Articles IV – VII of the Constitution &    Principles of the Constitution
Art. IV Sect. 1 Full Faith & Credit                ClauseWhat does the full faith and credit clause require?
Art. IV Sect. 1 Full Faith & Credit                ClauseWhat does the full faith and credit clause require?- that each st...
Art. IV Sect. 1 Full Faith & Credit                ClauseWhat does the full faith and credit clause require?- that each st...
Art. IV Sect. 2: Privileges &                ImmunitiesSection 2.1: Ones rights as an American citizen remain no  matter w...
Art. IV Sect. 2: Privileges &                ImmunitiesSection 2.1: Ones rights as an American citizen remain no  matter w...
Art. IV Sect.3: TerritoriesWhat are the conditions under which new states can be admitted to the union?
Art. IV Sect.3: New States &                TerritoriesWhat are the conditions under which new states can be admitted to t...
U.S. TerritoriesPuerto Rico & Northern Mariana Islands are commonwealth  territories; Congress oversees them, but they hav...
Art. IV Sect. 4: Republican form of       government guaranteedAll states must have a republican form of governmentIn retu...
Art. IV Sect. 4: Republican form of       government guaranteedAll states must have a republican form of governmentIn retu...
Art. V: Amending the ConstitutionWhat has to happen in order to amend or change the Constitution?
Art. V: Amending the ConstitutionWhat has to happen in order to amend or change the Constitution?1. Either 2/3 of both Hou...
Amending the Constitution, cont.Once an amendment is proposed, what has to happen to approve it?
Amending the Constitution, cont.Once an amendment is proposed, what has to happen to approve it?- It must be approved by ¾...
Amending the Constitution, cont.Once an amendment is proposed, what has to happen to approve it?- It must be approved by ¾...
Article VI: Constitutional & National             SupremacySection 1 Assumption of Previous Debts:- The new government wou...
Art. VI Sect. 2: Supremacy ClauseConstitution is the highest law in the land, in this order:1. the U.S. Constitution2. law...
Art. VI Sect. 3: Oath for officers of    federal & state governmentsRequires all members of Congress, all members of the s...
Art. VII: Ratification ProceduresHow many state constitutional conventions needed to ratify the Constitution in order to p...
Art. VII: Ratification ProceduresHow many state constitutional conventions needed to ratify the Constitution in order to p...
Basic Principles of the ConstitutionU.S. Constitution was the first written constitution and is still  the longest survivi...
Basic Principles of the ConstitutionU.S. Constitution was the first written constitution and is still  the longest survivi...
James Madison on human nature:Does this sound like someone with a Biblical worldview?“What is government itself, but the g...
James Madison on human nature:Does this sound like someone with a Biblical worldview?“What is government itself, but the g...
Examples of demonic governments: French Republic of  1780-
How Power Corrupts if not held in            checkExamples of godless, even demonic governments:- French Republic of 1789-...
The Problem of Constitutional            InterpretationWhat are the advantages of having a general document that is not ve...
The Problem of Constitutional            InterpretationWhat are the advantages of having a general document that is not ve...
The Problem of Constitutional            InterpretationWhat are the advantages of having a general document that is not ve...
The Problem of Constitutional            InterpretationWhat are the advantages of having a general document that is not ve...
Right of PrivacyIs there a right to privacy mentioned in the Constitution?
Right of PrivacyIs there a right to privacy mentioned in the Constitution?- No, but that doesnt mean it doesnt exist. I th...
Right of PrivacyIs there a right to privacy mentioned in the Constitution?- No, but that doesnt mean it doesnt exist. I th...
What is to be done?Whats the remedy for this problem with interpretation?- To appoint judges who are not broad constructiv...
What is to be done?Whats the remedy for this problem with interpretation?- To appoint judges who are not broad constructiv...
What is to be done?Whats the remedy for this problem with interpretation?- To appoint judges who are not broad constructiv...
How is the Constitution supposed to         adapt over time?
