and Dnyaneshavari or Jnaneshvari) and intellectual exploration as through the SANKHY YOGA (also described in 2nd chapter of Gita and Jnaneshvari) are perfectly complementary and reach you to the same destination, viz. individual and global blossoming! The heavenly beauty and bounty of Gita is that she takes you beyond petty love and hate relationships. She reveals to you; how the love and hatred in as much as the sense of fear and animosity are born in your consciousness trapped in your senses and how rescuing the same would free you from all
  57. 57. subjectivity and all pettiness. I seem to understand that this if realized by us can make our personal relationships far more pleasant than one can ever imagine! They can go beyond any distance, any time and even death! This was makes Gita a super romantic cosmic poetry. Every single step in this direction is more precious than the entire world, even if mountains of drawbacks and oceans of adversities within or outside us; try to drag us back! I have written an article entitled “Worshiping Sex” and unknowingly or not being fully aware, I have highlighted this process of rescuing your consciousness from the physiological bastions rather than destroying the bastions themselves. I am glad that now I can appreciate this delicate and subtle and adorable feeling sexual attraction in the universe, which is inseparable from true self and bound to be free when appropriate). Nov 12, 2009 12:10 pm While studying Gita one doubt used nag me from time to time. Why could not Gita create an ideal society?
  58. 58. If we carefully understand the purport of Gita we begin to realize that an individual with a vision of “ideal society” is also a creation of the absolute consciousness. Also, the people who oppose this are also, creation of the same cosmic consciousness. Thus an individual develops intense motivation to change the society for better and make it just, as a result of several biochemical reactions in his/her body, which in turn are result of causes hidden in further past. These activities keep going on irrespective of one’s volition. Secondly the universe, if we observe, is never static. It keeps changing. Thus every molecule and atom is undergoing change. Every organism and individual, in terms of body and mind; also is undergoing change. Every society also in terms of its inhabitants; its life style and its nature; is undergoing change. So how can a changing individual have unchangeable ideal about the society that is also changing? In fact, Gita enlightens us with this wisdom and hence acts like sun, illuming the inner space of individuals for millennia.
  59. 59. Gita is like infinite source enlightenment (beyond space and time). From time to time and through ages this enlightenment manifests in appropriate individuals and through that person the consciousness of the masses. But as the individual and the society are replaced, by next generation, the void is created and the spirit of Gita has to reappear, re-manifest! This cycle goes on. It is therefore important to realize that our work is two pronged. It blossoms us individually as well as the society, but never permanently. So Gita teaches us to perform SWADHARMA with full involvement and ecstasy; without expecting anything. The absolute consciousness or the spirit of Gita is bound to take care of the future! Another point is, the world keeps on changing; beyond your subjective concepts and even if it were to change exactly according to your expectation precisely, still you would never be permanently happy because you; yourself are a changing individual! Whatever you expect is also changeable and hence can never give you lasting satisfaction.
  60. 60. This is exactly why Gita assures that the enlightenment is bound to re-express itself again and again whenever there is need. So Gita teaches us to not merely enjoy the struggle of life, but she teaches us to enjoy it like a sport, in which we pass on the mantle to the next partner! Even as this is true, sometimes you tend to get depressed because of the attachment you have for your body and the environment, the thought of quitting which, pains you. But even if you tend to get depressed; not participating in the life struggle (war!) won’t be possible for you, because of being in inescapable physiological environment, in which a variety of biochemical and biophysical activities are bound to take place; whether you wish or not! Escape is impossible and involvement in them is inevitable! Hence in 2nd chapter Lord Krishna and latter in 18th chapter, Lord Krishna asks Arjuna to follow SWADHARMA, which incorporates the goal of merging with the absolute! Hence it is also said that don’t worry about tomorrow. Just follow your SWADHARMA and for getting to exactly identify and realize your
  61. 61. SWADHARMA; you can take the help of (16th chapter) scriptures and/or practice NAMASMARAN and get the guidance from your inner voice. That makes study of Gita and sharing it with others a matter of great opportunity and ecstatic privilege. Even as our bodies are bound to perish and our society also would metamorphose, we have the opportunity to practice SWADHARMA and share our convictions with others. With reference to verses in some chapters, such as 3rd, 7th, 9th, 14th, 16th, I used to wonder, how inspite of reputation of Gita as the propounder of ultimate truth, there could be people not following the precepts of Gita, have the fate described? The answer to this question also is not very different. The individuals all over the world; though belong to the same specie Homo sapiens; are different in terms of their constitutions and their environments. Just as sunlight can be troublesome to photophobic individual, Gita can be discomforting and disagreeable to some individuals; due to their peculiarities.
