Week 7.1 the president

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Article II The President & Executive Branch

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Week 7.1 the president

  1. 1. Article II: The Executive Branch
  2. 2. Art. II Sect. 1: Authority & Office of President <ul><li>The executive power of the US govt is headed up by the President with the Vice President under him; He is Chief Executive of the USA
  3. 3. Term length = 4 years
  4. 4. How is the President elected? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Art. II Sect. 1: Authority & Office of President <ul><li>The executive power of the US govt is headed up by the President with the Vice President under him; He is Chief Executive of the USA
  6. 6. Term length = 4 years
  7. 7. How is the President elected?
  8. 8. - each state appoints electors
  9. 9. How many electors per state? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Art. II Sect. 1: Authority & Office of President <ul><li>The executive power of the US govt is headed up by the President with the Vice President under him; He is Chief Executive of the USA
  11. 11. Term length = 4 years
  12. 12. How is the President elected?
  13. 13. - each state appoints electors
  14. 14. How many electors per state?
  15. 15. - equal to number of senators & representatives in Congress
  16. 16. - no one who holds a US office can be an elector
  17. 17. Note: The rest of Article II Sect. 1.2 was replaced by Amendment XII. Why? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Electing the Prez & VP <ul><li>Early on there were problems:
  19. 19. - in 1796 John Adams was elected President & Jefferson came in second, so he became VP, but they were in different parties and worked against each other while in office!
  20. 20. - a tie in 1800 for President between Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr, who was supposed to be his VP. It took 36 votes in the House to break the tie, with Jefferson finally winning. </li></ul>
  21. 21. More on Amendment XII <ul><li>According to Amendment XII if there is a tie in the electoral college, the House breaks the tie for the president, and the Senate breaks the tie for VP
  22. 22. Amendment XII also clarified that VP must meet qualifications for President.
  23. 23. The House had to elect the President in 1800 and 1824 and the Senate elected the VP in 1836. </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is the Electoral College and how does it work? <ul><li>Group of voters selected by each state that officially elect the President
  25. 25. The number of electors = # of senators + representatives
  26. 26. How many in Colorado? </li></ul>
  27. 27. What is the Electoral College and how does it work? <ul><li>Group of voters selected by each state that officially elect the President
  28. 28. The number of electors = # of senators + representatives
  29. 29. How many in Colorado? 10
  30. 30. How many total? </li></ul>
  31. 31. What is the Electoral College and how does it work? <ul><li>Group of voters selected by each state that officially elect the President
  32. 32. The number of electors = # of senators + representatives
  33. 33. How many in Colorado? 10
  34. 34. How many total? 538 (100 senators + 435 Reps + 3 from DC)
  35. 35. They almost always vote the way the people in their state voted. Usually winner take all, but a few states actually allocate their electors proportionately.
  36. 36. Is this a good idea? </li></ul>
  37. 37. What is the Electoral College and how does it work? <ul><li>Group of voters selected by each state that officially elect the President
  38. 38. The number of electors = # of senators + representatives
  39. 39. How many in Colorado? 10
  40. 40. How many total? 538 (100 senators + 435 Reps + 3 from DC); a candidate must win 270+ votes to win the race
  41. 41. They meet shortly after the popular vote, but the result is usually already a forgone conclusion
  42. 42. They almost always vote the way the people in their state voted. Usually winner take all, but a few states (ME, NE) actually allocate their electors proportionately.
  43. 43. Is this a good idea? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Electoral College cont. <ul><li>I prefer the winner-take-all approach. Otherwise, the state's vote is watered down in importance and the state is not considered important in the campaigning stage.
  45. 45. Why did the Founding Fathers set up the electoral college? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Electoral College cont. <ul><li>I prefer the winner-take-all approach. Otherwise, the state's vote is watered down in importance and the state is not considered important in the campaigning stage.
  47. 47. Why did the Founding Fathers set up the electoral college?