How is the Constitution supposed to         adapt over time?Through the amendment process described in Article V.How many ...
How is the Constitution supposed to         adapt over time?Through the amendment process described in Article V.How many ...
How is the Constitution supposed to         adapt over time?Through the amendment process described in Article V.How many ...
More on Amending the ConstitutionSo, is the amendment process easy or hard?
More on Amending the ConstitutionSo, is the amendment process easy or hard?- Definitely hard; Is this a good thing or not?...
More on Amending the ConstitutionSo, is the amendment process easy or hard?- Definitely hard; Is this a good thing or not?...
More on Amending the ConstitutionSo, is the amendment process easy or hard?- Definitely hard; Is this a good thing or not?...
Basic Principles of the ConstitutionThe Founders figured these out from studying past  governments & their problems AND fr...
Principle 1: Limited GovernmentWhat is meant by limited government?
Principle 1: Limited GovernmentWhat is meant by limited government?- Government does not have absolute power, but is limit...
Principle 2: Separation of PowersWhat are the three branches of the federal government?
Principle 2: Separation of PowersWhat are the three branches of the federal government?- legislative (Congress – Article I...
Principle 2: Separation of PowersWhat are the three branches of the federal government?- legislative (Congress – Article I...
Principle 3: Checks and BalancesChecks & Balances = ?
Principle 3: Checks and BalancesChecks & Balances = keeping the power of each branch of government in check through the po...
Principle 3: Checks and BalancesChecks & Balances = keeping the power of each branch of government in check through the po...
More Checks & BalancesCongresss power of impeachment over both the executive & judicial branchesBoth Houses of Congress mu...
More Checks & BalancesCongresss power of impeachment over both the executive & judicial branchesBoth Houses of Congress mu...
More Checks & BalancesCongresss power of impeachment over both the executive & judicial branchesBoth Houses of Congress mu...
Principle 4: Judicial ReviewJudicial Review = ?
Principle 4: Judicial ReviewJudicial Review = the power of the judicial branch to review  the constitutionality of laws pa...
Principle 5: FederalismFederalism = ?
Principle 5: FederalismFederalism = division of power between national and state  levels of government; the goal is to bal...
Principle 5: FederalismFederalism = division of power (power-sharing) between  national and state levels of government; th...
Principle 5: FederalismFederalism = division of power (power-sharing) between  national and state levels of government; th...
More on FederalismThe Reality today? The states have lost much power to  national govt.Why? As James Kilpatrick has observ...
Principle 6: Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty = ?
Principle 6: Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty = the people are the ultimate source of  their governments authorityIs...
Principle 6: Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty = the people are the ultimate source of  their governments authorityIs...
Principle 6: Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty = the people are the ultimate source of  their governments authorityIs...
Popular SovereigntyHow is this principle evident in the Constitution?
Popular SovereigntyHow is this principle evident in the Constitution?- In the preamble, “We the people of the United State...
The Challenge?Having a populace that understands their responsibilities to rule themselvesThe People need to register to v...
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Week 10.2 articles iv vii

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Articles IV - VII of the US Constitution

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Week 10.2 articles iv vii

  1. 1. Articles IV – VII of the Constitution & Principles of the Constitution
  2. 2. Art. IV Sect. 1 Full Faith & Credit ClauseWhat does the full faith and credit clause require?
  3. 3. Art. IV Sect. 1 Full Faith & Credit ClauseWhat does the full faith and credit clause require?- that each state must respect the laws, records, and judicial rulings of all the other statesExamples:- wills & drivers licenses- fruit inspections (California)- marriages- NOT everything, however, such as casino gambling and professional licensesWhat issue is currently challenging this clause?
  4. 4. Art. IV Sect. 1 Full Faith & Credit ClauseWhat does the full faith and credit clause require?- that each state must respect the laws, records, and judicial rulings of all the other statesExamples:- wills & drivers licenses- fruit inspections (California)- marriages- NOT everything, however, such as casino gambling and professional licensesWhat issue is currently challenging this clause? Homosexual marriage
  5. 5. Art. IV Sect. 2: Privileges & ImmunitiesSection 2.1: Ones rights as an American citizen remain no matter which state one is in or traveling throughHowever, non-residents dont necessarily have all the privileges of residents (university tuition, hunting licenses, etc.)Extradition = ?