  62. 62. Hence just as there can not be a permanently satisfactory ideal society, there cannot be permanent and universal agreement on Gita. I learnt that even if it is absolute truth in Gita, it can not manifest in every heart, though one can keep sharing it as a part of one’s SWADHARMA. Having said this; it is important to realize that the vision and mission of global blossoming (a gift of the cosmic consciousness); that is one’s SWADHARMA; must be enjoyed thoroughly and with zeal and zest for one’s own blossoming! As and when the time ripens it would materialize though may not be in exactly the same manner as you anticipated. The sharing of Gita dispassionately but with all the victorious goodwill, would at least give billions of the people opportunity to choose and follow SWADHARMA and bring abut the change appropriate for our time! Sharing the spirit of even while studying; has the advantage that those who are beginners get the advantage of senior student’s experience! Those who don’t know Gita get introduced to her. Thus the percentage of students of Gita would increase. This
  63. 63. would blossom the society though for a given period of time! At the end of 7th chapter and beginning of 8th there is mention about (KSHARA) ADHIBHOOT, (PURUSHA) ADHIDAIVA, and (SWABHAVA) ADHYATMA, (AKSHARA) BRAHMA, ADHIYAJNA, (VISARGA) KARMA Since the semantics vary from different schools of thought, it is fair enough to say that one, who learns about his essence and his relationship with the fleeting body, society and universe, blossoms to culminate in absolute light. But for some clarification, I may add that ADHIBHOOT is a perishable aspect of universe including human beings. Individual consciousness or the unchanging vitality is called PURUSHA (In Ayurveda this is called CHIKITSA PURUSHA). The intricate relationships and mechanisms are called SWABHAVA or ADHYATMA. It is physiology of nature! Actually physiology means study of nature if one refers to the word in Greek.
  64. 64. ADHIYAJNA is Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness as illumines everything and everybody. VISARGA is also called KARMA which is nothing else but the appearance of and dissolution of universe in the consciousness. This concept is somewhat similar to manifestation and dissolution of our subjective world according to the evolution of our consciousness! AAKSHARA is called BRAHMA. The substratum of or backdrop of eternal consciousness that encompasses from in and out the whole universe, space and time is called AKSHARA (BRAHMA). Thus to him or her, whose consciousness merges with absolute consciousness, the whole universe appears to be but a reflection! In my view even if we understand that a variety of physical, chemical and psychobiological factors constitute our environment and a part of our consciousness gets trapped in them. Gita teaches us “free this self” of ours through SWADHARMA. In turn this helps others to attain the same freedom.
  65. 65. One of the greatest dangers for the student of Gita (though Study of Gita protects you from all dangers) is your tendency to teach others, due over enthusiasm. This is usually met with adverse remarks and discouragement. I have experienced this! Hence it is said in Gita (18th chapter) that do not teach Gita (out of your obsession, ego, whims, fancies, even if they be otherwise selfless; or any other petty purpose) disinterested and dubious individual. Though many authors like Adya Shankaracharya and Dnyaneshvar wrote their invaluable commentaries on Gita for the benefit of world, they did so in full concurrence with cosmic consciousness ((not out of obsession, ego, whims, fancies, even if they be otherwise selfless; or any other petty purpose) and not for any specific individual or section. Hence their contribution is (and should be) adored world over. In 9th chapter Lord Krishna briefly explains how he (his cosmic consciousness) manifested and absorbed the universe from time to time. He further clarifies that those whose constitutions and especially neuroendocrine systems are NOT integrated, have no inclination to devote themselves with innate feelings to Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness). They are handicapped in this sense.