  48. 48. - They intended that only the House of Representatives would be elected by the popular vote. The electoral college gives more power to the smaller states, especially the rural states. Large cities tend to vote more liberally than the more conservative suburbs and rural areas and would have too much influence on the election without the electoral college. California, Florida, and Texas would have way too much power. </li></ul>
  49. 49. What happened in the 2000 Presidential Election? <ul><li>Who won the popular vote? </li></ul>
  50. 50. What happened in the 2000 Presidential Election? <ul><li>Who won the popular vote? Al Gore
  51. 51. Who won the electoral college vote? </li></ul>
  52. 52. What happened in the 2000 Presidential Election? <ul><li>Who won the popular vote? Al Gore
  53. 53. Who won the electoral college vote? George W. Bush
  54. 54. - It all came down to who would win Florida's electoral votes, but the race was too close to call for days. The election was hanging for weeks because of a controversy over “hanging chads,” the little bits of paper clinging to the ballots that had not been properly removed by some of the voters, so the Democrats claimed such ballots were too hard to count.
  55. 55. So, even though Gore got more votes overall, once it was established that Bush won Florida, he had more electoral votes and thus became President. What a nightmare! </li></ul>
  56. 56. How are electors chosen in Colorado? <ul><li>They're chosen by the delegates to the parties' state conventions.
  57. 57. Not a big deal for the Democrats this year because Obama is unopposed, but a huge deal for the Republicans.
  58. 58. Colorado's State Republican Party Convention is April 14. I am an alternate to that convention but hope to get to vote. We may already know who the Republican nominee will be at that point, but if not, our vote could be important.
  59. 59. We will also vote for delegates to the Republican National Convention, so this will be important, too, just in case the candidate is not yet selected, which is unlikely, but also to help set the party's national platform. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Art. II Sect. 1.3 <ul><li>Congress sets the time for the President's election.
  61. 61. When is that? </li></ul>
  62. 62. Art. II Sect. 1.3 – 1.4 <ul><li>Congress sets the time for the President's election.
  63. 63. When is that?
  64. 64. - 1 st Tuesday after the 1 st Monday in November
  65. 65. What are the qualifications to be President? </li></ul>
  66. 66. Art. II Sect. 1.3 – 1.4 <ul><li>Congress sets the time for the President's election.
  67. 67. When is that?
  68. 68. - 1 st Tuesday after the 1 st Monday in November
  69. 69. What are the qualifications to be President?
  70. 70. - natural-born citizen
  71. 71. - 35+ years old
  72. 72. - resident of the US for at least 14 years </li></ul>
  73. 73. Art II Sect. 1.5: What happens if a President is removed from office? <ul><li>Whether by death, resignation, or inability to do his job, the VP takes over.
  74. 74. What if something happens to both of them? </li></ul>
  75. 75. Art II Sect. 1.5: What happens if a President is removed from office? <ul><li>Whether by death, resignation, or inability to do his job, the VP takes over.
  76. 76. What if something happens to both of them?
  77. 77. The Presidential Succession is as follows:
  78. 78. - Speaker of the House
  79. 79. - President Pro Tempore of the Senate
  80. 80. - Members of the President's Cabinet in the order of the creation of their offices (Sec. Of State, then Sec. Of Treasury, Sect. Of Defense, Attorney General, etc.)
  81. 81. Amendment XXV allows appointment of a new VP when that office is empty, which happened under Nixon when Spiro Agnew resigned due to bribery charges in Maryland. </li></ul>
  82. 82. President's Salary <ul><li>President Woodrow Wilson had a stroke while in office, and it's believed that his wife did most of his work during that time. The VP should have taken over if Wilson was too disabled to do his job.
  83. 83. How much is he paid? </li></ul>
  84. 84. President's Salary & Oath <ul><li>President Woodrow Wilson had a stroke while in office, and it's believed that his wife did most of his work during that time. The VP should have taken over if Wilson was too disabled to do his job.
  85. 85. How much is he paid? $400,000 per year as well as extra money for expenses, entertainment, & travel. He also receives a lifetime pension, free medical & dental services, and an expense account for staff after he leaves office.
  86. 86. The oath of office is clearly presented in the Constitution. Note that Washington added “So help me, God” at the end of the oath, and this has been included ever since. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Art. II Sect. 2 Powers & Duties <ul><li>Commander in Chief: </li></ul><ul>- Head of army, navy, state militias when called into federal service, air force <li>Note: A civilian controls military power in the US
  88. 88. In addition to a declaration of war by Congress, when else can the President call troops into action? </li></ul>
  89. 89. Art. II Sect. 2 Powers & Duties <ul><li>Commander in Chief: </li></ul><ul>- army, navy, state militias when called into federal service, air force <li>Note: A civilian controls military power in the US
  90. 90. In addition to a declaration of war by Congress, when else can the President call troops into action?