  6. 6. Art. IV Sect. 2: Privileges & ImmunitiesSection 2.1: Ones rights as an American citizen remain no matter which state one is in or traveling through- However, non-residents dont necessarily have all the privileges of residents (university tuition, hunting licenses, etc.)Extradition = the process of returning (at the governors request) a fleeing criminal to that state in which he committed a crime in order to stand trial there- However, a governor can refuse this request, esp. if the accused also committed crimes in the second governors state or he believes the accused to be innocentClause 3 concerned fugitive slaves and was obsoleted when the Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery
  7. 7. Art. IV Sect.3: TerritoriesWhat are the conditions under which new states can be admitted to the union?
  8. 8. Art. IV Sect.3: New States & TerritoriesWhat are the conditions under which new states can be admitted to the union?1. No new state can be formed within an existing state and2. No new state may be formed by joining two or more states or portions of statesUnless Congress and the state legislatures involved agree to it.Note: Congress can put a condition on a state before admitting it (Utah & polygamy)Congress makes the rules & regulations for all U.S. TerritoriesWhat are our territories?
  9. 9. U.S. TerritoriesPuerto Rico & Northern Mariana Islands are commonwealth territories; Congress oversees them, but they have a lot of autonomyPacific Islands such as Guam, American Samoa, and others as well as the U.S. Virgin Islands
  10. 10. Art. IV Sect. 4: Republican form of government guaranteedAll states must have a republican form of governmentIn return, what does the federal government promise?
  11. 11. Art. IV Sect. 4: Republican form of government guaranteedAll states must have a republican form of governmentIn return, what does the federal government promise?- to protect the states from foreign invasion or a domestic rebellion
  12. 12. Art. V: Amending the ConstitutionWhat has to happen in order to amend or change the Constitution?
  13. 13. Art. V: Amending the ConstitutionWhat has to happen in order to amend or change the Constitution?1. Either 2/3 of both Houses of Congress propose the amendment2. OR 2/3 of the state legislatures vote to ask Congress to call a convention to propose amendments- Note: This second method has never been tried b/c of fears about the lack of defined procedures for such a convention and worry that the convention might propose additional amendments of its own (runaway convention).
  14. 14. Amending the Constitution, cont.Once an amendment is proposed, what has to happen to approve it?
  15. 15. Amending the Constitution, cont.Once an amendment is proposed, what has to happen to approve it?- It must be approved by ¾ of the state legislatures or by special conventions in ¾ of the states, whichever Congress stipulates- Only the Twenty-First Amendment called for conventions; all the rest were approved by state legislatures.Two limitations on amendments:
  16. 16. Amending the Constitution, cont.Once an amendment is proposed, what has to happen to approve it?- It must be approved by ¾ of the state legislatures or by special conventions in ¾ of the states, whichever Congress stipulates- Only the Twenty-First Amendment called for conventions; all the rest were approved by state legislatures.Two limitations on amendments:1. Clauses concerning slave trade & representation could not be changed before 18082. No state could be denied equal representation in the Senate without the consent of that state.
  17. 17. Article VI: Constitutional & National SupremacySection 1 Assumption of Previous Debts:- The new government would honor the debts incurred by the nation before the adoption of the Constitution- Intention was to give the new nation credibility in the eyes of the rest of the world, and it worked.- The debt was soon paid off; sounds good, doesnt it?
  18. 18. Art. VI Sect. 2: Supremacy ClauseConstitution is the highest law in the land, in this order:1. the U.S. Constitution2. laws of the U.S. Government3. treaties4. constitutions of the states5. state laws6. local lawsState judges are to understand this and interpret the law accordingly. States cannot choose which federal laws they will obey. Also, treaties are subject to the Constitution, which cannot be amended by a treaty.
