Need a coffee fix


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A guide to creating a better coffee that gets you going in the morning.

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Need a coffee fix

  1. 1. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 1Y o u rco m p l e t eg u i d eNe e d aC O F F EEf i x ?
  2. 2. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 2Need a fixYour complete guideIngredients 3Choose flavour of coffee/beans 4Get beans ground to suit your machine 4Which grind for your machine? 4Coffee beans 5Columbia coffee 5Costa rica coffee 5Ethiopian coffee 5Guatemala coffee 6Kenya coffee 6Kona coffee 6Jamaican coffee 6New guinea coffee 6Sulawesi coffee 6Sumatra coffee 6Hot water 6Milk 7Cream 7Non-dairy creamer 7Soy milk 7Rice milk 7Cashew milk and almond milk 7Other dairy additives 7Sugar 8White sugar 8Brown sugar 8Raw sugar 8Honey 8Stevia 8Drip coffee makers (cone filters) 9Plunger pot / french press 10Percolator 10Espresso machine 11Espresso moka pots 12Vacuum coffee pot 13Method 141. Get away from the bed 142. Turn on the lights 143. Stretch or exercise 144. Coffee 145. Combination 14Heating milk 16Heating in a microwave 16Heating with a stove top 16Coffee machine reference 17Contents
  3. 3. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 3To make any coffee you’ll need the rightingredients.• A coffee making device(see coffee machines description pictures at the back)• Hot water• Coffee beans (ground to suit machine)• A milk product (if you use milk)• A sugar type(a sweetener of sorts if you’d like to use them)Some cost more, some taste different. When youmix and match, they have the ability to createsome amazing results.In minutes you’ll know everything about makingyour perfect morning cup of coffee.Ingredients
  4. 4. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 4Choose flavour of coffee/beansSelecting beans is all about getting the flavour youwant. In most decent coffee shops you’ll have a coffeeof the day, or special blend that will be different inflavour and/or consistency to their regular blend. Bylearning about what the various coffee blends aresupposed to taste like will help you in deciding a blendof bean for your morning cup.If you like the coffee from your favourite coffee shopand they sell beans - start there. They’ll be only toohappy to tell you all about the various types theyhave, or tell you all about the one type they are mostproud of and give you the beans ground for yourparticular machine.Get beans ground to suityour machineHow fine is fine? How chunky is coarse take a look:Coarse Very distinct particles of coffee. Likeheavy-grained kosher salt. Downright chunky.Medium Gritty, like coarse sand.Fine Smoother to the touch, a little finer thangranular sugar or table salt.Extra fine Finer than sugar, but not quite powdered.Grains should still be discernable to thetouch.The table below will tell you which grind to choose tosuit your particular coffee-brewing method.Which grind for your machine?Drip coffee makers (cone filters) FinePlunger pot / French press CoarsePercolator CoarseEspresso machines (pump or steam) Extra fineEspresso moka pots FineVacuum coffee pot CoarseHaving the beans ground for your machine allows forthe water to pass through the machine properly tocreate your perfect morning coffee.A standard coffee measure should be 2 tbsp. (1/8 cup)• 2 tablespoons per 3/4 cup• 55 grams per litre• 3.75 ounces per 1/2 gallonIf you want to know more check the SCAA’s web pageat the amount of coffee to use is a personaltaste but I highly recommend at least starting with thestandard and adjusting from there and don’t forgetas you move toward more water and less groundsyou will extract more off flavours. Most people thatsay they don’t like strong coffee mean they don’t likebitter coffee and weak coffee actually has more bittercompounds. You can always add hot water to weakencoffee. Weak coffee is just weak coffee and cannotbe fixed.