  91. 91. - if a law is passed authorizing him to do so
  92. 92. - there's an emergency due to an attack on the US or its possessions
  93. 93. What else is included under this power? </li></ul>
  94. 94. Art. II Sect. 2 Powers & Duties <ul><li>Commander in Chief : </li></ul><ul>- army, navy, state militias when called into federal service, air force <li>Note: A civilian controls military power in the US
  95. 95. In addition to a declaration of war by Congress, when else can the President call troops into action?
  96. 96. - if a law is passed authorizing him to do so
  97. 97. - there's an emergency due to an attack on the US or its possessions
  98. 98. What else is included under this power?
  99. 99. - covert organizations & actions (CIA, etc.) </li></ul>
  100. 100. Art. II Sect. 2: Cabinet <ul><li>What is the Cabinet? </li></ul>
  101. 101. Art. II Sect. 2: Cabinet <ul><li>What is the Cabinet?
  102. 102. - Heads of the 15 executive departments under the Prez
  103. 103. - The word cabinet comes from the French word for a closed or private room where a king meets w/ his advisers
  104. 104. These people are usually his closest councilors and advisers and include the Secretary Of State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Healthy & Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veterans Affairs, Homeland Security.
  105. 105. Other members of the Cabinet include the VP, Prez's Chief of Staff, head of EPA, head of Office Management & Budget, head of National Drug Control Policy, US trade rep </li></ul>
  106. 106. Art. II Sect. 2: Pardons & Reprieves <ul><li>Reprieve = temporary postponement of punishment
  107. 107. Pardon = complete forgiveness of a crime & it punishment
  108. 108. Amnesty = general pardon to a group
  109. 109. Recent pardons:
  110. 110. - Ford's pardon of Nixon
  111. 111. - Carter's pardon of draft dodgers during the Vietnam War
  112. 112. - Clinton's pardon of 130 criminals including some in prison for drug charges or tax evasion </li></ul>
  113. 113. Art. II Sect. 2: Head of State <ul><li>What does Head of State mean? </li></ul>
  114. 114. Art. II Sect. 2: Head of State <ul><li>What does Head of State mean?
  115. 115. - In charge of diplomatic relations with foreign nations
  116. 116. What does this entail? </li></ul>
  117. 117. Art. II Sect. 2: Head of State <ul><li>What does Head of State mean?
  118. 118. - In charge of diplomatic relations with foreign nations
  119. 119. What does this entail?
  120. 120. - receiving ambassadors
  121. 121. - sending ambassadors to other nations
  122. 122. - meeting with heads of other nations
  123. 123. - negotiating treaties, including trade agreements
  124. 124. Who has to approve all treaties? </li></ul>
  125. 125. Art. II Sect. 2: Head of State <ul><li>What does Head of State mean?
  126. 126. - In charge of diplomatic relations with foreign nations
  127. 127. What does this entail?
  128. 128. - receiving ambassadors
  129. 129. - sending ambassadors to other nations
  130. 130. - meeting with heads of other nations
  131. 131. - negotiating treaties, including trade agreements
  132. 132. Who has to approve all treaties? Senate, by 2/3 vote
  133. 133. Who is the current Secretary of State? </li></ul>
  134. 134. Art. II Sect. 2: Head of State <ul><li>What does Head of State mean?
  135. 135. - In charge of diplomatic relations with foreign nations
  136. 136. What does this entail?
  137. 137. - receiving ambassadors
  138. 138. - sending ambassadors to other nations
  139. 139. - meeting with heads of other nations
  140. 140. - negotiating treaties, including trade agreements
  141. 141. Who has to approve all treaties? Senate, by 2/3 vote
  142. 142. Who is Secretary of State? Hillary Clinton
  143. 143. Executive agreement – a written agreement w/ another head of state; does not need Senate approval </li></ul>
  144. 144. Art. II Section 2: Chief Executive <ul><li>What does it mean to be Chief Executive? </li></ul>
  145. 145. Art. II Section 2: Chief Executive <ul><li>What does it mean to be Chief Executive?