  19. 19. Art. VI Sect. 3: Oath for officers of federal & state governmentsRequires all members of Congress, all members of the state legislature, all members of the executive & judiciary branches of both the federal and the state governments to take an oath or affirmation that they will uphold the Constitution.- I have had to do this when serving as an election judge for Larimer County.No religious test required for federal office holders- Note: A few states require a religious test but it would probably not hold up if challenged in courtWhat do you think? Was this wise on the part of the Founders, or should such a test have been required?
  20. 20. Art. VII: Ratification ProceduresHow many state constitutional conventions needed to ratify the Constitution in order to put it into effect?
  21. 21. Art. VII: Ratification ProceduresHow many state constitutional conventions needed to ratify the Constitution in order to put it into effect?- Nine, which happened when New Hampshire ratified it in June of 1788.- Virginia & New York followed later that summer- North Carolina didnt ratify it until November, 1789 after it was already in effect- Rhode Island waited until May of 1790 after Washington was elected president and the Bill of Rights had been passed.Signed on Sept. 17, 1787 (without Rhode Island) and sent to the states for ratification.
  22. 22. Basic Principles of the ConstitutionU.S. Constitution was the first written constitution and is still the longest surviving document of this kindHas served as the model for the constitutions of many other countries (despite the opinion of a certain Supreme Court justice)Was intended to last a long time, as Chief Justice John Marshall said: “to endure for ages to come, and consequently, to be adapted to the various crises of human affairs.”Is the Constitution a Christian document?
  23. 23. Basic Principles of the ConstitutionU.S. Constitution was the first written constitution and is still the longest surviving document of this kindHas served as the model for the constitutions of many other countries (despite the opinion of a certain Supreme Court justice)Was intended to last a long time, as Chief Justice John Marshall said: “to endure for ages to come, and consequently, to be adapted to the various crises of human affairs.”Is the Constitution a Christian document?- No; in fact, God is never mentioned in the document, BUT the founders operated under a Christian worldview, both those who were Christians and those who were not.
  24. 24. James Madison on human nature:Does this sound like someone with a Biblical worldview?“What is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.” - James Madison, Federalist No. 51In short, what did the founders think of power & human nature?
  25. 25. James Madison on human nature:Does this sound like someone with a Biblical worldview?“What is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.” - James Madison, Federalist No. 51In short, what did the founders think of power & human nature? “Power corrupts & absolute power corrupts absolutely.
  26. 26. Examples of demonic governments: French Republic of 1780-
  27. 27. How Power Corrupts if not held in checkExamples of godless, even demonic governments:- French Republic of 1789-1792- Soviet Union- Revelation 13: 11-17Can you think of any others?
  28. 28. The Problem of Constitutional InterpretationWhat are the advantages of having a general document that is not very long or detailed and acts as a guide?- can adapt to the futureDisadvantages? The way it is interpreted can vastly change its meaning over timeStrict constructionists believe ?
  29. 29. The Problem of Constitutional InterpretationWhat are the advantages of having a general document that is not very long or detailed and acts as a guide?- can adapt to the futureDisadvantages? The way it is interpreted can vastly change its meaning over timeStrict constructionists believe that the original text is important and interpretation should be kept to a minimumBroad Constructionists believe ?
  30. 30. The Problem of Constitutional InterpretationWhat are the advantages of having a general document that is not very long or detailed and acts as a guide?- can adapt to the futureDisadvantages? The way it is interpreted can vastly change its meaning over timeStrict constructionists believe that the original text is important and interpretation should be kept to a minimumBroad Constructionists believe that interpretation can and should be broader and even creative in approach.Does this remind you of anything in the Christian life?
  31. 31. The Problem of Constitutional InterpretationWhat are the advantages of having a general document that is not very long or detailed and acts as a guide?- can adapt to the futureDisadvantages? The way it is interpreted can vastly change its meaning over timeStrict constructionists believe that the original text is important and interpretation should be kept to a minimumBroad Constructionists believe that interpretation can and should be broader and even creative in approach.Does this remind you of anything in the Christian life?- the controversies over Biblical translations and interpretation
  32. 32. Right of PrivacyIs there a right to privacy mentioned in the Constitution?