  5. 5. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 5Coffee beansThere are two types of gourmet coffee beans, Robustaand Arabica. The Robusta coffee bean is grown inAfrica (Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Uganda, Angola),as well as Malaysia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Brazil andIndia. This bean is 30 percent of the world’s coffeeconsumption and offers the highest caffeine.Arabica coffee accounts for roughly 70 percent of thecoffee in the world. Found in Central America , SouthAmerica, India and Eastern Africa in countries such asEthiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Mozambique.Coffee Bean RegionsThe most desirable coffee is grown in altitudes about3000 feet. The altitude produces more elegant,complex flavours in the coffee cherries which containthe beans. The fruit must be hand-picked from treeswhich can bear flowers, green fruit, and ripe cherries allat the same time.The outer pulp and parchment of the coffee cherry areremoved to reveal two beans, which are then cleaned,dried, graded and hand-inspected. The beans rangein colour from pale green to dark yellow when raw. Theyare exported in their raw state for roasting, blendingand grinding at their final destination.Keep in mind when learning many different coffee factsthat there are numerous styles of coffee blends basedoff original coffee blends and each has their own merits.The list provided is a general over view so that youmay understand where the root of coffee comes fromand what the base taste for certain types of coffeemay reflect. This list should help you quickly learn aboutoriginal coffee blends.This is by far not every coffee listed on the entire planetbut this is the basis for most coffees. Other types ofcoffees and blends can be mixed or cross produced tocreate unique blends of coffee but knowing the originalcoffee sources here will help you learn what types willbe best for you and your taste buds.Some people are able to taste more complex flavoursand everyone taste things differently so please take thetasting listed below as a guide. The best way to know ifyou like it of course is to try it.Columbia CoffeeSweet in flavour and delicious. Because of its mildacidity it is easy to drink and highly consumed inAmerica. When you think sweet flavour of this coffeedon’t think overly sweet of a cappuccino but more ofa milk and coffee ‘with a hint of vanilla sweet’.Costa Rica CoffeeKnown primarily as a classic roast. Has a moderateacidic level and is mild in taste. This coffee is good ifyou do not like a strong coffee but like great flavour.Ethiopian CoffeeModerately bold or medium bodied flavour. Has a verystrong coffee aroma which is inviting. This smells excellentwhen brewing early in the morning. Because it is notas mild as some coffee some people will not like it. Toreduced strength as with all coffee just add a little extrawater to the pot or add a little extra hot water to youindividual cup of coffee.
  6. 6. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 6Guatemala CoffeeSmokey almost spicy flavours with a medium body ormoderate body. Try Guatemala Anigua Antigua fora delicious blend of coffee.Kenya CoffeeFinely acidic with a fruitiness in flavour. This coffeefeatures a beautiful aroma and is simply an amazingbreakfast blend. The acid is gentle for those with aweak stomach.Kona CoffeeBorn in the mountains of Hawaii this coffee has amedium body, but a rich flavour that has hints of wineand spice.Jamaican CoffeeJamaica Blue Mountain Coffee is a classification of coffeegrown in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. The coffee thatis grown here is noted for its mild flavour and lack ofbitterness. Over the last several decades, this coffee hasdeveloped a reputation that has made it one of the mostexpensive and sought-after coffees in the world.New Guinea CoffeeModerately acidic coffee with a very strong aroma.This is a full bodied coffee and has a very deep distincttaste. The more body general the stronger the flavour.Sulawesi CoffeeDeeply rich full bodied coffee. Very bold in flavour andhas an almost exotic feel to it.Sumatra CoffeeBold blend of coffee or full bodied but surprisingly lowin acidity. Slightly spicy and a mild aroma.Hot waterThe quality of water going into the coffee has a directreflection on the taste and quality of the coffee. So tryand use filtered water (if your water doesn’t taste great,you might think about getting a water filter or purifier).You can go nuts and do all sorts of things. The easiestand most readily available is tap water, boiled in akettle. It’ll be distilled and ready for use as soon as thewater is boiled.