  146. 146. - President is responsible to carry out (execute) the laws passed by Congress
  147. 147. What is meant by bureaucracy? </li></ul>
  148. 148. Art. II Section 2: Chief Executive <ul><li>What does it mean to be Chief Executive?
  149. 149. - President is responsible to carry out (execute) the laws passed by Congress
  150. 150. What is meant by bureaucracy?
  151. 151. - government by desks or clerks
  152. 152. Why do people often hate bureaucracy? </li></ul>
  153. 153. Art. II Section 2: Chief Executive <ul><li>What does it mean to be Chief Executive?
  154. 154. - President is responsible to carry out (execute) the laws passed by Congress
  155. 155. What is meant by bureaucracy?
  156. 156. - government by desks or clerks
  157. 157. Why do people often hate bureaucracy?
  158. 158. - known for inefficiency, lack of responsiveness, and too many rules & regulations, red tape, waste, bureaucrats not answerable to the people (unelected), doublespeak(p.353) – All of this found in any organization but worst in govt.
  159. 159. - DMV anyone? Try Mexico!
  160. 160. How did the federal bureaucracy come about? </li></ul>
  161. 161. Art. II Sect. 2: Appointments <ul><li>Prez appoints Cabinet heads, agency head, and other key positions in his administration, including federal judges and diplomats (1000's of people)
  162. 162. Who has to approve these appointments? </li></ul>
  163. 163. Art. II Sect. 2: Appointments <ul><li>Prez appoints Cabinet heads, agency heads, and other key positions in his administration, including federal judges and diplomats (1000's of people)
  164. 164. Who has to approve these appointments?
  165. 165. - Senate, by 2/3 vote (Advise & Consent role)
  166. 166. The Prez is also able to hire a number of positions without Senate oversight
  167. 167. Civil service employees = ? </li></ul>
  168. 168. Art. II Sect. 2: Appointments <ul><li>Prez appoints Cabinet heads, agency heads, and other key positions in his administration, including federal judges and diplomats (1000's of people)
  169. 169. Who has to approve these appointments?
  170. 170. - Senate, by 2/3 vote (Advise & Consent role)
  171. 171. The Prez is also able to hire a number of positions without Senate oversight
  172. 172. Civil service employees = most of the people who work for the federal government (Post Offices, Social Security, Medicare, federal departments like the Dept. of Agriculture, national parks, etc, etc.)
  173. 173. - These people continue in their jobs regardless of who becomes Prez </li></ul>
  174. 174. Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>What's the problem with all these federal agencies and employees? </li></ul>
  175. 175. Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>What's the problem with all these federal agencies and employees?
  176. 176. - They cost a lot of money which means taxes!
  177. 177. - Once established, their jobs rarely go away because Americans have come to depend on these programs
  178. 178. - It's their job to establish & enforce regulations, the number of which grow astronomically every year
  179. 179. How will the new national healthcare legislation affect the bureaucracy? </li></ul>
  180. 180. Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>What's the problem with all these federal agencies and employees?
  181. 181. - They cost a lot of money which means taxes!
  182. 182. - Once established, their jobs rarely go away because Americans have come to depend on these programs
  183. 183. - It's their job to establish & enforce regulations, the number of which grow astronomically every year
  184. 184. How will the new national healthcare legislation affect the bureaucracy?
  185. 185. - That's right, it will have a huge surge in growth </li></ul>
  186. 186. Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>What is the spoils system? </li></ul>
  187. 187. Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>What is the spoils system = what happens when a new Prez takes over and “cleans house” by replacing govt jobholders with new people who supported him in the election campaign
  188. 188. Pendleton Civil Service Act: protected most federal employees from the spoils system
  189. 189. - Note, however, that there are restrictions on their political activities (see p. 337)
  190. 190. How many Cabinet departments are there? </li></ul>
  191. 191. Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>What is the spoils system = what happens when a new Prez takes over and “cleans house” by replacing govt jobholders with new people who supported him in the election campaign
  192. 192. Pendleton Civil Service Act: protected most federal employees from the spoils system
  193. 193. - Note, however, that there are restrictions on their political activities (see p. 337)
  194. 194. How many Cabinet departments are there?