  66. 66. They can not enjoy the invigorating charm of deepest and selfless love! They may pursue petty goals and may achieve them if time is favorable and lose in such pursuits when time is unfavorable but suffer in both cases due to pettiness. However, those who get the taste of Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness) fall in his love. They live in full consonance and care of the absolute truth. They do not get harassed or entangled by petty problems. In 9th chapter Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna that all those who worship different deities (out of ignorance and for personal gains) also reach him, in the course of time. He asks Arjuna therefore to get emotionally attached to his higher consciousness and Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness) rather than getting dragged into petty pursuits. The verse towards the end; in 9th chapter referring to women, VAISHYA and SHUDRA may give impression that it is derogatory to these groups. But that is not so. There are subtle physiological differences amongst different people and males and females; due to
  67. 67. variations in hormones, sex hormones, neuro hormones, predominance of right or left brain, other aspects neurological development, influences of conditioning; evident in terms of better memory, greater linguistic skills, greater mathematical skills, greater capacity to visualize, better capacity to discern notes of music, ability to read in between the lines, thinking non sequentially, being aggressive, being calculative, being skilled in handicrafts, being analytical, being aggressive, being submissive and so on. These differences do not indicate inequality but merely differences. Lord Krishna says these qualities indicate aptitude and proficiency in a particular field; but every possible quality has access to the spirit and benevolence of Gita. It is also probable that Lord Krishna hints that those under greater hormonal, autonomic or limbic influence may find it little more difficult to comprehend Gita as compared to an erudite individual like Arjuna. While writing this, I came across sudden financial difficulties. The recovery agents from bank came home and discussed the matter. All the philosophy seemed to be redundant and useless. Everything seemed to revolve around money. I seemed to be a helpless creature, worse than any
  68. 68. one else who would know nothing about Gita. I developed pity for myself. But within few minutes, the grace of Lord Krishna engulfed my consciousness and made me realize that this incidence itself (and such innumerable incidents) is “a miniaturized version of war in Gita” and has to be negotiated amicably and conquered! I realized that for writing on Gita you have stake everything including your self respect, reputation, esteem and even life and then only, you would find spirit of Gita manifesting in you. I got back to write and decided to write; come what may! Being unshakable in NAMASMARAN i.e. in the essence of Gita irrespective of anything and everything is the crux of the matter. That is SWADHARMA for me (and possibly for everyone). Thus I am beginning to learn and follow SWADHARMA every new moment! I have also begun to realize that this quality of being firmly positioned in NAMASMARAN i.e. in the precise purport of Gita; is extremely useful for blossoming individual and universe especially if
  69. 69. acquired by people involved leadership of different types and management in different fields. Nov 12, 2009, 8:45 pm At the end of 9th chapter, and in the beginning of 10th chapter Lord Krishna assures Arjuna that irrespective of any vices and/or sins the individual gets freed by working to unite with him. He also says this in 18th chapter. How to reconcile this assurance with the notion that good deeds yield good results and bad deeds yield bad results? Is it not contradictory? Does it not contradict the expectation of justice in society? I used really get perplexed by such statements in many other hymns also. But now it appears, that what ever is visible; is only superficial and hence partial truth and not necessarily a complete one. Similarly the connection with Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness is never apparent. Hence even if an individual appears to be sinner or a criminal, he could get emancipated instantly through his connection (which again; may not be apparent); with cosmic consciousness.
  70. 70. If we appreciate this, then it would actually help our legal system to evolve; to much greater perfection, closer to truth. It is necessary however to also appreciate that Gita certainly does not undermine the role of ethics and decency required in healthy social harmony and dynamics. At the end of 9th chapter; Arjuna (and we) probably becomes conversant with the life struggle and how we have to focus on the absolute truth common to our existence and the universe. But since Lord Krishna has described SWADHARMA through 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th chapters; and one’s position in cosmic dynamics and the cosmic consciousness in 7th and 8th chapters, and since in 9th chapter, Lord Krishna asks Arjuna to devote to him (cosmic consciousness); Arjuna has a question about Lord Krishna’s cosmic nature and how to worship or devote this cosmic nature of Lord Krishna. So Arjuna begins to express his curiosity about how to focus, worship and/or devote to this cosmic nature of Lord Krishna. 10th and 11th chapters depict of this cosmic nature of Lord Krishna.