  7. 7. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 7MilkThe most common coffee additives are dairy andsweeteners. Many people enjoy their coffee with a bitof milk, but there are lots of ways to combine coffeewith dairy and dairy alternatives. Here are some of thecommon dairy/dairy alternatives people add to coffee:Milk is commonly added to coffee. Some peopleprepare their beverage with milk as a base (as is thecase with Masala Chai), but more often than not, milk ismixed with the finished coffee or espresso.Proportions of coffee to milk vary with drink types.For example, lattes often have more milk than otherespresso drinks. For a full list of coffee styles, look tothe back.Milk may be foamed or frothed for additional texturein drinks such as cappuccinos and macchiattos. (Seeback for coffee definitions).CreamCream is occasionally added to coffee and teadrinks, such as Espresso con Panna. It is oftenwhipped and sweetened.Some people mistake the term “cream tea” to mean teawith cream. It actually means a snack of tea, Devoncream and scones.Non-Dairy CreamerNon-dairy creamer (a.k.a. “whitener”) is a lactose-free dairyalternative for coffee. Found in liquid or granule/powderedform. Artificially flavoured varieties include caramel,chocolate and seasonal flavours. It can be flammableand is not what you’d call a “natural food product.”Soy milk, Rice milk, Cashew milk, Etc.Those seeking more natural non-dairy options often turnto soy milk, rice milk, cashew milk, almond milk, oat milkand the like.Soy milkWidely available and provides a decent full bodied,flavoursome nature, but some people with lactosesensitivities are also allergic to soy.Rice milkAlthough less widely available than soy, but moreavailable than other alternatives. It has a slightlysweet taste that works well with coffee and tea, but itsconsistency is watery compared to milk.Cashew milk and almond milkProvide a decent full bodied, flavoursome nature toother non-dairy alternatives. They are also usually alsomore expensive.Other Dairy AdditivesSome people add other dairy products, such as evaporatedmilk or sweetened condensed milk to their coffee or tea. Aprime example of this is Hong Kong milk tea.
  8. 8. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 8SugarWhite sugarWhite sugar is the most common sweetener used intea or coffee. You can get white sugar in regulargranulated form, or finer ground as icing sugar orconfectioner’s sugar. Powdered sugar isn’t typicallyused for simple beverage sweetening. White sugaris processed from sugar cane to have the molassesremoved, and then it’s filtered, crystallised and dried.Brown sugarIt’s made by adding the molasses back to regular whitesugar, which makes it much more moist and more proneto clumping than white sugar. I have heard that a pieceof white bread in the container will keep your brownsugar soft.Raw sugarRaw sugar is very similar to brown sugar, except this issugar that hasn’t been processed into white. So it hasits natural molasses content intact. It’s lighter than brownsugar in flavour, but the texture is more coarse (almostlike kosher salt).HoneyOf course, honey isn’t a kind of sugar, but it’s a popularsweet touch nonetheless. Produced by bees, it’s avery natural form of sweetener that requires next to noprocessing before use. Liquid honey will crystallise overtime, but whipped honey will remain soft (like butter)indefinitely.SteviaA herbal product that is far sweeter than sugar. Thebotanical name is Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Steviasweeteners can be found in many health food stores,or even grown in your own garden.
  9. 9. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 9ProcessAn easy step-by-step process that will produceyour perfect morning cup every time.There are many different styles of machines available,here are the most popular:(Page 17 for coffee machines description pictures)Drip coffee makers (cone filters)Plunger pot / French pressPercolatorEspresso machineEspresso moka potsVacuum coffee potDrip coffee makers (cone filters)Drip brew, or filter coffee, is a method for brewingcoffee which involves pouring water over roasted,ground coffee beans contained in a filter. Water seepsthrough the coffee, absorbing its oils and essences,solely under gravity, then passes through the bottomof the filter. The used coffee grounds are retained inthe filter with the liquid dripping into a collecting vesselsuch as a carafe or pot.1. Boil kettle (you want the water to be just cooler thanboiling when using).2. Setup filter paper inside single cup coffee filter.3. Filter papers are found in most supermarkets.4. Place single cup coffee filter over coffee cup.5. Scoop two teaspoons (7-9 grams) of medium to fineground coffee beans into filter paper.6. Pour approx. One coffee mug of hot water overground coffee (you’ll need to be considerate of theamount of milk you are aiming to add later), aimingto get all the ground coffee to remain in the middleof the filter so as to get the most extraction out ofthe beans.Once cooled a little, fold the filter paper over on itselfand scrunch like a tea bag to extract all the coffee liquid7. Pour into coffee cup leaving enough room for theamount of milk you require.8. Add milk and sweetener if required.
