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Regional Physical Framework Plan, 2004 2030 of SOCCSKSARGEN

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The RPFP presents the vision for the physical and socio-economic development of the region for the next twenty-six (26) years, as well as, the policy guidelines and directions
for the major components of the plan, namely, Protection Land Use, Production Land Use, Settlements, and Infrastructure Support.

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Regional Physical Framework Plan, 2004 2030 of SOCCSKSARGEN

  1. 1. Message The efficient management of develop- ment knowledge in the regions is an effective way to alleviate poverty and improve the lives of the people. The Regional Physical Framework Plan (RPFP) is an example of how development knowledge is packaged to help foster region- al growth. This document for one, seeks to contribute to the efficient allocation and utiliza- tion of land and other physical resources for maximum social and economic benefits. It pro- vides policies and development strategies on settlements and infrastructure development, agricultural production, tourism, sustainable mining, and environmental protection. Rural investment interventions like farm-to-market roads, small-water impounding areas, and in- come-enhancing activities are contained in the RPFP. Given the increasing demand for land, the RPFP offers policy guidelines to resolve land use conflicts among various competing uses. Strengthening the land rights of the poor and easing barriers to land transactions can supply the region great amount of socioeco- nomic benefits. The RPFP upholds this ob- jective by promoting land disposal through an efficient issuance of titles. To realize a stable environment, the Plan highlights the need for the conservation, re- habilitation and sustained development of the region’s environment and natural resources through preservation and reforestation pro- grams. Lastly, in response to the recent natural disasters in the country, the RPFP presents policies and strategies that will mitigate or pre- vent damage from future onslaughts of disas- ters caused by volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and landslides. It is my hope that the stakeholders ben- efit from this Plan and; governmental, non-gov- ernmental and private organizations support the region’s growth and development within the context of a sound and sustained resource management. ROMULO L. NERI Secretary Socioeconomic Planning Nastional Economic and Development Authority
  2. 2. Message AUGUSTO B. SANTOS NEDA Deputy Director-General and NLUC Chairman Nastional Economic and Development Authority I commend the officers and members of the Regional Development Council and the NEDA Regional Office for spearheading the up- dating of the Regional Physical Framework Plan (RPFP) as well as the Regional Land Use Com- mittee. The updated RPFP links the national and provincial framework plans and takes into ac- count various developments. These include changes in land uses; enactment of new laws, plans and policies; new data sets generated from the latest census; and adjustments in the LGU composition of various regions. The Plan also upheld the policy recom- mendations provided in the National Framework for Physical Planning and at the same time con- sidered the desired development direction of LGUs as cited in the Provincial Physical Frame- work Plans (PPFPs) and Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPs). The updated RPFP benefited from inter- regional consultations which identified comple- menting spatial development strategies among the regions sharing common boundaries and natural resources as well as among regions with established physical and economic link- ages. The Plan is thus expected to be more responsive to the demand for the proper use, allocation, management, and development of land and other natural resources at the regional and subregional levels. The target users of the RPFP are gov- ernment agencies involved in the formulation of policies and plans for the development and management of the country’s land and other physical resources as well as planners and deci- sion-makers in the private sector whose invest- ment interests affect or are affected by these resources. Local government units will find the document helpful in providing data, information, and reference material on the region’s land and physical resources and in aligning their own plans, PPFPs, CLUPs and development plans, with the regional development objectives and strategies. Nongovernment organizations and academic institutions could also utilize the docu- ments when undertaking land use and physical planning-related activities. It is expected that the use of the RPFP will result in specific policies, programs and strate- gic interventions to support economic growth within the context of sustainable development especially in these areas: (a) food security and agricultural development; (b) mining; (c) envi- ronmental protection and biodiversity conserva- tion; (d) urban development; (e) infrastructure development; and (f) disaster mitigation, among others. The challenge now is for us to work to- gether so that the region succeeds in attaining its vision towards growth and development.
  3. 3. Foreword Regional Development Council XII Region XII is endowed with rich natu- ral resources. It is one of country’s top produc- ers of tuna, rice, corn, and some high value crops, such as, aspagarus, banana, oil palm and coffee. Its large deposits of gold and cop- per, known to be of world class quality, are po- tential sources of wealth for the region. It has ecotourism potentials as well with the pres- ence of Mt. Apo, LakeSebu, Liguasan Marsh and long stretch of beaches, among others. However, the region is faced with so- cio-economic and environmental challenges which, if left unchecked or mitigated, would have negative impact on its growth and de- velopment in the coming generations. This concern has become more urgent with the ca- lamities experienced not only in Region XII but also elsewhere in the country and the world. Some blame this on the abuse in the use of the region’s resources. Hence, the efficient alloca- tion and use of the region’s land and natural resources for optimal growth and development is of primary concern to policymakers, particu- larly of Regional Development Council (RDC) XII. For this purpose, the Regional Physical Framework Plan (RPFP) for Region XII has been formulated. It provides guidance on how the region’s resources shall be developed, utilized and maintained in the next twenty-six years. The proposed strategies are aimed at addressing the pressing concerns that greatly affect the welfare of the region’s constituents, such as, resource depletion and environmental degradation, low economic productivity, lack of infrastructure support, among others. Since the RPFP is considered as the mother of all regional development plans, the formulation of other medium-term socio- economic, sectoral, city and municipal com- prehensive land use, and provincial physical framework plans. Incidentally, the first phase of RPFP, 2004-2030 also covers the same plan period of the current Medium-Term Regional Development (MTRDP), i.e., 2004-2010. Thus, the strategies contained in the MTRDP are es- sentiallyconsistent with the RPFP. We all want to have a socially and envi- ronmentally livable region, with accessible qual- ity services and economic opportunities for our constituents. I, therefore, enjoin everyone, par- ticularly those from line agencies, local govern- ment units, non-government units, the private sector, academe, the youth and other sectors, to support and participate in the implementation of the RPFP. With our concerted efforts put to- gether, I believe that we shall become what we have envisioned Region XII to be by 2030. DAISY P. AVANCE-FUENTES Chairperson Regional Development Council XII