  71. 71. The first point here is Lord Krishna elaborates how he is the root cause or seed of the seen, unseen, and conscious, subconscious and unconscious universe and assures that he enlightens the seekers of truth; who are completely consumed and hence keep interacting intensely about the truth i.e. Lord Krishna in ecstasy. Lord Krishna then describes various components of universe, so that one could broaden and expand one’s vision and perspective to become as objective as possible. In 11th chapter, there is actually VISHVARUPADARSHANA. This means Arjuna is given special eyesight on the basis of his preparation in 10th chapter, and actually shown the infinite nature of Lord Krishna. This “seeing” is actually not seeing by visual system, but through opening of the consciousness of Arjuna. This is why Arjuna “sees” the future fate of warriors. This is mind boggling. Arjuna is afraid of this sight because this requires disappearance of the subjectivity which is like death itself!
  72. 72. Arjuna therefore requests Lord Krishna to appear in front of him as a human body. This is a very important point and transition from focusing and worshipping the cosmic formless reality to human body form of the Lord, which is relatively easier to focus on and allow the subjectivity to gradually disappear. This is the reason and basis; of why most of the saints and scriptures like Shrimad Bhagavatam advice common men to practice NAMASMARAN, which is the subtlest non visual, non olfactory, non gustatory (in short non sensory) form of the Lord! NAMAMSMARAN when practiced by an individual can at best be barely “heard” by his inner sense of hearing, which is quite unlike the “hearing” of sounds produced outside. Nov 13, 2009, 10:00 am How one is enemy of oneself? With reference to the famous verses towards the beginning of the 6th chapter, now it appears that, the consciousness trapped in body, mind, ego and/or subjectivity is the enemy if not properly negotiated with and mastered or conquered. This consciousness
  73. 73. becomes our friend, close friend once negotiated with and conquered, or shall we say brought in harmony with ourselves. This activity of winning part of our own consciousness, without being repulsive or escapist is YOGA. It is said by those who have achieved this, that NAMASMARAN makes this possible. In 11th chapter Lord Krishna endows Arjuna with “objective vision” or extrasensory vision; by lifting him from his subjective realm. Arjuna “sees” or actually experiences the cosmic consciousness. This “vision” or actual experience of objective reality is unfathomable in every sense, because of the yet undissolved subjective existence! For the same reason it is frightening. It is like moving with supersonic or superphotic (faster than the speed of light) speed. Arjuna experienced something similar to (but more complex) high speed centrifugation or high speed revolutions creating vertigo and upsetting all body and mind systems. Arjuna went beyond time and sense of time seemed to have lost. He actually “saw” the panorama spread over ages and millennia. He saw generations after generations getting dissolved in that consciousness. He “saw” the seekers of truth worshipping that
  74. 74. consciousness and the ignorant or oblivious being afraid and running from it! Arjuna realized that Lord Krishna; the human form in front of him is actually cosmic consciousness pervading him and his consciousness in from all sides. He felt stunned by this unparallel experience of what actually is implied by the terms omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent God. He was overwhelmed by the experience of what is implied by the terms unborn, immortal and infinite! He realized what is mean by the origin of universe and the destination of the universe. He sensed what consciousness beyond consciousness is; and what is the origin and culmination of all spiritual, intellectual and emotional endeavors in literature, art and science; followed by human civilizations, knowingly and unknowingly in the pursuit of the “truth”! Since this experience is similar to that of getting burst or exploded from within; it is destabilizing and shattering, even though it is thrilling and exciting in ultimate sense! Arjuna therefore while getting saturated and suffocated, urged Lord Krishna to reappear in human form.
  75. 75. This is precisely the point of idol worship; actually this word idol worship is very superficial and narrow and does not convey the spirit. It is aptly called MURTIPOOJA. The cosmic consciousness is brought in some kind either human or any other form and then worshipped. This practical aspect therefore has been welcome and participated by billions of people for millennia. The saints a alluded to earlier; have further made it simple by practicing NAMASMARAN while preaching it and thereby made the enlightenment accessible to billions of people for generations gone and generations to come! Lord Krishna reappears in His human form (still as a murti of a deity with four hands, so as to distinguish Him as different from ordinary human being) and explains to Arjuna that it is possible to not merely, know and reach Him, but actually merge with Him through devout love with absolute fidelity and loyalty. In my view Lord Krishna implies here; that this unconditioned and devout love is the culmination and pinnacle of all penance and efforts (such as PRANAYAM, ASANA and others). This is YOGA of YOGA or YOGA attained through YOGA!