  195. 195. - 15, but the directors of the EPA, Office of Management & Budget, National Drug Control Policy, U.S Trade Representative as well as the VP are often included in Cabinet meetings </li></ul>
  196. 196. Cabinet Departments <ul><li>What are the 15 Cabinet Departments & what do they do? </li></ul>
  197. 197. Cabinet Departments – What do they do? <ul>Dept. of State, 1789: foreign relations, diplomatic corps, passports & visas Dept. of the Treasury, 1789: taxes, spending, borrowing money, printing money, Customs, IRS Department of Defense, 1789: military forces, national security; Pentagon Department of Justice, 1789: attorney general, enforces federal law, U.S. Attorneys prosecute cases in federal courts, oversee federal prisons, US marshals, ATFE, FBI Department of the Interior, 1849: manages public lands & territories, Native Americans, mining, national parks, etc. Department of Agriculture, 1889: food inspection, school lunches, food stamps, farmers & ranchers, national forests </ul>
  198. 198. Cabinet Departments cont <ul><li>Dept. of Commerce, 1903: international trade, economic growth, the census, patents & trademarks, ocean & coastal resources, economic statistics & research
  199. 199. Dept. of Labor, 1913: minimum wage, safety laws, job training, childcare issues, OSHA, labor stats
  200. 200. Dept of Health & Human Services, 1953/1980: health care, disease prevention & control, Medicare & Medicaid, welfare, FDA – largest budget (25%)of all the depts!
  201. 201. Dept. of Housing & Urban Development, 1937/65: public housing, home financing, homelessness aid, FHA, Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac, urban renewal
  202. 202. Dept. of Transportation, 1966: oversees US highways,FAA mass transit, air travel, railroads, pipelines, maritime laws, </li></ul>
  203. 203. Cabinet Departments finished <ul><li>Dept. of Energy, 1977: energy technology, nuclear weapons research, hydroelectric power, alternative energy
  204. 204. Dept. of Education, 1953/1979: federal aid to public schools, educational research
  205. 205. Dept. of Veteran Affairs, 1989: oversees benefits, pensions, and medical programs for veterans, maintains military cemeteries, GI Bill
  206. 206. Dept. of Homeland Security, 2002: prevents terrorist attacks in U.S., reduce vulnerability to such attacks; U.S. Customs, Immigration & Naturalization, Secret Service, Coast Guard, FEMA </li></ul>
  207. 207. Independent Agencies <ul><li>Independent means they are not located in any of the previous 15 Cabinet departments
  208. 208. Includes NASA, USPS, Tennessee Valley Authority, FCC, SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission), FDA, EPA, OSHA, FDIC, SBA,the Fed, EEOC, NLRB, NIH, NEA, Social Security, etc. </li></ul>
  209. 209. Federal Bureacracy <ul><li>Organized like a pyramid with the Prez & Cabinet at the top followed by various agency heads and then a myriad of levels under them (See p. 338)
  210. 210. Look at chart on p. 334 to illustrate growth of # of federal employees
  211. 211. What caused the explosion in govt growth in the 1800's and 1930's & 40's? </li></ul>
  212. 212. Federal Bureacracy <ul><li>Organized like a pyramid with the Prez & Cabinet at the top followed by various agency heads and then a myriad of levels under them (See p. 338)
  213. 213. Look at chart on p. 334 to illustrate growth of # of federal employees
  214. 214. What caused the explosion in govt growth in the 1800's and 1930's & 40's?
  215. 215. - aftermath of Civil War
  216. 216. - New Deal response to the Great Depression
  217. 217. - World War II
  218. 218. Has the # of employees ever dropped? </li></ul>
  219. 219. Federal Bureacracy <ul><li>Organized like a pyramid with the Cabinet at the top followed by various agency heads and then a myriad of levels under them (See p. 338)
  220. 220. Look at chart on p. 334 to illustrate growth of # of federal employees
  221. 221. What caused the explosion in govt growth in the 1800's and 1930's & 40's?
  222. 222. - aftermath of Civil War
  223. 223. - New Deal response to the Great Depression
  224. 224. - World War II
  225. 225. Has the # of employees ever dropped?