  4. 4. Foreword On September 5, 2002, the National Land Use Committee (NLUC) passed Resolu- tion No. 1, series of 2002 – “Adopting the Supplemental Guidelines for the Preparation/Updating of the RPFP, directing the Regional Land Use Com- mittees to commence plan preparation/updat- ing and enjoining NLUC Member-Agencies to actively participate therefor”. In response to this issuance, the Regional Land Use Com- mittee of the Regional Development Council (RDC) XII formulated the Regional Physical Framework Plan (RPFP) of Region XII, 2004- 2030 in order to provide and guide the stake- holders of the region on the optimal use and protection of its natural resources. The RPFP presents the vision for the physical and socio-economic development of the region for the next twenty-six (26) years, as well as, the policy guidelines and directions for the major components of the plan, namely, Protection Land Use, Production Land Use, Settlements, and Infrastructure Support. The plan was subjected to a series of consultations with the different local development councils and stakeholder groups in the region which primarily aimed to generate comments/sug- gestions to enhance the document. During the 8th RDC XII Regular Meeting on 18 Novem- ber 2004, the Council approved and adopted the RPFP through Resolution No. 08, series of 2004. The RPFP consists of four chapters: Chapter I (Introduction) contains the general assumptions and principles underlying the plan, the general objectives and limitations of the plan; Chapter II (The Planning Environ- ment) discusses the existing situation of the region particularly the physical and natural re- sources; Chapter III (The RPFP) contains the challenges, vision, objectives, as well as, the strategies to provide general directions on the utilization of the regions natural resources; and Chapter IV (Plan Implementation) provides for the mechanism in the realization of the plan. The RPFP is a very vital instrument in the formulation/revision/updating of the Compre- hensive Land Use Plans of the city and munici- palities of the region, as well as, the Provincial Physical Framework Plans of the provinces. The Regional Land Use Committee of Re- gional Development Council XII acknowledges with deep appreciation, the support and assis- tance extended by the following member-agen- cies in the formulation of the Regional Physical Framework Plan, namely: DA, DAR, DENR, DILG, DPWH, DOST, DOTC, DTI, HUDCC, HLRB, DOT, and NEDA. The Committee also wishes to acknowledge other line agencies and local government units that have provided valu- able necessary inputs, suggestions and recom- mendations in the completion and enhancement of the Plan. I would like to enjoin the support and par- ticipation of all sectors i.e. the line agencies, localgovernment units, non-government units, private sector, academe, etc in the implementa- tion of the RPFP. Mabuhay! HADJA SITTIE MARIAM (MA. LOURDES) D. LIM Regional Director, NEDA XII and Chairperson, Regional Land Use Committe XII Nastional Economic and Development Authority XII
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter No. Title Page No. 1 Introduction 1.1 General Assumptions/Principles Underlying the Plan …………………….. 1-1 1.2 General Objectives ………………………………………………………….... 1-3 1.3 Organization of the Plan………………………………………………….…... 1-4 1.4 Limitations of the Plan ……………………………………………………….. 1-5 2 The Planning Environment 2.1 Population and Management ………………………………………….......... 2-1 2.2 Economy ………………………………………………………………………. 2-30 2.3 Physical Characteristics …………………………………………………….... 2-44 2.4 Land Use …….………………………………………………………….…...... 2-100 3 The Regional Physical Framework Plan 3.1 Regional Development Challenges ………………………………………… 3-1 3.2 Vision …………………...……………………………………………………… 3-1 3.3 Goals/Objectives ……………………………………………………………… 3-1 3.4 Regional Spatial Development Strategy …………………………………… 3-2 3.5 Development Strategies ……………………………………………………… 3-12 3.6 Development Scenarios …………………………………………………….... 3-13 3.7 Component Spatial Strategies ………………………………………………. 3-14 3.7.1. Settlement Plan ……………………………………………………….. 3-14 3.7.2. Production Land Use ………………………………………………..... 3-23 3.7.3. Protection Land Use ………………………………………………...... 3-38 3.7.4. Infrastructure Development ………………………………………….. 3-44 4 Plan Implementation 4.1 Review, Approval, and Adoption Process ………………………………….. 4-1 4.2 Phasing of the Plan …………………………………………………………… 4-1 4.3 Integration of Plan and Planning Processes ……………………………….. 4-2 4.4 Financing of the Plan ……………………………………………………….... 4-6 4.5 Monitoring and Evaluation …………………………………………………… 4-6 4.6 Implementation Support ……………………………………………………… 4-12 Annexes A Glossary of Terms …………………………………………………………….. 5-1 B RDC Resolution No. 08, series of 2004 …………………………………….. 5-5 C New Land Classification System ……………………………………………. 5-6 D Composition of the Regional Land Use Committee, Region XII ..……….. 5-7 E Regional Land Use Committee XII – Technical Working Group ………… 5-8 F Regional Development Council XII - Officials and Members …….………. 5-9 G Regional Development Council XII - Secretariat …………………...……... 5-10
  6. 6. LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title Page No. 2.1 Population Size and Average annual Growth Rate (AAGR) ……….............……… 2-3 2.2 Population Projection, 2005-2030 ………………………….............……….…. …… 2-4 2.3 Doubling Time of Population ……………………………...............…………….…… 2-6 2.4 Population Density …………………………………...............…………………..…… 2-7 2.5 Population Density Projection ……………………............……………………...…… 2-10 2.6 Urban-Rural Population …………………………............……………………….…… 2-11 2.7 Sex Ratio ………………………………………………...............………………..…… 2-12 2.8 Household Population by age Group ………………............…………………..…… 2-12 2.9 Age Dependency Ratio …………………………….............……………...……..…… 2-13 2.10 Projection of Sex-Specific Net Migration Rates …………............…………….…… 2-14 2.11 Highest Grade Completed of Household Population ……….............……………… 2-15 2.12 Simple and Functional Literacy …………………………………….............………… 2-15 2.13 Public Elementary and Education Enrolment ………………………............….…… 2-16 2.14 Public Elementary & Secondary Education Participation Rate ……...