  10. 10. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 10Plunger pot / French pressThe French press goes by various names around theworld. In New Zealand, Australia and South Africa thewhole apparatus is known as a coffee plunger andcoffee brewed in it as plunger coffee. Its French nameis cafetière à piston. In French it is also known by itsbrand names, notably, Melior, from an old brand of thistype. In the UK, the Netherlands, and Ireland the deviceis known as a cafetière, the French word for a coffeemaker or pot.1. Boil kettle (you want the water to be just cooler thanboiling when using).2. Scoop two teaspoons (7-9 grams) of coarse/mediumground coffee beans into your french press pot.3. Pour hot water up to the top of the press pot leavingenough room to allow the filter to do its job. Thisshould be roughly to the top metal/plastic bracketon your French press pot.4. Stir with a teaspoon/chopstick a few times to help thecoffee ground release all the flavours.5. Place the filter top onto your French press and allowto steep (You may have to experiment to determinethe length of brewing time that takes your fancy). 1 cup (2-3 minutes) 2-4 cup (4-5 minutes)6. Press plunger handle evenly and firmly to the bottomof your press pot.Make sure the pouring grill is at the french press pouringend and slowly pour coffee liquid into mug/cupallowing for milk if required.7. Add milk and sweetener if required.PercolatorThe percolator is an excellent way to have the relaxingsound of the coffee liquid burbling and gurgling, andto waft the aroma of coffee through the home. The oneI remember as a kid. The percolator is a very simplesystem with a couple of things to watch out for. Makesure the ground coffee and the water is measuredcorrectly, so as to not over extract the coffee andproduce a weak cup lacking flavours and complexity.The reverse can also happen whereby you underextract the coffee and produce a robust yet bitter cup.Here’s how to do it right.1. Scoop two teaspoons (7-9 gms) of coarse/mediumground coffee (per cup of coffee you want) into thefilter basket.2. Fill the auto-drip percolator with cold water to thelevel of the amount of cups you’d like, and turn on.Each machine will produce varying results, so youmight need to change measurements to suit. 3. The water boils, rises through a tube, and spillsover the grounds in the filter basket. And when thepercolator has stopped brewing, and the pot is filledwith dark liquid we are done.4. Turn off the percolator.5. Remove the pot from the heated element.6. Pour into coffee cup leaving enough room for theamount of milk you require.7. Add milk and sweetener if required.NB. Do not leave the coffee on the heating plate as thiscontinual heating will completely change the flavours andquality of the coffee.
  11. 11. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 11Espresso machineThe word espresso literally means an extraction of coffeeusing high pressure from a special espresso machine.Although most espresso machines are very similar, pleasetake these instructions as a guide but always consultyour machines instructions before use.And with that, here are some instructions, which will helpyou to make the ideal espresso.NB. The quality of your machine will determine the quality ofyour espresso.1. Get some cold clear water and pour this into themachines water tank. Then make sure that the boilerscap is secure. For one shot of espresso use 30ml/1ozof coffee for a double shot use 60ml/2oz of coffee.Some machines will give as much as four shots inone go.3. Place the basket of coffee in the filter holder.If you want you can place a little pack in theground coffee and the filter has a measure whichwill tell you the amount for the type of espresso youare preparing.4. Brush off any grounds from the top and sides ofthe filter and then place the filter holder insidethe machine.5. Place your glass/cup/a container capable ofcarrying hot liquid and fits under the spout and thenturn the machine on. The machine will warm the waterup to the correct temperature and then force it intothe coffee grounds. This should take between 15 to20 seconds and as the coffee starts to flow into thecup the foam starts forming on top. This foam is brownin colour and is known as crema but once this foambecomes white in colour then the best tasting liquidis not flowing any longer and you should stop themachine now.6. Remove the cup immediately and your cup ofespresso is now ready to drink.7. Add milk and sweetener if required.
