A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism thatcomprises either a single cell (unicellular) or cell clusters.The studyof microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began withAnton van Leeuwenhoeks discovery of microorganisms in1675, using a microscope of his own design.
# A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicateonly inside the living cells of organisms. Viruses infectall types of organisms, from animals and plants tobacteria and archaea . # viruses are both living and non-living. viruses areliving inside the host and non-living outside the hostbody.# viruses cause diseases like polio,chickenp0x,and etc.
# Protozoa, a diverse group of unicellular eukaryoticorganisms, many of which are motile. Originally, protozoahad been defined as unicellular protistswith animal-likebehavior, e.g., movement. Protozoa were regarded as thepartner group of protists to protophyta, which have plant-like behaviour, e.g., photosynthesis.# Protozoa causesd diseses like Dysentery and malaria.
# Bacteria are microscopic organisms whose singlecells have neither a membrane-enclosed nucleus norother membrane-enclosed organelles likemitochondria and chloroplasts.# bacteria caused diseases like typhoid,tuberculosis(tb) and etc.
#Fungi is a group of simple plants that have nochlorophyll. There are some species of fungi that aresingle celled organisms, and there are other kinds offungi that are multi-cellular organisms. # fungi caused diseases likeAspergillosis, Blastomycosis and etc.
#Algae are a large and diverse group ofsimple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging fromunicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giantkelps that grow to 65 meters in length. # algae caused diseases like Amnesiac shellfishpoisoning , Ciguatera an etc.
# Curd contains several microorganisms . of these, thebacterium , lactobacillus promotes the formation ofcurd. It multiplies in milk and converts it into curd.# Bacteria is also involved in the formation of cheese ,pickles and many other food items.
# microorganisms are used for large scale production ofalcohol ,wine and acentic acid(vinegar). Yeast is used forcommercial production of alcohol and wine .For this present in grains like barley, wheat, rice, crushedfruit juices ,etc.# The conversion of sugar into alcohol is calledfermentation. Fermentation is discovered by Louis Pasteurin 1857 .
# the medicines which kill or stop the growth of thedisease–causing microorganisms are called antibiotics.# Sir Alexander Fleming invented the first antibioticin 1928, called penicillin.
# when a disease-carrying microbes enter our body ,the body produces antibodies to fight the invader.
# A vaccine is a biological preparation that improvesimmunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typicallycontains an agent that resembles a disease-causingmicroorganism, and is often made from weakened orkilled forms of the microbe. The agent stimulates thebodys immune system to recognize the agent asforeign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that theimmune system can more easily recognize and destroyany of these microorganisms that it later encounters.# A children received 6 mandatory and 10 optional.# Edward Jenner discovered the vaccine for small-poxin 1798.
# Some bacteria and blue green algae are fix nitrogenfrom the atmosphere to enrich soil with nitrogen andincrease and increase its fertility. these microbes arecommonly called biological nitrogen fixers.
# An agent that causes disease, especially a livingmicroorganism such as a bacterium or fungus.# Pathogens are both cause in Plant and Animals.
# Microbial diseases that can spread from an infectedperson to a healthy person through air , water , food orphysical contact are called communicable diseases.
# Several microorganisms not only causes diseases inhumans and plants , but also in other animals.# Example- anthrax is a dangerous humans and cattledisease caused by a bacterium.
# Several microorganisms cause diseases in plants likewheat, rice , potato , sugarcane , orange , apple and others .# some diseases are citrus canker , rust of wheat and yellowveins of mosaic of bhindi(okra).
# Preservation of food are using by commonsalt, chemical, sugar, heat and cold treatment and byoil and vinegar.