…............… 2-17 2.15 Public Elementary & Secondary Education Cohort-Survival Rate ….……............. 2-18 2.16 Distribution of Government Health Manpower Complement ………................…… 2-21 2.17 Hospital Beds & Bed Population Ratio …………………………….............………… 2-21 2.18 GRDP Growth Rate at 1985 Constant Prices …………………….............………… 2-31 2.19 Gross Regional Domestic Product at Constant Prices …………….............….…… 2-32 2.20 GRDP, 1995-2003, Region XII and Mindanao Regions ……………................…… 2-33 2.21 Contribution of Region XII to Mindanao and Philippine GDP ………...............…… 2-34 2.22 Rice and Corn Production of Mindanao Regions ……………….............……..…… 2-35 2.23 Present Land Use – Ricelands within Primelands-Ricelands ……............….……. 2-37 2.24 Growth of the Labor Force in Region XII …………………………………............…. 2-40 2.25 Employment Growth Rate by Major Industry Group/Sector …….............…….…… 2-42 2.26 Summary Table of Mix-Share Analysis ………………………….............……..……. 2-42 2.27 Location Quotient ……………………………………………….............……...……… 2-43 2.28 Region XII Industry Profile, 2001…………………………….……............……..……. 2-43 2.29 Number of Establishment/Industries in Region XII ………….............……………… 2-44 2.30 Land Area by Province/City…………………………………………............…...….… 2-45 2.31 Elevation per Province/City ………………………………………............……..…… 2-49 2.32 Watersheds Areas, Region XII ……………………………...........…………….…… 2-53 2.33 Major Lakes in Region XII ………………………………..........……………….……. 2-54 2.34 List of Water Bodies Classified …………………..……........….……………….…… 2-54 2.35 Land Area by Slope of Region XII ……………………............……………………… 2.55 2.36 List of Water Bodies, Location and Classification …………...........………….……. 2-62 2.37 Areas Prone to Landslides ……………………………………............……………… 2-69 2.38 Active Volcanoes in Region XII ……………………………….............……………… 2-70
  7. 7. LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title Page No. 2.39 Areas Vulnerable to Volcanic Hazard ……………………………................………...... 2-70 2.40 Flood Prone Areas and Causes of Flooding ……………………………….................. 2-75 2.41 Existing Road Kilometerage by Classification and Road Density .......…................... 2-77 2.42 Existing National Road Kilometerage by Type of Pavement ……….....................….. 2-77 2.43 List of National Roads in Region XII, by Type of Pavement ………...................…… 2-79 2.44 Existing No. and Length of National Bridges by Type .....……………..……….…....... 2-83 2.45 Existing Airports in Region XII ……………………………………………..….........…... 2-84 2.46 Flight Operation and Volume of Passengers & Cargoes ......………….….............…. 2-85 2.47 Number of Households Served by Water Facilities (Levels I, II, and III)..................... 2-86 2.48 Existing National Irrigation Systems ……………………………………………........… 2-90 2.49 Number and Service Area of Communal Irrigation Systems by Provinc/City ........... 2-90 2.50 Regionwide Percentage of Irrigation Development (NIS and CIS Combined) ........... 2-91 2.51 List of Existing NPC Power Generating Plants in Region XII …………….............…. 2-95 2.52 Coverage of Barangay Energization …......…………………………………..........…… 2-95 2.53 Number of Licensed Hospitals by Area, by Type and Classification …….............….. 2-97 2.54 Inventory of Established Day Care Centers by province/City ….....…….…..........…. 2-100 2.55 Coverage Area, Land Classification Map .....…………………………………........…… 2-101 2.56 Regional Land Use Accounting ………………….....………………………...........…… 2-107 2.57 Rice Production, Population and Regional Requirement for the Period 2000-2030.. 2-113 2.58 Corn Production, by Area ………………………………………………………………... 2-113 2.59 Rice Production, Province of Sultan Kudarat ………………………………….………. 2-114 2.60 Rice Production, Province of South Cotabato ........................................................... 2-114 2.61 Rice Production, Province of Sarangani Province ..................................................... 2-115 2.62 Rice Production, Province of Cotabato Province ....................................................... 2-115 2.63 Fishery Production …………………………………….………….....…………………..... 2-116 2.64 Production Forest Land Cover …………………………………………………………... 2-118 2.65 Mineral Reserves of Region XII, by Province ………….....……………………………. 2-120 2.66 Historical Tourist Attraction ……………………………………………………………..... 2-121 2.67 Natural Tourist Attraction …………………………………….………………….….......... 2-121 2.68 Man-made Tourist Attraction …………………………………………………….……….. 2-123 2.69 No. of Accredited Tourism Establishment in Region XII ..………………….………….. 2-124 2.70 Major Establishments in Region XII …………………………………………………….. 2-129 2.71 Protected Areas (Existing and Proposed …..…………………………………………… 2-132 2.72 Status of Coral Reefs …………………………………………………………………….. 2-134 2.73 Seagrass Beds ……………………………………………………………………………. 2-134 2.74 Mangrove Areas ………………………………………………………………….……….. 2-135 2.75 Profile of Certificates of Ancestral Domain Claims (CADCs) ………….....………….. 2-138 2.76 Profile of Certificates of Ancestral Domain Titles (CADTs) ……………..……………. 2-138
  8. 8. LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title Page No. 2.77 Land Use Opportunity ………………………………………………………………….... 2-141 2.78 Consolidated Network of Protected Areas for Agri-Industrial Development ……….. 2-145 2.79 Decision Zones, Region XII …………………………………………………….…….. 2-146 3.1 Roles of Identified Intermediate Urban Centers ……………………………….…….... 3-10 3.2 Potential Investment Areas in Region XII ……………………….……………………... 3-11 3.3 Goals and Targets ……………………………………………………………………… 3-12 3.4 Development Scenario …………………………………...………………………….… 3-13 3.5 Regional Proposed Land Use Accounting ……….....……………………………….. 3-26 3.6 Top Ten Other Crops Produced in Region XII, 2003 ………....…………………..….. 3-27 3.7 Key Programs and Projects by Phase, Croplands and Fishing Grounds ....…….. 3-31 3.8 Key Programs and Projects by Phase, Production Forest ………..……………….. 3-33 3.9 Key Programs and Projects by Phase and Corridor, Industrial Development Areas 3-36 3.10 Key Programs and Projects by Phase, Protection nd………………………………… 3-37 3.11 Major Programs/Key Projects and Proposals by Phase and Corridor ……………… 3-42 4.1 Monitoring and Evaluation Activities …………………………………………………… 4-10
