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Women In 21st Century: Issues And Challenges (Reference to India)


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A paper presented in one day International Seminar on "Status of Women in Transitional Societies: Issues & Challenges" on 25th Jan, 2014

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Women In 21st Century: Issues And Challenges (Reference to India)

  2. 2. They Teach They Bless They Struggle They Rule They Explore ROLES OF WOMEN They Care They Sacrifice
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Trafficking is a organized crime which violates all tenets of human dignity and rights.  Trafficking can occur for various purposes-labour, commercial sexual exploitation, organ trade etc.  Trafficking is a Center and State subject.  Poverty, illiteracy, lack of livelihood options, natural/man made disasters makes a person vulnerable to trafficking.  India faces both In-country and Cross Border trafficking.
  4. 4. DRUG TRAFFICKING  The Illegal drug trade is a global black market that is dedicated to the cultivation, manufacturing, distribution, and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws.  Over the last two-three decades India has been facing the problems of increasing trafficking in drugs, particularly transit traffic, metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta and Chennai have become vulnerable to drug trafficking.  In 1993 contraband narcotics seized in Mumbai alone totaled about 11,000 kg(Hindustan Times, Aug 3,1994).  Heroine seized in India in 1998 (about 3000kg) was 10% more than seizures in 1987.
  5. 5. DRUG-TRAFFICKING RACKET BUSTED IN BANGALORE K.V. SUBRAMANIAN  Heroine in India is purchased from the local sources at say Rs70,000 to Rs1,00,000 per kg and the trafficker than sells this to foreigners at the approx rate of Rs 3 to Rs 5 lakh per kg($15,000 per kg).  11 kg of heroin estimated at Rs.15 crores seized from truck.  BANGALORE: Officials of the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) from Chennai busted an international drug trafficking racket by seizing 11 kg of heroin in Bangalore on Thursday night. Sources in the NCB, Chennai, told The Hindu over phone that they intercepted a truck carrying the narcotic substance on National Highway 4, off Madanayakanahalli, on the outskirts of Bangalore The heroin was hidden under a load of stones on the truck that was coming to Bangalore from North India. The drug consignment, estimated at Rs.15 crores in the international market, was meant for delivery to Sri Lanka, the sources said. The NCB officials, with the assistance of the local police, took into custody four persons who were in the truck. The NCB staff brought the four, along with the contraband, to the Peenya police station here and completed the legal procedures before taking them to Chennai.
  6. 6. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS ON TRAFFICKING Trafficking in Human Beings or Persons is prohibited under the Constitution of India. The specific provisions relates to Article 23 (1) of the Constitution which is as follows:- 'Traffic in human beings and beggar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.’
  7. 7. IMMORAL TRAFFIC PREVENTION ACT,1956 To protect the victim:-  New section where Trafficking is defined.  Age of child raised from sixteen years to eighteen year.  Deletion of Sections which re-victimized the victims.  In-Camera proceedings in court cases to safeguard privacy of victims.  New Section 5B which provides punishment for trafficking in persons.  Enhancement of punishment to traffickers, brothel keepers, pimps etc.  If the trafficked victim is a child the punishment can extend to life.  New section for punishment for a persons who visits brothel for sexual exploitation.
  8. 8. INDIAN STATISTICS  An estimated 2.5 million people are in forced labour (including sexual exploitation) at any given time as a result of trafficking.  According to Global Voices approximately 90% of the 200,000 humans trafficked in India every year are victims of inter-state trafficking and are sold within the country.  The states of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan are major destinations of trafficked ‘brides’.  According to a 6 year long analysis conducted by Empower People, 23% of girls from West Bengal are trafficked. Bihar is next at 17% followed by Assam (13%), Andhra Pradesh (11%), Orissa (8%) and Kerala (6%).  Another way of selling women has recently come to light due to the ‘Baby Falak case’.
  9. 9. DOWRY DEATH Dowry deaths are deaths of young women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husband and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry. Dowry is considered one of the many categories of violence against women, alongside rape, bride burning, eve teasing, and acid throwing. SCENARIO IN INDIA Most of these suicides are by hanging, poisoning or by fire. Sometimes the woman is killed by setting her on fire; this is known as “bride burning”, and sometimes misguided as suicide or accident. Suicide and murder are two cause of fatalities in dowry deaths. Death by burning of Indian women have been more frequently attributed to conflicts. In dowry deaths, the groom’s family is perpetrator of murder or suicide.
  10. 10. PROHIBITION  The Dowry Prohibition Act, passed in India in 1961, prohibits the request, payment or acceptance of a dowry, “as consideration for the marriage”, where “dowry” is defined as a gift demanded or given as a precondition for a marriage.  Gifts given without a precondition are not considered dowry, and are legal.  Asking or giving of dowry can be punished by an imprisonment of up to six months, or a fine of up to Rs.5000(US$77, A$93).  It replaced several pieces of anti-dowry legislation that had been enacted by various Indian states.  Murder and suicide under compulsion are addressed by Indian’s criminal penal code.  Indian women’s rights activists campaigned for the Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 and the more stringent Section 498a of IPC(enacted in 1983).Using the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005(PWDVA) implemented in 2006, a women can put a stop to the dowry harassment by approaching a domestic violence protection officer.