  76. 76. At the end of 11th chapter; Lord Krishna asserts that SWADHARMA i.e. every moment lived in His consciousness or remembrance; characterized by inimitable and sublime love for everyone in the universe; which signifies supreme form of universal unity; certainly takes an individual and hence billions of individuals to His supreme abode! In 12th chapter, Arjuna, like any genius (after “seeing” cosmic formless “form” and deity form of Lord Krishna) probably realizes the necessity to confirm (for the benefit of billions) the Lord’s opinion and hence requests Lord Krishna to explain which type of devout love; amongst the two viz. that for formless cosmic consciousness and that for a specific form (idol, murti or NAMA); is preferable conducive to individual and global blossoming! Lord Krishna explains that it is quite difficult to remain focused on “formless cosmic consciousness”, (though those who can do this have supreme love for everyone in the universe and reach Him); and hence worshipping Him in some form, by doing every activity in His remembrance as if to offer Him is desirable. He further advises Arjuna (and every one in the universe) that even if this also may be found difficult; one should persist on it. Because, through
  77. 77. consistent and persistent efforts, the individual reach Him and blossom step by step from consistent efforts i.e. conceptualization and practice; to enlightenment; to composed or integrated mental state; to detachment for every result (the fleeting gains and losses); to absolute all enlivening, all empowering and all enlightening peace! Lord Krishna briefly describes the great characteristics of such an individual (and hence the society) and assures Arjuna that following this path is like drinking the sap of immortality and being one with the eternal source of love that emanates through generations after generations! Lord Krishna probably thought that Arjuna (and many others like him); in one sense; and the systems such as limbic system, autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, endocrine system etc. associated with our instinctual and emotional; and conscious and subconscious behavior; are not yet tuned to this kind of enlightenment. In other words the enlightenment did not yet seep down and did not yet percolate into the bones and into every cell! In such situation it became necessary to explain the purport from different angle, in still somewhat different language, and with different semantics.
  78. 78. Thus in 13th chapter Lord Krishna explains the meaning of KSHETRA, KSHETRAJNA, JNANA and JNEYA, which mean body with all its systems, knower, knowledge and object of knowledge; respectively. All this is explained in scriptures such as BRAHMASUTRAS elaborated by rishis, which revolve around and spring from and culminate in Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness. PRUTHVI, which broadly means all particles, AAPA, which broadly means all liquids, TEJA, which broadly means the fire principle, VAAYU, which broadly means all energy and AAKASHA which broadly means space are called five MAHABHUTAS. BUDDHI, AVYAKTA and AHANKAR constitute the subtler aspects of human beings such as intelligence, unapparent forces and the subjective schema (of one’s own and the universe forming conceptual framework). These eight along with various instincts and emotions constitute KSHETRA.
  79. 79. The knower of this KSHETRA is KSHETRAJNA i.e. cosmic consciousness i.e. LORD KRISHNA. It has to be conceived that this consciousness when restricted limited KSHETRA i.e. human body and associated phenomena, constitutes the KSHETRAJNA in that respect. JNANA is knowledge; which is not merely information collected by an individual but enlightenment through study of ADHYATMA i.e. holistic physiology or study of intricacies of the dynamics of nature of nature (KSHETRA); and consequent intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical behavior of an individual! JNEYA is object of knowledge; BRAHMA. It is without beginning and end. It is neither true not false. Here true and false refer to concept of “is” and “is not”. It is conceived as having countless hands, eyes, ears, mouths and so on. It is said to encompass everything; space, time and all individual consciousnesses. It incorporates all sensory perceptions and beyond it all! It is beyond all describable attributes as it is beyond the language of quality (words) and quantity (numbers). It is detached an attached and it is beyond all qualities and yet experiences the qualities! It is present inside and
  80. 80. outside of everything and it is static as well as dynamic. It is extremely subtle and hence beyond perception and is infinitely away as well as in vicinity. It is beyond all light and all darkness, which are functions of visual systems! It is knowledge as well as object of knowledge and ever present in the core heart of every one. All these qualities are described to reinforce the super concept; of cosmic consciousness. The BRAHMA or PURUSHA and PRAKRUTI are said to be free of beginning and end. This can be conceived as conscious space and conscious energy which act as fields and rest all full beginning and end and changes constitute contingent aspects viz. the GUNAS. Understanding these concepts helps an individual to identify himself as being increasingly closer and closer or being in common with the cosmic consciousness and begins to see the happenings in the universe and individual life as products of PRAKRUTI and GUNAS. This is progressive liberation. This liberation becomes possible because