  33. 33. Right of PrivacyIs there a right to privacy mentioned in the Constitution?- No, but that doesnt mean it doesnt exist. I think the founders would agree that this is a natural rightSo what is the problem with this right?
  34. 34. Right of PrivacyIs there a right to privacy mentioned in the Constitution?- No, but that doesnt mean it doesnt exist. I think the founders would agree that this is a natural rightSo what is the problem with this right?- It has been used to promote various liberal causes such as the right to purchase birth control, abortion, and homosexual activity and marriage, all issues that were largely forbidden in the U.S. Until the Griswold v. Connecticut decision in 1965. Read quote on p.97 T.E.As Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes said, “We are under a Constitution, but the Constitution is what the judges say it is.”
  35. 35. What is to be done?Whats the remedy for this problem with interpretation?- To appoint judges who are not broad constructivists and who respect the original intent of the writers as much as possible.In other words, judges who stick to interpreting the law rather than legislating from the bench as was done in Roe v. Wade and other decisionsWhich clauses have led Congress to abuse power?
  36. 36. What is to be done?Whats the remedy for this problem with interpretation?- To appoint judges who are not broad constructivists and who respect the original intent of the writers as much as possible.In other words, judges who stick to interpreting the law rather than legislating from the bench as was done in Roe v. Wade and other decisionsWhich clauses have led Congress to abuse power?- Necessary & proper clause, commerce clause, and general welfare clauseHow about the President?
  37. 37. What is to be done?Whats the remedy for this problem with interpretation?- To appoint judges who are not broad constructivists and who respect the original intent of the writers as much as possible.In other words, judges who stick to interpreting the law rather than legislating from the bench as was done in Roe v. Wade and other decisionsWhich clauses have led Congress to abuse power?- Necessary & proper clause, commerce clause, and general welfare clauseHow about the President? Legislating through the use of executive orders
  38. 38. How is the Constitution supposed to adapt over time?
  39. 39. How is the Constitution supposed to adapt over time?Through the amendment process described in Article V.How many times has the Constitution been amended?
  40. 40. How is the Constitution supposed to adapt over time?Through the amendment process described in Article V.How many times has the Constitution been amended?- 27 times out of 33 proposed amendmentsNote: over 10,000 amendments have been offered over the past 2+ centuries, but only 33 received the 2/3 vote of Congress needed to pass the proposed amendments onto the states for approval.How many states have to ratify an amendment for it to pass?
  41. 41. How is the Constitution supposed to adapt over time?Through the amendment process described in Article V.How many times has the Constitution been amended?- 27 times out of 33 proposed amendmentsNote: over 10,000 amendments have been offered over the past 2+ centuries, but only 33 received the 2/3 vote of Congress needed to pass the proposed amendments onto the states for approval.How many states have to ratify an amendment for it to pass? 38 (¾ of 50 = 37.5); must be done within a seven year time limit.Great list of suggested amendments on p. 99What amendment(s) would you propose?
  42. 42. More on Amending the ConstitutionSo, is the amendment process easy or hard?
  43. 43. More on Amending the ConstitutionSo, is the amendment process easy or hard?- Definitely hard; Is this a good thing or not?What do people do to get around this problem?
  44. 44. More on Amending the ConstitutionSo, is the amendment process easy or hard?- Definitely hard; Is this a good thing or not?What do people do to get around this problem?- They try to pass laws through Congress and/or through court decisions (abortion is a good example of this.)Which is more permanent, a law or an amendment?
  45. 45. More on Amending the ConstitutionSo, is the amendment process easy or hard?- Definitely hard; Is this a good thing or not?What do people do to get around this problem?- They try to pass laws through Congress and/or through court decisions (abortion is a good example of this.)Which is more permanent, a law or an amendment?- the amendment, so these are pursued in these cases:1. when the proposed law would definitely be unconstitutional (income tax, repeal of Prohibition)2. the issue is of such national importance that it needs to be clarified permanently (Presidential succession.)