  11. 11.  Female foeticide is the act of aborting a foetus because it is female.  In India a strong preference for sons over daughters exists, unlike in Western cultures.  According to the Decennial Indian census, the sex ratio in the 0-6 age group in India went from 104.0 males per 100 females in 1981, to 105.8 in 1991, to 107.8 in 2001, to 109.4 in 2011.  The ratio is significantly higher in certain states such as Punjab and Haryana (126.1 and 122.0, as of 2001).  Many campaigns like ‘Beti Bachao’ and ‘Save Girls Campaign’ have been started to raise awareness. FEMALE FOETICIDE
  12. 12. LAWS REGARDING FEMALE FOETICIDE / DOWRY DEATHS  There are three laws that need to be looked into – one regarding dowry, one concerning sex selection, and finally, one about abortion.  Sex selection is covered under the Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 2002. Originally, there was a Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994, but due to the prevalence of pre- conception diagnosis, a newer law was put in order.  The PC & PNDT Act states that no place or doctor is authorized to conduct pre-natal diagnostic techniques except for the purpose of detection of one or more of:  Chromosomal abnormalities;  Genetic metabolic diseases;  Haemoglobinopathies;  Sex-linked genetic diseases;  Congenital anomalies.  The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971, legalizes abortion – however, under certain conditions. It states that pregnancy can be terminated by at least one registered medical practitioner (if the length of the pregnancy does not exceed 12 weeks) and by at least two registered medical practitioners (if the length of the pregnancy is between 12 and 20 weeks) who are of the opinion, formed in good faith.
  13. 13. GOVERNMENT RESPONSE  Government response to the problem has been known to not have stopped female foeticide from occurring. An example of one of these loopholes would be on the pretext of checking for genetic disorders in the foetus, who can stop a doctor from examining the sex of the unborn child and informing the parents in secret.  In 2001, the Supreme Court in India gave orders to five multi-national companies — Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, Larsen and Toubro and Wipro GE — to give them the names and addresses of all the clinics and persons in India to whom they have sold ultrasound machines in the last five years to enable the state government to find out if these machines were registered.
  14. 14. HONOR KILLING  An honor killing is the homicide of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family or community, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their relatives, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, or engaging in homosexual relations.  Honor killings have been reported in northern regions of India, mainly in the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh as a result of people marrying without their family's acceptance, and sometimes for marrying outside their caste or religion.  The Indian state of Punjab has a large number of honor killings. According to data compiled by the Punjab Police, 34 honor killings were reported in the state:10 in 2008, 20 in 2009, and 4 in 2010.
  15. 15. CASE STUDIES  In June 2012, a man chopped off his 20-year-old daughter's head with a sword in Rajasthan after learning that she was dating men. According to police officer, "Omkar Singh told the police that his daughter Manju had relations with several men. He had asked her to mend her ways several times in the past. However, she did not pay heed. Out of pure rage, he chopped off her head with the sword."  A young couple who were planning to marry were brutally murdered in Garnauthi village, state of Haryana on 18 September 2013 due to having a love affair. The woman, Nidhi, was beaten to death and the man, Dharmender, was dismembered alive. People in the village and neighboring villages approved of the killings.
  16. 16. WHAT IS RAPE?  Rape in its simplest form, is when a man forces a woman to have sex with him.  Usually this is done by using either the threat of violence, or by over powering a weaker woman from a stronger man.  The act may be carried out by physical force, coercion, abuse of authority or against a person who is incapable of valid consent, such as one who is unconscious, incapacitated. 64% 3% 20% 13% RAPE CASES (1990-94) 16-30 years below 10 years 10-16 years above 30 years
  17. 17. TOP 10 REASONS FOR RAPE VICTIMS IN INDIA  Cinema : People go by what they see .  Alcohol : When you drink alcohol, drinks control your mind.  Drugs : When you take drugs , you completely don’t know what you are doing .  Sexual Workers : Sex workers today in India has become a fulltime job for many young girls in India.  Lack of Sex Education : Sex education an bring awareness to people. Cinema Alcohol Drugs Sexual workers
  18. 18. TOP 10 REASONS FOR RAPE VICTIMS IN INDIA  Dresses Trends : Is this the dress code of our India Girls.  Money : People think with money they can buy any thing, if the don’t get it they take it by force .  Unemployment : Unemployment leads to all kinds of Sexual crime.  Parents : Today parents are more worried about their children's future but are not aware of what they are doing today .  Punishment : No severe punishment have been implemented  11th reason : Reason I leave it to you friends , please bring more awareness to the public to stop this shame of our country… Dresses Trends Money Unemploymen t Parents Punishmen t
  19. 19. CASE STUDIES  Delhi Gang Rape(16 December 2012 ) :- The victim died at 4:45 am on 29 December 2012 in the Mount Elizabeth Hospital of Singapore.  2013 Mumbai Gang Rape(22 August 2013):-Time of the incident was 6.54pm and location Shakti Mills compound, near Mahalaxmi, Mumbai.
  20. 20. CONCLUSION  Human Rights are essential for proper development of personality and human existence. Without human rights no one can live the life of human being.  Most vulnerable group for the purpose of human rights protection is of women.  Women, an exclusive creation of nature constituting half of the worlds population have emerged as a single largest group , seriously deprived of basic human rights.  Violation of human rights of women can be tackled only when societal thinking will change, double mortality- one for name and another for women will come to an end and commodification of human body will stop.