  9. 9. LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title Page No. 2.1 Average Annual Growth Rate of Population, by Province/City …………………… 2-1 2.2 Population Size by Province/City …………………………………………………..... 2-3 2.3 Language/Dialect Generally Spoken by Household, Region XII ……………….... 2-13 2.4 Crude Death Rate by Province/City …………………………………………………. 2-19 2.5 Infant Mortality Ratio By Province/City ……………………………………………… 2-19 2.6 Maternal Mortality Ratio By Province/City ……………………………………….…. 2-20 2.7 Urbanization Trend by Area …………………………………………………………. 2-24 2.8 Average annual Gross Regional Domestic Product at 1985 Constant Prices … 2-30 2.9 GRDP, 1995-2003, Region XII and Mindanao Regions, At 1985 Constant Prices .................................................................................................................. 2-33 2.10 Comparison of GRDP/GDP Growth Rate of Philippines/Mindanao/ Region XII at Constant 1985 Prices ……………………………………………………………… 2-34 2.11 GRDP, 1995-2003 at Constant 1985 Prices ……………………………………….. 2-35 2.12 Rice Production in Mindanao, by Region …………………………………………… 2-36 2.13 Region XII Contribution to Total Rice Production of Mindanao …………………... 2-36 2.14 Corn Production in Mindanao by Region, 1995-2000 …………………………….. 2-37 2.15 Region XII Contribution to Total Corn Production in Mindanao 1995-2000 …….. 2-38 2.16 Labor and Employment Status, Region XII ………………………………………… 2-39 2.17 Labor Force Distribution by Area …………………………………………………… 2-39 2.18 Employment Rate, Region XII …………………………………………………….…. 2-40 2.19 Employed Persons in region XII by Industry Group ……………………….……… 2-41 4.1 Horizontal Integration of Plans at the Regional Level …………………………….. 4-2 4.2 Vertical Integration of Plans at the Regional Level ………………………………… 4-4 4.3 Regional Organizational Structure for Physical and Land Use Planning ……….. 4-6 4.4 Monitoring Organizational Structure ………………………………………………… 4-8 4.5 Environmental Monitoring Structure ………………………………………………… 4-10
  10. 10. LIST OF MAPS Map No. Title Page No. 2.1 1990, 2000 Population Size Map ………………………………………………………… 2-2 2.2 2010, 2030 Projected Population Size Map ……………………………………….…… 2-5 2.3 1990, 2000 Population Density Map …………………………………………………… 2-8 2.4 2010, 2030 Projected Population Density Map ………………………………………… 2-9 2.5 Existing Settlements Map ………………………………………………………….…… 2-23 2.6 Map of Region XII …………………………………………………………………………. 2-46 2.7 Location Map of Region XII.………………………………………………………………. 2-47 2.8 Elevation Map ……………………………………………………………………………… 2-48 2.9 Climate Map ……………………………………………………………………………… 2-50 2.10 Watersheds Map ………………………………………………………………………… 2-51 2.11 Slope Map ………………………………………………………………………………… 2-56 2.12 Soil Map …………………………………………………………………………………… 2-57 2.13 Geologic Map ………………………………………………………………………………. 2-59 2.14 Ground Water Availability Map ……………………………………………………………. 2-60 2.15 Erosion Map ……………………………………………………………………….……… 2-72 2.16 Fault Lines Map ……………………………………………………………………………. 2-73 2.17 Land Use Constraints Map …………………………..…………………………………… 2-74 2.18 Map Showing Existing Major Roads, Seaport and Airports……………………………. 2-78 2.19 Map Showing Public Transport Routes ………………………………………………….. 2-82 2.20 Map Showing Areas Covered by Water Districts ……………………………………….. 2-87 2.21 Map Showing Existing National Irrigation Systems (NIS) Service Areas ……………. 2-88 2.22 Map Showing Existing Power Generation and Transmission Facilities Map ……….. 2-93 2.23 Map Showing Areas Served by a Telephone Exchange ………………………………. 2-94 2.24 Map Showing State Universities and Colleges and TESDA Administered Schools ... 2-98 2.25 Map Showing Tertiary Hospitals in Region XII ………………………………………….. 2-99 2.26 Land Classification Map (Official) ………………………………………….…………… 2-102 2.27 Land Classification Map (Unofficial) …………………………………...………………… 2-103 2.28 Land Cover Map …………………………………………………………………………… 2-105 2.29 Existing Land Use Map …………………………………………………………………… 2-106 2.30 Historical Tourist Attractions Map ………………………………..………………………. 2-125 2.31 Natural Tourist Attraction Map ……………………………………………………………. 2-126 2.32 Manmade Tourist Attraction Map …………………………………………………………. 2-127 2.33 NIPAS Map …………………………………………………………………………………. 2-131 2.34 Land Use Opportunity Map ………………………………………………………………. 2-142 2.35 Pedo-Ecological Zone Map ………………………………………………………………. 2-143 2.36 Prime Lands Map ………………………………………………………………………… 2-144 3.1 Sustainable Agri-Industrial Development Strategy (SAIDS) Map …………………….. 3-6
  11. 11. LIST OF MAPS Map No. Title Page No. 3.2 The Main Corridors……………………………………………………………………..… 3-7 3.3 The Potential Corridors…….………………………………………………………..…... 3-8 3.4 Settlements Plan Map …………………………………………………………………… 3-15 3.5 Proposed Land Use Map ……………………………………………………………….. 3-25 3.6 Long-Term Infrastructure Projects, Roads and Bridges ……………………………... 3-59 3.7 Long-Term Infrastructure Projects, Airports, Seaports and Integrated Transport Terminals ……………………………………………………….... 3-60 3.8 Long-Term Infrastructure Projects, Upgrading /Expansion of Water Supply Systems (Water Districts) ………......………………………………….. 3-61 3.9 Long-Term Infrastructure Projects, National Irrigation Systems (NIS) …………….. 3-62 3.10 Long-Term Infrastructure Projects, Flood Control, Shore Protection and Drainage Systems ……………………………………………… 3-63 3.11 Long-Term Infrastructure Projects, Power Generation and Transmission ………… 3-64
  12. 12. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
  13. 13. CHAPTER 1 Introduction T he Regional Physical Framework Plan (RPFP) comprises policies and broadspatial strategy for the long term development of the region. Region XII is comprised ofthe provinces of Cotabato (North), Sarangani and South Cotbato, and the cities ofCotabato, General Santos, Kidapawan, Koronadal and Tacurong. As a blueprint for thelong-term development of the region, it sets out the urban structure for its futuredevelopment with regard to achieving economic growth and efficiency and healthy environmentforliving.Italsoembodiespoliciesfor infrastructure and utilities development towards achieving physical and economic integration, as well as, policies for the distribution of population and for the location of employment and other criticaleconomic activities at the regional scaled. The RPFP has four components namely; settlements, production, protection, and infrastructure. The RPFP for Region XII covers the period, 2004-2030. Generally, the proposals of the Plan are drawn in a semi-diagrammatic way. The translation of the broadproposals into detailed local development plans are left to the local government unitswho have the responsibility of defining the growth of their respective areas. The plan is flexible to meet unforeseen changes in the scale and nature of growth of the region. Hence, it must be periodically subjected to review to meet new conditions. 1.1 General Assumptions/Principles Underlying the Plan T he formulation of the plan is based on the following assumptions: a. Population Growth Population in major urban centers of the region will continue to grow rapidly and exert greater pressure in the suburbs and prime agricultural lands, if left unmanaged, given their respective current high population growth rates. However, moderate population increases may be achieved through the implementation of population management programs appropriate for the region. b. Regional Economy A shift in the economic structure of the region, from a predominantly agri-based economy to one that is agri-industrial, is assumed to take place through the establishment of development corridorsalongthemajorurbancentersconnecting the existing vast agricultural and industrial areas. To complement this, conservation and protection of the region’s coastal environment is addressed through coastal zone development along with eco- tourisminpotentialareasoftheregion.Effortsshall be made to provide the necessary infrastructure support upon which industrialization will depend.