  226. 226. - Yes! Under Clinton; why? </li></ul>
  227. 227. Federal Bureacracy <ul><li>Organized like a pyramid with the Cabinet at the top followed by various agency heads and then a myriad of levels under them (See p. 338)
  228. 228. Look at chart on p. 334 to illustrate growth of # of federal employees
  229. 229. What caused the explosion in govt growth in the 1800's and 1930's & 40's?
  230. 230. - aftermath of Civil War
  231. 231. - New Deal response to the Great Depression
  232. 232. - World War II
  233. 233. Has the # of employees ever dropped?
  234. 234. - Yes! Under Clinton; why – jobs cut in Dept of Defense </li></ul>
  235. 235. More on the Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>Why is it sometimes called the fourth branch of the govt? </li></ul>
  236. 236. More on the Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>Why is it sometimes called the fourth branch of the govt?
  237. 237. - seems to have as much power as the three official branches: legislative, executive & judicial; it has a life of its own
  238. 238. - largest branch by far with all its employees
  239. 239. - can play the other branches against each other
  240. 240. - made up of specialists who control their fates by controlling information, esp. to legislators
  241. 241. Who oversees the bureaucracy? </li></ul>
  242. 242. More on the Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>Why is it sometimes called the fourth branch of the govt?
  243. 243. - seems to have as much power as the three official branches: legislative, executive & judicial; it has a life of its own
  244. 244. - largest branch by far with all its employees
  245. 245. - can play the other branches against each other
  246. 246. - made up of specialists who control their fates by controlling information, esp. to legislators
  247. 247. Who oversees the bureaucracy? Congress & the Prez
  248. 248. - Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
  249. 249. - Sunshine Act requires public hearings
  250. 250. - General Accounting Office can audit finances of a dept. </li></ul>
  251. 251. Art. II Sect. 2.3: Recess Appointments <ul><li>What is a recess appointment? </li></ul>
  252. 252. Art. II Sect. 2.3: Recess Appointments <ul><li>What is a recess appointment?
  253. 253. - appointment made by President to fill a vacancy while Senate is in recess, thus sidestepping a confirmation hearing. The appointment is good until the next Congress convenes. </li></ul>
  254. 254. Art. II Sect. 3: Other Duties & Powers <ul><li>State of the Union Address: addressed to Congress at the end of January every year outlining the issues he would like to see Congress address
  255. 255. He can call Congress into session during a time of emergency
  256. 256. If the House & Senate cannot agree on a time to adjourn, the President can decide for them
  257. 257. He receives ambassadors & public ministers (Head of State)
  258. 258. He commissions all the officers of the US military (Commander-in Chief)
  259. 259. He makes sure all laws are executed (Chief Executive) </li></ul>
  260. 260. Art. II Sect. 4: Impeachment <ul><li>Impeachment = removal of President, VP, and all civil officers of the US upon conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
  261. 261. We have covered this earlier; the House makes the charge (impeaches) and the Senate holds a trial and convicts (or not.) </li></ul>
  262. 262. Miscellaneous Issues <ul><li>When, if ever, is war appropriate?
  263. 263. Are you concerned about wiretapping and other invasions into personal privacy that are now practiced by the govt?
  264. 264. What do you think should be done to get the federal budget under control? What would you cut? Would you raise taxes? Bring the troops home? Or?
  265. 265. How should we respond to terrorist attacks? Does the military need to change? How?
  266. 266. Are you worried about China's growing power?
  267. 267. What do you think is/are the most pressing issue(s) facing our next president and Congress?
  268. 268. What are weapons of mass destruction (WMD)? </li></ul>
  269. 269. More Issues <ul><li>Does the ever increasing globalization concern you? Or do you welcome it?
  270. 270. What can be done about the Muslim threat? Why do they hate us so much?
  271. 271. How about illegal immigration?
  272. 272. Is there a workable alternative to a national health care system? Anyone have any idea how much health insurance costs? What can be done about this? Why is it so expensive?
  273. 273. What do you think about cultural relativism? (p. 378) How should we address this?
  274. 274. Do you have hope for the future? Or are you facing a lot of fears? </li></ul>

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