  81. 81. the individual sees that cosmic consciousness is like space that is essential component for everything that happens in universe but neither participates in the activities nor gets influenced by them and it is like sun, which illumines the universe without actually “going” to the nooks and corner and without actually “becoming” part of those places. Lord Krishna then describes the “applied” aspects of the holistic physiology viz. the implications of the contingent GUNAS; in human life (with undoubted impact on the universe) in 14th chapter. Nov 14, 2009, 10:10 am Gita is the nucleus of conceptual and actual world unity and harmony. When I was more immature than what I am today, I could not appreciate the benevolence of Gita for the universe. Those days, I preferred to read Maxim Gorky’s “Mother” in preference to Gita for the blind children. The “Mother” and leftist literature in general; analyze the global problems in a rational way a take you a step forward in breaking the shackles of individualistic pettiness. Hence they are not counterproductive or retrogressive, but they should be supplemented by Gita and likes in the
  82. 82. course of time. Hence today I prefer to study and share Gita. Gita imparts the vision of universal unity and harmony and also reconciles the various characteristics, attitudes, beliefs and endeavors of the mankind from every nook and corner of world; to reach the cosmic consciousness. But this holistic perspective makes Gita somewhat ambiguous and vulnerable to attacks from fascists, fundamentalists, and extremists and overall those people who are trapped in bigotry of one kind or another. But the spirit of Gita is bound to ultimately bring together (I am sure about this from my own experience) people of all stages of development and people of all varieties! Lord Krishna reiterates; that every thing in universe including the GUNAS; such as SATVA, RAJA and TAMA result from the cosmic consciousness. This may be considered to be a kind transduction or transformation of the consciousness into energy that mobilizes the matter according to the characteristics of the matter (which again develop from consciousness).
  83. 83. From the interplay of consciousness, time, space, energy and matter the world appears as it does; which in turn is due to our consciousness veiled by our physiological and subjective perceptions! The SATVA, RAJA and TAMA indicate different characteristics of every thing such as being nearer, in between and away from consciousness! SATVA therefore is quality that blossoms knowledge and activities conducive to freedom i.e. reach the cosmic consciousness, RAJA multiplies the activities born out of subjective concepts and TAMA enhances decomposition, degeneration and downfall in the abyss of darkness of ignorance. Gita is global, because you can see people with varying preponderance of the effects of SATVA, RAJA and TAMA all over the world, contributing to blossoming, day to day working and mutilation of the word respectively. TAMA constitutes ignorance, indolence, slumber, irrationality, irresponsibility, fanaticism, viciousness and so on. RAJA constitutes restless study and collection of information, dynamism (usually out of petty
  84. 84. pursuits), rational and analytical thinking, alertness to be vigilant and/or anxious, discipline, readiness to study at point of others and analyze according to one’s own conceptual framework and attitude conducive to liberal individualistic progress (which generally come to loggerheads in the course of time). SATAV constitutes buoyant serenity of mind, agility and swiftness in over all behavior, focused attentiveness, rationality complemented with holistic approach, natural awareness of SWADHARMA; the culmination of universally benevolent “discipline”; generosity and loving attitude towards all variety of perspectives as originating from one and perspective conducive to holistic progress that ensures everlasting progressive complementarity and sublime harmony. However, GUNAS generally bind people in some kind of subjectivity and hence the natural blossoming invariably leads to freedom from the influence and/or veils of every GUNA. This is highly idealistic state, but resides in every heart though one may be oblivious to it! Thus in one sense spirit of Gita resides in every heart; though some may e unaware and oblivious of it;
  85. 85. governs the dynamics of human behavior! As more and more people become aware of this invaluable treasure of enlightenment and empowerment in their hearts, the spiritual renaissance would manifest in every nook and corner of the world. There is no necessity for any blue print. The hallmark of such spiritual revolution would simply be; the awareness of this treasure in their hearts; rest all would follow! In 15th chapter, there is an analogy of ASHVATTHA tress to describe the universe and universal consciousness on the one hand; and the individual and individual consciousness on the other. From human anatomical and physiological point of view; human brain is the seat of consciousness. It is at the top. From the root or seed of consciousness the branches in the form nerve fibers spread up and down into plexuses and billions of receptors; the nature of which corresponds to the causative deeds of the individual in the past. The individual enjoys or suffers more or less exactly according to the inputs from these nerve fibers and their receptors! Indeed the consciousness gets trapped in these sense organs and the person becomes bonded!