  14. 14. 2 Introduction c. Regional Geographic Configuration It is assumed that the current geographic configuration of RegionXII will remain unchanged during the plan period as provided by Executive Order No. 36 issued by Her Excellency President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on September 19, 2001. d. Peace and Order The peace and order condition in the region is foreseen to improve and stabilize with the on- going peace and confidence building efforts of government with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), National Democratic Front (NDF), and other groups (the tri-peoples - Christians, Muslims and Lumads/Indigenous Peoples) who have been at the center of armed conflicts in the region. This would make the region more attractive as an investment area, as well as, travel destination. This would further redound to boost its local economy with the creation of more jobs and employment opportunities. It is also assumed that these conflict- affected areas will turn into vibrant economic zones considering the current interventions of government such as the establishment of Peace Zones, Peace and Development Communities (PDCs) and KALAHI sites. e. Socio-economic Development of Mindanao Efforts are being pursued to accelerate the socio-economicdevelopment of Mindanao as a major island group of the Philippines. Region XII is expected to substantially contribute to Mindanao’s overall goal of agri-industrialization. Thus, the RPFPs of the Mindanao regions should be able to show areas of complementation towards achieving economic and physical integration in the island. It is also assumed that resources to support programs/projects proposed in the RPFPs shall be equitably distributed among the regions in Mindanao, for the regions to realize their individual contributions to its growth. f. Plan Implementation It is assumed that the public and private sectors will adhere to thegeneral physical development directions and the proposals in the Plan as sustainable development in the region depends on these being done. While detailed feasibility studies are yet to be made on some of the proposed programs, it is assumed that the government will ensure that the policies set forth in the Plan are given due consideration and that the financial requirements to implement this Plan will be made available at every phase of its implementation. Consistent with the National Framework for Physical Planning, 2001-2030, physical planning in Region XII shall proceed in the context of the following principles toward the attainment of the regional development vision: a. Food security utilizing the principle of sustainable agricultural development and agrarian reform; b. Environmental stability and ecological integrity through effective natural resource management and balancing demand of land using activities visà-vis preservation of ecosystems; c. Economic and physical integration through balanced dispersion of agriindustrialand ecotourism development areas and appropriate infrastructure systems; d. Rational urban development by harnessing the potentials of urbancenters to achieve complementary relationship not only in terms of economic growth, but also in socio- cultural and institutional aspects; while also at the same time developing the competitive advantage of the rural areas with respect to their respective natural endowments and presence of skilled manpower and farm work force; e. Equitable access to physical resources and
  15. 15. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 3 natural resources through just distribution of the region’s resources and by providing equal opportunities to all Filipinos in the region in the use and acquisition of land and other resources; f. Private-public sector partnership by encouraging shared responsibility between the government and the private sector in the development and management of the region’s physical resources; g. People empowerment by establishing pragmatic, appropriate, flexible and dynamic structures or mechanisms that involve the T he Regional Physical Framework Plan (RPFP) provides a rational basis for the development of Region XII in the next twenty-seven (27) years by defining the scope and limits for socio-economic development planning. It embodies a set of policies and a graphic translation of the desired spatial arrangement of landusing activities in the region. The RPFP seeks to achieve the following main objectives: a. Effect a rational distribution of the regional population; b. Facilitate access of the regional population to basic economic opportunities and social services; c. Guide public and private investments to ensure sustainable use of the region’s natural resources; and d. Enhance, safeguard and protect the quality of the environment. The RPFP, therefore, is designed to show the desired direction and intensity of growth of the region as a whole, as well as, of its sub-regional participation of key stakeholders; h. Social unification and respect for cultural diversity by keeping the culturally diverse people of the region (Muslims, Christians and the indigenous cultural communities) united in the pursuit of lasting peace and prosperity in the region, as well as, ensuring the indigenous people’s rights to develop, control and use lands within their ancestral domain; and i. Market orientation by adopting the interplay of market forces within the framework ecological and intergenerational factors 1.2 General Objectives areas covering a long-term period, in this case from 2004 to 2030. The direction and intensity of growth that the region seeks to promote represents a balance between the need for the region to fulfill its functional role with respect to the national economy, on one hand, and the need to ensure sustained utilization of the physical resources of the region, on the other. Hence, it takes into account and seeks to contribute to the attainment of national development goals and targets.
  16. 16. 4 Introduction T he RPFP document is composed of four major chapters. The first chapter focuses on the general assumptions/principles underlying the Plan, its general objectives, organization of the RPFP document, and the limitations of the Plan. The second chapter covers the planning environment which is an analysis of the existing situationoftheregion’spopulationandsettlements, economy and employment, physical characteristics and infrastructure facilities/services, land use and development opportunities. The third chapter focuses on the framework for spatial development to include the vision, development challenges, regional goals and objectives and the broad spatial pattern proposed for the region. It also includes the translation of the regional spatial development strategy along the four (4) major components of the RPFP, namely: Settlements Landusesandphysicalresources involving some degree ofurban or rural concentrations and their associated demand and supply requirements. 1.3 Organization of the Plan Production Land uses and physical resources focused on economic production, from the extractive to the modern service sectors. Protection Landusesandphysicalresources that need to be protected, conserved or rehabilitated, including areas that require the prevention or mitigation of disasters. Infrastructure Land uses and physical resources dealing with capital investments that support spatial integration, production efficiency and social service delivery. Specific sectoral strategies and policies and proposals are likewise included in this chapter. The fourth chapter of the Plan describes the implementation design specifically; the institutional arrangements, support activities and the regional land use plan monitoring and evaluation system. T he formulation of the RPFP is based on technical and sectoral studies supported with maps and other data/information. However,RegionXIIhasbeenrecentlyreconfigured by virtue of the issuance of Executive Order (EO) No. 36 on September 19, 2001 that realigned the administrative regions in Mindanao. With this Order, Region XII embraced a new geographic configuration comprising the provinces of Cotabato, Sarangani, South Cotabato and Sultan Kudarat; and the cities of Cotabato, General Santos, Kidapawan, Koronadal and Tacurong. Given that Region XII is a newly reconfigured region, there are limitations identified in the formulation of the RPFP: unavailability of official Region XII base and thematic maps 1.4 Limitation of the Plan and inadequate and/or inconsistent data and information on the new Region XII. In the case of unavailable official maps of Region XII, information from official maps of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the Department of Agriculture (DA) – Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM) were digitized to come up with working maps on the region. In relation to this, the land area that was adopted for planning purposes was also based on the digitized information which approximates that of the DENR-Land Management Services data. On the inadequate data, appropriate estimation procedures were undertaken to derive the desired indicator/data from the same sources to describe present and project future trends of said indicator.