  46. 46. Basic Principles of the ConstitutionThe Founders figured these out from studying past governments & their problems AND from their own experiences with the problems of the Articles of Confederation.Thomas Jefferson taught himself Anglo Saxon so that he could read their original writings on government; thats how dedicated and scholarly our founders were!
  47. 47. Principle 1: Limited GovernmentWhat is meant by limited government?
  48. 48. Principle 1: Limited GovernmentWhat is meant by limited government?- Government does not have absolute power, but is limited to only those powers given to it by the people through law.Memorize this definition!Note: Limited government does not necessarily mean small government. Conservatives often confuse the two. A big country needs a big government, but the powers of that government must be kept within strict boundaries.Heres the beauty of its being written – the boundaries are easier to see and not subject to the whims of our rulers, as often happened in England with its unwritten constitution. Note, too, that Parliaments power superseded that of the unwritten constitution in England.
  49. 49. Principle 2: Separation of PowersWhat are the three branches of the federal government?
  50. 50. Principle 2: Separation of PowersWhat are the three branches of the federal government?- legislative (Congress – Article I; they make the laws)- executive (President & Cabinet & federal bureaucracy – Article II; they execute & enforce the laws)- judicial (Supreme, District, Circuit, and other federal courts – Article III; they interpret the laws)What are the advantages and challenges associated with the three branches of the government?
  51. 51. Principle 2: Separation of PowersWhat are the three branches of the federal government?- legislative (Congress – Article I; they make the laws)- executive (President & Cabinet & federal bureaucracy – Article II; they execute & enforce the laws)- judicial (Supreme, District, Circuit, and other federal courts – Article III; they interpret the laws)What are the advantages and challenges associated with the three branches of the government?- ads: helps to limit power- disads: how to keep one branch from dominating the othersp. 101 Exercise: Which branch handles which power?
  52. 52. Principle 3: Checks and BalancesChecks & Balances = ?
  53. 53. Principle 3: Checks and BalancesChecks & Balances = keeping the power of each branch of government in check through the power of another branch of the government, the goal being to prevent the concentration of power in one branch thus protecting personal libertyWhat are some example of checks & balances in our Constitution?
  54. 54. Principle 3: Checks and BalancesChecks & Balances = keeping the power of each branch of government in check through the power of another branch of the government, the goal being to prevent the concentration of power in one branch thus protecting personal libertyWhat are some example of checks & balances in our Constitution?- the Presidents veto power- Congresss ability to overturn the veto- Senates power to approve or disapprove the Presidents appointments & treaties- the Supreme Courts ability to nullify acts of Congress & the President if they find the act to be unconstitutional
  55. 55. More Checks & BalancesCongresss power of impeachment over both the executive & judicial branchesBoth Houses of Congress must pass a bill in order for it to go to the PresidentAlthough President is Commander-in-chief, only Congress can officially declare warDisadvantages?
  56. 56. More Checks & BalancesCongresss power of impeachment over both the executive & judicial branchesBoth Houses of Congress must pass a bill in order for it to go to the PresidentAlthough President is Commander-in-chief, only Congress can officially declare warDisadvantages? Gridlock within Congress or between branches, esp. Congress and the PresidentWhat causes this gridlock?
  57. 57. More Checks & BalancesCongresss power of impeachment over both the executive & judicial branchesBoth Houses of Congress must pass a bill in order for it to go to the PresidentAlthough President is Commander-in-chief, only Congress can officially declare warDisadvantages? Gridlock within Congress or between branches, esp. Congress and the PresidentWhat causes this gridlock? Having two political parties that may be in charge of different branches of the governmentWhich would you rather have? Tyranny or inefficiency?
  58. 58. Principle 4: Judicial ReviewJudicial Review = ?