  12. 12. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 12Espresso Moka PotsA Moka Pot is an Italian steam-based stove topespresso maker that produces a dark coffee almostas strong as that from a conventional espresso maker.Sometimes called the poor man’s espresso and alsoknown as stove-top espresso.1. Unscrew the top chamber.2. Fill the bottom canister with water at least one fingerbelow the inner room. It should be full just enough thatwhen you put the funnel in the water, it doesn’t makecontact with the bottom of the filter.3. Insert the empty funnel filter into the water filledcanister bottom.4. Spoon enough grounds into the metal filter and tapdown lightly. Do not compact the grounds. A 5mmspace should be from the top of the grounds to thetop of the filter funnel.5. Make sure the seal is secure and comfortably tight,close the top flip lid on the upper chamber, andplace on a low heat on your heating element. If usinggas make sure the flame only just covers the bottomof the Moka Machine.Depending on the size it could take a minute to threebut eventually you’ll start hearing a gentle rumble as thewater begins to press through the grounds. Wait till therumbling begins to slow down, remove the pot from thestove WITH OVEN MITTS, place on the side and serveafter at least one minute of cooling.
  13. 13. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 13Vacuum coffee potThis type of maker uses a natural vacuum thatautomatically infuses the coffee at the besttemperature, as well as speed. This system ensuresextraction of only the oils and caffeine for a pure, trulydistinctive gourmet flavour with no bitter taste.The vacuum coffee pot is made of glass or metal andhas an upper and lower pot. The upper pot sits directlyon top of the lower one. They are both sealed with astopper. A filter and tube are attached to the upperpot, and the tube hangs down between the two pots.1. Start with the lower glass or metal coffee pot. Put iton a heating element; if you use an electric stove youshould put it over a heat tray.2. Fill the lower pot with water for the coffee. Measurehow many cups of water using a measuring cup orcoffee cup. Use cold fresh water. Fill the pot at leasthalf but no more than 7/8 full. It can be put on a gasstove or special unit made for this coffee pot on high.There are metal vacuum pots that are more durablethan the glass ones.3. Position the filter in the upper pot. Measure the coffeeinto the filter using one level tablespoon per cup.4. When the water in the bottom pot begins to simmeror boil place the upper pot on top and press downto create a tight seal. As the water heats it will rise upthe tube into upper glass pot. This is how the coffeeis made.5. When half of the water reaches the top lower theheat to medium. Stir the coffee in the upper pot witha spoon to distribute coffee grounds evenly.Allow the coffee in the upper pot to gurgle for oneto three minutes depending on how strong you wantyour coffee.6. Remove the pot from the heat and let the coffee fromthe top pot drain down into the lower pot.7. When the coffee has been drained gently removethe upper globe and place it in the sink.8. Pour the coffee into cups and enjoy.NB. When purchasing a pot consider a metal pot, which is moredurable than glass. If you have kids this pot is safer and not aseasy to break. Stainless steel is a good metal to consider. Whenpurchasing glass pots choose ones that are well designed andeasy to use. Look for models that can be used on top of the stove.There are manual and automatic vacuum makers. Manual pots giveyou more control over making the coffee. The automatic pot issafer, as you will not overheat the pot and break it. The automaticvacuum pots are good for those that don’t have time but likeexcellent coffee. They come with a heating element, too. Differentfilters include mesh, nylon and cloth. Never let a glass bottomchamber boil dry, as it can crack, letting hot coffee spill over.