  17. 17. CHAPTER 2 THE PLANNING ENVIRONMENT
  18. 18. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-1 CHAPTER 2 The Planning Environment 2.1 Population Management 2.1.1 Population a. Population Size and Growth Rate The population of Region XII in 1980 was about 1.7 million. It increased to 2.4 million in 1990 with an average annual growth rate of 3.37 percent between these periods. In year 2000, the region attained a population of 3.2 million with an annual growth rate of 2.99 percent from 1990 to 2000. As shown in the table, the growth rate between 1980-1990 is higher by 0.38 percentage point than the growth rate between 1990-2000. General Santos City recorded the highest growth rate of 5.3 percent in 1990 and 5.10 percent in 2000. While, Tacurong City registered the lowest growth rate in 1990 at 2.5 percent, and Koronadal City registering the lowest growth rate of 2.09 percent in 2000. Going down to municipal level, 14 out of 45 municipalities registered a growth rate higher than the regional level of 2.99 percent in 1990- 2000. These municipalities were the following: Tiboli and Lake Sebu in South Cotabato province; Alabel, Glan, Maasim, Maitum, Malapatan, and Malungon in Sarangani province; Bagumbayan, Kalamansig, Lebak, Lutayan, Pres. Quirino and Sen. Ninoy Aquino in Sultan Kudarat province; and none for Cotabato province. Figure 2.1 Average Annual Growth Rate, by Province/City Ave. Annual Growth Rate, by province/city 3.07 2.58 2.98 3.87 4.24 5.30 3.04 2.20 3.79 2.60 3.07 2.58 2.09 2.652.50 3.06 3.15 5.10 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 C otabato prov. SaranganiP rovSo.C otabatoSultan K udaratC otabato C ity G eneralS antos Kidapaw an Koronadal Tacurong 1980-1990 1990-2000
  19. 19. Map 2.1 Map Showing Population Size
  20. 20. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-3 2.093.04133,786108,73880,566Koronadal City 3.153.06101,20574,19054,864Kidapawan City 5.105.30411,822250,389149,396General Santos City 2.584.24163,849127,06583,871Cotabato City 3.073.87510,151377,120257,876Sultan Kudarat 2.602.98556,942430,720321,139So. Cotabato 3.792.58410,622283,141219,372Sarangani 2.203.07857,438689,805509,735Cotabato Province 2.993.373,222,1692,399,9531,722,727Region XII 2.402.7518,133,86414,298,16010,905,243Mindanao 2.342.3576,498,73560,703,20648,098,460Philippines 1990-20001980-1990200019901980 AAGR (%)Population Province/City 2.093.04133,786108,73880,566Koronadal City 3.153.06101,20574,19054,864Kidapawan City 5.105.30411,822250,389149,396General Santos City 2.584.24163,849127,06583,871Cotabato City 3.073.87510,151377,120257,876Sultan Kudarat 2.602.98556,942430,720321,139So. Cotabato 3.792.58410,622283,141219,372Sarangani 2.203.07857,438689,805509,735Cotabato Province 2.993.373,222,1692,399,9531,722,727Region XII 2.402.7518,133,86414,298,16010,905,243Mindanao 2.342.3576,498,73560,703,20648,098,460Philippines 1990-20001980-1990200019901980 AAGR (%)Population Province/City Source: NSO XII Table 2.1 Population Size and Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR), 1980, 1990 & 2000, By Area Basedon2000census,RegionXIIpopulation is about 18 percent of the Mindanao’s population and 4.2 percent of the total population of the country. Across provinces, Cotabato province registered the most number of inhabitants accounting for almost 27 percent of the region’s population in 2000, while Sarangani province had the least population count accounting for about 13 percent of the total population of the region. For cities, General Santos has the largest population while Tacurong City, recorded the least. Looking at the population level of municipalities, the first five (5) municipalities with the greatest population count based on 1980 census include the following: Midsayap, Polomolok, Mlang, Pikit andSurallah.In1990census,thefirst five include Polomolok, Midsayap, Mlang, Glan and Banga. In 2000 census, the top 5 municipalities included Polomolok, Midsayap, Malungon, Glan and Mlang. It was noted that Midsayap, Polomolok and Mlang, maintained their ranks in the top 5 for 3 census years. However, increase of population in Malungon and Glan was very noticeable from rank 15th and 7th, respectively, in 1980 to among the top 5 municipalities in 2000. So. Cotabato 17% Sarangani Prov 13% Cotabato prov. 27% SultanKudarat 16% CotabatoCity 5% General Santos 13% Tacurong 2% Koronadal 4% Kidapawan 3% Figure 2.2 Population by Province/City
  21. 21. 2-4 The Planning Environment b. Population Projection Considering the average annual growth rate of 2.99 percent in 1990-2000, the region’s population will have about 7.7 million people in 2030. By then,the country is expected to reach a population count of 152.5 million with an average annual growth rate of 2.34 percent. Across provinces, by year 2030, Cotabato province will be having a total population of 1.6 million at an average annual growth rate of 2.2 percent. Sultan Kudarat’s population is expected to increase at about 1.26 million at 3.27 percent annual growth rate. Sarangani’s population, however, is expected to reach 1.25 million, considering the 3.79 percent average annual growth rate. With the annual growth rate of 2.6 percent, South Cotabato is expected to reach 1.2 million in 30-year period. Looking at the city level, General Santos is expected to reach a level of 1.1 million by year 2030 at an average annual growth rate of 5.1 percent, followed by Cotabato City at 272,445 at 2.58 percent growth rate. Koronadal City is expected to reach 202,521 persons after 30 years at 2.1 percent growth rate; Kidapawan City will be having 188,328 persons at 3.1 percent growth rate and Tacurong City will have 151,888 persons at 3.5 percent growth rate. The top five municipalities with the biggest population count by 2030 are the following: T’boli in South Cotabato (399,950); Malungon (387,597) and Glan (216,101) both in Sarangani province; Lake Sebu in South Cotabato (212,010); and Midsayap, in Cotabato (210,772). The rapid growth of population in T’boli could be attributed to natural increase, migration and economic activities like mining and tourism. But, since T’boli is situated in mountainous part of South Cotabato, further pressures of settlement have to be managed with restraint in consideration of the physical limitations and environmental constraints of the area. Malungon and Glan’s population in Sarangani could be due to the boom of production, commercial crop plantation, eco-tourism and small to medium scale industries in the area. 85,540,857 96,028,614 107,802,224 121,019,342 135,856,946 152,513,719 20,334,764 22,894,909 25,777,376 29,022,745 32,676,706 36,790,701 3,715,276 4,304,510 4,987,685 5,779,288 6,696,527 7,759,32 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 PhilippinesMindanaoRegion XIIYear 85,540,857 96,028,614 107,802,224 121,019,342 135,856,946 152,513,719 20,334,764 22,894,909 25,777,376 29,022,745 32,676,706 36,790,701 3,715,276 4,304,510 4,987,685 5,779,288 6,696,527 7,759,32 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 PhilippinesMindanaoRegion XIIYear Table 2.2 Population Projection, 2005-2030 Source of data: NSO XII