  86. 86. The human being becomes free after returning of his consciousness from the periphery to the center or the root! This is analogous to cosmic consciousness; that also gets in some way “trapped” in the universe; and returns towards his origin at the time when the universe gets dissolved back into its roots!! In other words Gita beautifully shows the commonality between the individual blossoming with universal blossoming. In other words this may be called reorienting and reestablishing oneself in one’s own position! This may also be called returning to one’s own self! This consciousness reachable by an individual is the same as universal consciousness that illumines the entire universe. One can always say that this is a poetic imagination, which it is; but in the sense that it transcends the subjective reasoning! Gita is beyond human (whether poetic or scientific) imagination. Anyone however, can verify the spirit of Gita for himself or herself (and inevitably with the world,
  87. 87. because light of Gita cannot remain restricted to one’s petty self!)! In 16th chapter there is description of qualities conducive to downfall of a person (getting increasingly distanced from and oblivious of one’s true self i.e. cosmic consciousness) and essentially correspond to the preponderance of RAJA and TAMA described in the 14th chapter. The way to overcome these influences of negative forces called ASURI forces is SWADHARMA and step by step victory over the KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA. The rejection of scriptures by an individual is usually out of impulsiveness arising from slavery of KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA, (desire, agitation on not getting the desired and addiction) which are three enemies of an individual; because they trap one’s consciousness and drag away from the true self of an individual. Many times I used to feel that KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA are all natural, physiological and normal. Gita teachings are antinatural.
  88. 88. But now I realize that my standards of “natural, physiological and normal” were mediocre and born out of intellectual lethargy and slowness. I now understand that physiological is not a static term. Hence what is physiological in immature state would be pathological and mature state. What is physiological in primitive state would be pathological in evolved state. But having considered the differences in many environmental conditions the scriptures written thousands of years ago, in one part of the world may not be exactly applicable in another part of the world and in present situation. Hence the emphasis is given by Gita on focusing on devout love (SHRADDHA) for cosmic consciousness! This essence is reiterated by saints from all over the world and from all religions and in terms of remembering the cosmic consciousness through repetition of a name of God (or OMKAR) in that tradition or religion (NAMASMARAN). In 17th chapter there is explanation about three types of SHRADDHA, AHAR, YAJNA, TAPA and DANA, (salient aspects of behavior) for the benefit of an individual in search of truth!
  89. 89. The sketchy description gives broad guidance about principles of behavior useful in individual and global blossoming. In essence, the SHRADHA and consequent endeavors are differentiated according to the GUNAS. SATVA type worship divinity, RAJA type worship affluence, magic and even devilish forces and TAMA type worship evil spirits and dead bodies. SATVA type eat the food conducive to inner blossoming and enlightenment (usually fresh, sweet and empowering fortitude), RAJA type eat food conducive to multiply the vigor and indiscriminate desires (usually spicy and hot, including some types of non-vegetarian food) followed by ill effects, and TAMA type like stale, fermented, rotten, stinking (e.g. some types of cheese and fish). SATVA perform YAJNA a procedure to invoke cosmic consciousness for satisfaction, RAJA type for petty pursuits and socio-political gains and TAMA for prestige and acclaim and TAMA type do it (for even worse purposes) and without adhering to the procedure, and without any interest, concern and expenditure!
  90. 90. The purity, decency, humility of body and conduct, with respect to deity, teachers and enlightened individuals is called SHAREER TAPA. The appropriate and benevolent dialogue and study of the nature is called VANGMAYA (related to intelligence and speech) TAPA. The observance of abstinence from speech (unnecessary talk or any kind of impulsive expressions) and feeling and expression of selfless love is called MANAS TAPA. Out of these; TAPA without any petty expectations is called SATVIKA, with expectations of socio- political gains is called RAJAS and with fanatic endeavors with intentions of harming the others is called TAMAS TAPA. DANA i.e. donations (cash, or kind) are also categorized. Thus when given selflessly as a part of SWADHARMA it is SATVIK, given with discomfort due to excessive love for money, with intentions to extract excessive benefits is RAJAS and when given at wrong place, to wrong person (obviously with ill intentions) it is called TAMAS.