  14. 14. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 14MethodCreate an easy method of getting the most out of yourtime helping you define your morning routine.1. Get away from the bed First thing: get yourself out of the bed. The alarm clockthat can be turned off without you opening your eyessimply leads to you automatically turning it off withoutrecognizing it. Keep the alarm ‘off switch’ or snoozebutton far enough away to make a difference (aka,out of arms reach).2. Turn on the lights Once you hit the snooze on the alarm clock, it’s allabout lights, the anti-dark where it’s easy to fall backasleep. Either turn on the bedroom light or go intoanother room. The light will generally get you to keepyour eyes open.3. Stretch or Exercise Just as you can stumble to the alarm to turn it off, youcan also stumble through a quick lights, music, actionscenario. If there isn’t already, put on some music. It’sgreat for waking up the mind and putting you in agood mood to start the day. As you’re up, and your mind’s wandering, walk to thekitchen, start the kettle and do some quick stretching.Moving the body around is a great way to wake upand besides, you’ve now got a couple of minuteswhile you’re waiting, so why not use them.4. Coffee Ah, that coffee smell. You can simply imagine it andyou’ll get that smile across your face. It’s your comfortplace, your start to the day, your ultimate way ofwaking up and being ready. Since you’re already stretching around the kitchen it’seasy enough fit in a stretch for the coffee grounds.Just remember no bouncing, and if you do one side,the other must follow!5. Combination Set yourself up right. Knowing that you’ll have anamazing morning cup ahead of you, some nice musicplaying in the background to get you in the moodwill surely get you out of bed and have you all set tohave a great day. But why not know your steps before you do it. Makesure you have all the stock (music/coffee/milk/sugar)you need. Maybe even layout the clothes beforeyou go to sleep. If you set yourself up right for yourmorning’s activities, you’re bound to make it a great‘easy’ daily habit. By adding an extra hour’s activity onto my morning,I find that I get more done than on mornings whenI sleep until the last possible moment. I also am notrushed, and that means the whole pace of the dayis less frantic.
  15. 15. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 15Coffee style definitionsHere is a little recipe guide for how to make the variousstyles of coffee. Americano 1/3 espresso, 2/3 hot waterBasic Black 1 cup coffee, nothing elseBreve 1 part espresso, 1 part half halfCafé Latté 2/3 coffee, 1/3 milk foamCafé Mélange 1/3 coffee, top with whipped creamCarajillo 1/3 espresso, 1 part brandyCafé Mocha 1/3 espresso, 2/3 milk foam, addchocolateCappuccino 1/3 espresso, 2/3 milk foamEiskaffee Chilled coffee, milk sweetener,vanilla ice creamFlat White 1 shot espresso, fill rest of cup withsteamed/warmed milkGalào 1/4 coffee, 3/4 milk foamIced 1/3 coffee, 2/3 cold milk, addsweetener/ice/whipped creamIrish 1/2 coffee, 1/2 Irish WhiskyLong Black 3/4 hot water, 1/4 espressoMacchiato 1 part espresso, 1 part milk foamLong Macchiato 1 part espresso, 2 parts milk foamRed eye 1/3 drip coffee, 2/3 shots espressoVienna 2 shots espresso, creamMocha 1 part coffee, 1 part chocolate,2 parts milkHelpful deffinitionsHalf half half full creme milk, half skim milkEspresso made from espresso machine or mokapot coffeeCoffee Made from any coffee machine that’snot an espresso machine or moka potMilk Foam Milk that has been frothed through a milksteamer on an espresso machine
  16. 16. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 16Heating milkHeating in a MicrowaveMicrowave cooking times vary. The important thing isfor the milk to reach the point just before boiling, whensteam begins to rise off the milk, but no bubbles haveformed. Try the starting time of 20-30 seconds and varyyour timing based on your machine.Any type of fresh milk--skim, whole, even half-and-half--will work, but the quality and consistency of the foam willvary. Whole milk makes richer, finer foam, while skim milktends to make stiff foam.NB. Watch the cups in the microwave closely the first few times youdo this to be sure milk doesn’t boil over. Learn the ideal heatingtime for your microwave.The trick to soy milkAfter heating soy milk, pour the milk into the cup first.This will stop visually unpleasant (yet completely fine todrink) floaty bits.Heating with a stove topWith a stove top heater (aka, a pot or pan) you’reable to control the heating much better. The idea ofheating the milk is to find the point that steam rises butthe milk is not boiling as you don’t want to burn the milk.And with a stove top you are able to have much morecontrol over this point. The downside is that the processtakes longer.
  17. 17. Need a COFFEE fix? Your complete guide 17Drip coffee makers(cone filters)$2-10Espresso machine$50-500NB. The above pictures are just illustrations of the types of coffee implements that are available. The prices shown are just an example. Ifyou click a name or picture - amazon will show you what they have currently on offer.Plunger pot/ French press$10-30Espresso Moka Pots$15-90Percolator$30-100Vacuum coffee pot$3-120Coffee Machine ReferenceDisposableCoffee Filter$2-9DisposableCoffee Filter$2-9