  22. 22. Map 2.2 Map Showing Projected Population Size
  23. 23. 2-6 The Planning Environment c. Doubling of Population Should the 1990-2000 average annual growth rate of 2.99 percent prevail until the succeeding years, the population of the region is expected to double in twenty three (23) years, or by 2023. By then, the region is expected to have 6.4 million people. The region is expected to double its popu- lation five years earlier than the Mindanao’s and six years earlier than the Philippines’ doubling time. The area which will have the shortest time to double its population is General Santos City. At the rate of 5.10 percent, General Santos City will double in just 13 years and that will be by 2013. At a rate of 3.79 percent, Sarangani’s population will double in 2018 which is 18 years from the 2000 census. Cotabato’s population will take a longer period to double its population at a rate of 2.2 per- cent, and that would be in 2031 or after 31 years. The rate by which population will double has significant implication on settlement considering the land requirement and basic social amenities and services required to provide for basic human needs. General Santos City, the only highly urbanized center in the region, record- ing the shortest time by which its population will double, would have to prepare for the expansion areas by developing suburbs for housing, and in- stitutions to cater to health and education needs of the emergent populace. Considering further, that at present, the city also posted the highest population density, the neighboring settlements shall prepare for the high probability of hosting the spill over of development and people in their localities. d. Population Density There were about 90 persons per sq. km in the region in 1980. This increased to 168 persons per sq. km in 2000 increase of about 87 percent for a period of 20 years. Compared to the national figure of 255 persons per sq. km, the region was about 87 152,997,470 36,267,728 6,444,338 1,714,876 1,113,884 1,020,302 821,244 327,698 202,410 267,572 152,708 823,644 2029 2028 2023 2031 2026 2022 2018 2027 2022 2033 2026 2013 29 28 23 31 26 22 18 27 22 33 26 13 2.34 2.40 2.99 2.20 2.60 3.07 3.79 2.58 3.15 2.09 2.65 5.10 Philippines Mindanao Region XII Cotabato Province South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Sarangani Cotabato City Kidapawan City Koronadal City Tacurong City General Santos City YearNo. of Years Expected Population Doubling Time1990-2000 AAGRArea 152,997,470 36,267,728 6,444,338 1,714,876 1,113,884 1,020,302 821,244 327,698 202,410 267,572 152,708 823,644 2029 2028 2023 2031 2026 2022 2018 2027 2022 2033 2026 2013 29 28 23 31 26 22 18 27 22 33 26 13 2.34 2.40 2.99 2.20 2.60 3.07 3.79 2.58 3.15 2.09 2.65 5.10 Philippines Mindanao Region XII Cotabato Province South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Sarangani Cotabato City Kidapawan City Koronadal City Tacurong City General Santos City YearNo. of Years Expected Population Doubling Time1990-2000 AAGRArea Table 2.3 Doubling the Population, By Area persons per sq. km less dense and 10 persons per sq. km lesser than Mindanao’s man-land ratio of 178 persons per sq. km. Based on three census years (1980, 1990 and 2000), Cotabato City and General Santos City consistently registered the most densely populated cities, the fact that they are also the two major urban centers in the region. These are followed by Source of Basic Data NSO XII
  24. 24. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-7 216.64617.5501.9371.9Koronadal City 354.19285.7209.5154.9Kidapawan City 668.49616.0374.6223.5General Santos City 147.881,108.0859.2567.2Cotabato City 4,378.00115.985.758.6Sultan Kudarat Province 3,522.30157.8122.091.0So. Cotabato Province 3,696.60111.176.659.3Sarangani Province 6,019.80142.4114.684.7Cotabato Province 19,165.86167.9125.089.7Region XII 101,587.0178.5140.7107.3Mindanao 300,000.0255.0202.3160.3Philippines 200019901980 Land Area (sq. km) Population Density (persons/sq. km) Province/City 216.64617.5501.9371.9Koronadal City 354.19285.7209.5154.9Kidapawan City 668.49616.0374.6223.5General Santos City 147.881,108.0859.2567.2Cotabato City 4,378.00115.985.758.6Sultan Kudarat Province 3,522.30157.8122.091.0So. Cotabato Province 3,696.60111.176.659.3Sarangani Province 6,019.80142.4114.684.7Cotabato Province 19,165.86167.9125.089.7Region XII 101,587.0178.5140.7107.3Mindanao 300,000.0255.0202.3160.3Philippines 200019901980 Land Area (sq. km) Population Density (persons/sq. km) Province/City Table 2.4 Population Density, 1980, 1990 & 2000, by Area the newly created cities of Koronadal, Tacurong and Kidapawan with 617.5, 471.4 and 285.7 population density (2000), respectively. Sarangani had the least dense population followed by Sultan Kudarat. By municipality, the top 3 municipalities with high population density in 1980 were Norala at 324.3 persons/sq. km.; followed by Banga at 272.4 persons/sq. km. both in South Cotabato; and Midsayap in Cotabato province, at 244 persons/sq. km. While in 1990, the top 3 municipalities in terms of population density were Banga (322.5 persons/sq. km); Polomolok (317.4); and Midsayap (306.3); in 2000, Polomolok has the highest population density of 393.2 persons/sq. km; followed by Midsayap at 385.4 persons/sq. km.; and Banga with a population density of 373.2 persons/sq. km. e. Projected Population Density The region’s population density is expected to reach 406 persons/sq. kilometer by 2030, about Source of Land Area: Land Management Bureau XII 238 persons/sq. km higher than the 168 persons/ sq. km. recorded in 2000. A higher growth in population density is expected in the cities as compared with the provinces of the region. At the municipal level, the following municipalities are expected to be more densely populated in year 2030, as compared with other municipalities of the region, to wit: Pres. Quirino, Sultan Kudarat (847 persons/sq. km); Midsayap, Cotabato (768 persons/sq. km); Polomolok, South Cotabato (747 persons/sq. km); Malungon, Sarangani (686 persons/sq. km); and Pigcawayan, Cotabato and Sto. Niño, South Cotabato at 602 persons/sq. km.
