History of animal tissue culture and natural surroundings for animal cell

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History of animal tissue culture and natural surroundings for animal cell

  1. 1. History of animal tissue culture and naturalsurroundings for animal cellMADE BY : NEERAJ CHAUHAN
  2. 2. Introduction of ATC• Animal Tissue Culture ?• Roux in 1885 for the first time maintained embryonic chick cells in a cell culture• Cell culture was first successfully undertaken by Ross Harrison in 1907.
  3. 3. Historical events in the development of cell culture• 130-140 years old.• Arnold (1880) –showed that leucocytes can divide outside body.• Roux (1885)- maintained embryonic chick cells in a saline culture.• Jolly (1903)- studied behaviours of animal cells immersed in serum lymph .• Ross Harrison (1907)- cultivated frog nerve cells in a lymph clot and observed the growth of nerve fibers in vitro.
  4. 4. • Lewis (1911) - made the first liquid media consisted of sea water, serum, embryo extract, salts and peptones.• Carrel (1913) - developed a method for maintaining cultures free from contamination.• Rous and Jones (1916) – trypsinization and subculture of explants.• Eagle (1955) – development of defined media.• Littlefield (1964) - introduced the HAT medium for cell selection.• Ham (1965) - introduced the first serum-free medium which was able to support the growth of some cells.
  5. 5. • Harris and Watkins (1965) - were able to fuse human and mouse cells by the use of a virus.
  6. 6. Factors which effect the choice choice of the substrate1. Cell yield (cell production) –• For small scale production we use micro titration plates multi well plates. Micro titration plate
  7. 7.  Multi well plates• For large scale production we use flask and petri dishes
  8. 8. 2.Whether the cells are monolayer/suspension culture -• Monolayer culture Microtitration plate• Suspension culture Flask3.Venting – Airing to culture.• Also called as aeration.4.Sampling and Analysis –• Micro wells are used for sampling.• Two type of microscopes are used for analysis.
  9. 9.  Inverted microscope Phase contrast microscope5.Uneven Growth - When r.p.m. is high during shaking than uneven growth comes.6.Cost
  10. 10. 1. pH- potential of H+ ion .Optimum pH Animal tissue – 7.4 Plant tissue – 5.5 Epidermal tissue – 5.5 Transformed tissue – 7-7.4 Fibroblast - 7.4- 7.72. Temperature –Optimum temperature Animal – 37 ͦ C Birds – 38.5 ͦ C
  11. 11. 3. Gas Phase – Two phase CO2 - drops pH level• 5% required by the cells. O2 – 40-90% required• Some cells requires more O2 ,than extra O2 carrier sources added i.e Hb .4.Osmolarity – Salt concentration of the cell Animal - 290miliosmo /kg Mice - 310milliosmo /kg5.Foaming – Characteristic of suspension.Drawbacks :- contamination occure.• Denaturation of protein.
  12. 12. • Interfare with the exchange of gas phase .• To prevent foaming add antifoaming agent ex :- Pluronic F68,CMC( carboxy methyl cellulose)6.Viscosity – Serum is added to increase viscosity.
  13. 13. Thanks

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