  59. 59. Principle 4: Judicial ReviewJudicial Review = the power of the judicial branch to review the constitutionality of laws passed by the legislative branchIf a law is found by the court to be unconstitutional, it is struck down by the court and thus nullified.Again, this principle is not specified in the Constitution but was asserted in 1803 in the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison.Doesnt this seem to give ultimate power to the Supreme Court? What check is there on their decisions? Can only be overturned by an amendment to the Constitution or a later court ruling. Or a Civil War, yikes!
  60. 60. Principle 5: FederalismFederalism = ?
  61. 61. Principle 5: FederalismFederalism = division of power between national and state levels of government; the goal is to balance state and national interestsRemember, the original 13 states were very independent and quite different from one another. They had to be convinced to work together under one national government. Power- sharing between the states and the national government was one of the incentives meant to draw them in.Ads?
  62. 62. Principle 5: FederalismFederalism = division of power (power-sharing) between national and state levels of government; the goal is to balance state and national interestsRemember, the original 13 states were very independent and quite different from one another. They had to be convinced to work together under one national government. Power- sharing between the states and the national government was one of the incentives meant to draw them in.Ads: Division of power & accommodation of differences in regions of the countryDisads?
  63. 63. Principle 5: FederalismFederalism = division of power (power-sharing) between national and state levels of government; the goal is to balance state and national interestsThe original 13 states were very independent and quite different from one another. They had to be convinced to work together under one national government. Power- sharing between the states and the national government was one of the incentives meant to draw them in.Ads: Division of power & accommodation of differences in regions of the countryDisads: Conflict can arise between states & national government (slavery, Obamacare, etc.)
  64. 64. More on FederalismThe Reality today? The states have lost much power to national govt.Why? As James Kilpatrick has observed,“John Marshall, the great chief justice, set about undermining state authority in 1819. The Civil War accelerated the process. In 1941 the high court described the 10th [Amendment] as no more than a truism. Now and then the justices have said a kind word for federalism, much as one pats an old dog, but it has been pretty much downhill all the way.”More on the Tenth Amendment next week.
  65. 65. Principle 6: Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty = ?
  66. 66. Principle 6: Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty = the people are the ultimate source of their governments authorityIs this principle found in the Bible?
  67. 67. Principle 6: Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty = the people are the ultimate source of their governments authorityIs this principle found in the Bible?- Not so much, b/c God, not man, is clearly the ultimate authority over governmentSo if principle at root is untrue, how should we think about it as Christian Americans?
  68. 68. Principle 6: Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty = the people are the ultimate source of their governments authorityIs this principle found in the Bible?- Not so much, b/c God, not man, is clearly the ultimate authority over government; See verses on p. 104 T.E.So if principle at root is untrue, how should we think about it as Christian Americans?- In the U.S. God establishes rulers through the vote of the people (rather than through royal succession, military overthrow or other such means.)- Thus, our rulers are accountable not only to God but to the people as well.
  69. 69. Popular SovereigntyHow is this principle evident in the Constitution?
  70. 70. Popular SovereigntyHow is this principle evident in the Constitution?- In the preamble, “We the people of the United States...”- Through the practice of representative government- Through the amendment process, the Prohibition Amendment being an excellent example of how the voice of the people was heard for better or worse.This amendment process is also practiced in the states and is definitely a way that the will of the people can be imposed on their legislatures. Very true here in Colorado. The legislature hates TABOR, which requires a vote of the people to approve any tax increase, and has worked hard to reduce its power.See quotes on p. 104 T.E. From Randolph & Patrick Henry
  71. 71. The Challenge?Having a populace that understands their responsibilities to rule themselvesThe People need to register to vote and then voteThe People must make time to be informed on the issuesThe People need to understand their rights and what the Constitution saysThe People need to exercise self-discipline and not elect representatives who make unconstitutional promisesThe People need to participate in the political process and run for office or get involved in other waysThe People must guard this privilege of self-government and not let others take it away. See Soviet promises p.105.

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