  25. 25. Map 2.3 Population Density Map
  26. 26. Map 2.4 Projected Population Density Map
  27. 27. 2-10 The Planning Environment 668.492,7411,6661,013General Santos City 147.882,3761,8421,429Cotabato City 4,378.00287212157Sultan Kudarat Province 3,522.30341264204So. Cotabato Province 3,696.60339234161Sarangani Province 6,019.80274220177Cotabato Province 19,165.86406303225Region XII 203020202010 Land Area (sq. km) Population Density (persons/sq. km) Province/City 668.492,7411,6661,013General Santos City 147.882,3761,8421,429Cotabato City 4,378.00287212157Sultan Kudarat Province 3,522.30341264204So. Cotabato Province 3,696.60339234161Sarangani Province 6,019.80274220177Cotabato Province 19,165.86406303225Region XII 203020202010 Land Area (sq. km) Population Density (persons/sq. km) Province/City Table 2.5 Population Density Projection, 2010, 2020, & 2030, By Area f. Population Distribution Urban-Rural Population The region’s total population in 1990 was 2,399,812. This grew to 3,222,169 in 2000, post- ing an increment of 34.27%. Urban population in 1990 was 896,727, or 37.37 % of the total popula- tion. In 2000, urban population rose to 1,271,765 or 39.47% of the total population in the same year, a difference of 2.1 percentage points. Be- tween 1990 and 2000, the urban growth rate was 3.56%. Population in Region XII is predominantly rural, comprising 65.3 percent of the total popu- lation in 2000 census while the remaining 34.7 percent comprised the urban population. Basi- cally, most of the rural population engaged in agri- cultural activities. Those that were in urban areas, mostly, were in industry and services sectors. Across provinces and cities, Cotabato Prov- ince accounts for slightly more than one-fourth (26.61%) of the population of the region in 2000. South Cotabato comes next with 556,942 popula- tion or 17.85%; Sultan Kudarat province, 15.83%; Cotabato City, 12.78%; and Sarangani province, 12.74% of the region’s total population. With respect to urban population, only 21.6% of the entire population of the province of Cotabato constitutes its urban population. It was overtaken by South Cotabato with 31.01% of its populace residing in urban areas, followed by Sultan Kudarat province with 26.08%. Compared with urban population in 1990, all four provinces exhibited a decreasing trend in 2000. The emigration of some rural population in the provinces to their component and adjacent cities partly explains this phenomenon. Apparently, majority of the cities, except General Santos, indicated positive growth in urban population. Kidapawan city’s urban population drastically rose from 26.85% to 47.07%, also for Tacurong City from 54.99% to 74.19%. These are relatively infant but continuously growing cities. Sex Ratio The ratio of males to females in a particular population is called its sex ratio. For Region XII, the sex ratio is 104.3 males for every 100 females as of 1990, and it decreased to 103.9 males for every female in 2000. Across provinces and cities, all areas were male dominated except for Cotabato City, where there were only 94.6 and 95.1 males for every 100 females in 1990 and 2000, respectively. The predominance of males gradually decreases with age since females have greater life expectancies. In 1990, the life expectancy rate
  28. 28. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-11 59,34917,00576,354Tacurong City 80,12053,666133,786Koronadal City 53,57247,633101,205Kidapawan City 69,997341,825411,822General Santos City -163,849163,849Cotabato City 401,001109,150510,151Sultan Kudarat 420,158136,784556,942South Cotabato 343,66066,962410,622Sarangani 675,039182,399857,438Cotabato Province 2,102,8961,119,2733,222,169Region XII RuralUrbanTotal Population 2000 Province/City 59,34917,00576,354Tacurong City 80,12053,666133,786Koronadal City 53,57247,633101,205Kidapawan City 69,997341,825411,822General Santos City -163,849163,849Cotabato City 401,001109,150510,151Sultan Kudarat 420,158136,784556,942South Cotabato 343,66066,962410,622Sarangani 675,039182,399857,438Cotabato Province 2,102,8961,119,2733,222,169Region XII RuralUrbanTotal Population 2000 Province/City Table 2.6 Urban-Rural Population, 2000, By Area Source: NSO XII (ER) for female in the Philippines was 67.5 and is expected to reach 73.8 by 2010 based on NSO projection. The highest ER for Cotabato province which included Kidapawan City was estimated at 66.7 for females and 61 for males, while the lowest was in Cotabato City at 55.2 for females and 51 for males. The lowest ER Practices such as migration (as when large numbers of males move away from home in search of employment) also have an impact on sex ratios. 104.8 105.0 105.6 105.7 95.1 102.7 101.8 102.4 101.6 105.0 104.7 106.3 106.9 94.6 - 101.6 102.8 102.4 Cotabato Province South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Sarangani Cotabato City Kidapawan City Koronadal City Tacurong City General Santos City 103.9104.3Region XII 20001990Area 104.8 105.0 105.6 105.7 95.1 102.7 101.8 102.4 101.6 105.0 104.7 106.3 106.9 94.6 - 101.6 102.8 102.4 Cotabato Province South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Sarangani Cotabato City Kidapawan City Koronadal City Tacurong City General Santos City 103.9104.3Region XII 20001990Area Table 2.7 Sex Ratio, 1990 & 2000, By Area, Region XII Source: NSO XII
  29. 29. 2-12 The Planning Environment Age Structure More than half (57.4 percent) of the region’s population belong to the economically productive group (ages 15-64 yrs. old). About 39.7 percent are ages 0-14 yrs. old and the remaining 2.9 percent are ages 65 and over. Age Dependency Ratio Age dependency ratio is the number of de- pendents (aged 0-14 and 65 and over) for every 100 persons in the productive age group (aged 15-64). In 2000, the region has about 74 dependents for every 100 persons in the productive age group. Of the 74 dependents, 69 belong to the young ages (under 15) while the remaining 5 consist of the elderly. Ethnic Composition In the 1990 census, it was revealed that the region has more than 70 dialects spoken by various ethnic groups. Majority comprised Hili- gaynon (Ilongo) with 37 percent of the total popu- lation. This was followed by Cebuano at 24 percent; and Maguindanaon which constitutes around 17 percent of the region’s pop- ulation. The provinces of Cotabato, South Cotabato (Sa- rangani included) and Sultan Kudarat are dominated by Ilongos. In Cotabato City, the dominant dialect is Maguindanaon; and in Gen- eral Santos City, Cebuano. Other major dialects spoken are Ilocano, Manobo, Tagalog, B’laan, Ma- ranao, T’boli and Waray. 91,89956,89465 & over 1,846,9951,305,61015-64 1,276,3331,033,6900-14REGION XII 9,4154,56865 & over 248,241140,97115-64 153,192103,9590-14Gen. Santos City 3,8602,47565 & over 100,03974,97515-64 57,61849,1860-14Cotabato City 16,0979,91265 & over 331,728235,54615-64(Including Tacurong) 237,943189,9960-14Sultan Kudarat 21,53714,17865 & over 399,295292,61615-64(Including Koronadal) 268,831231,6330-14South Cotabato 10,2516,19765 & over 226,825150,84815-64 173,061125,9850-14Sarangani 30,73919,56465 & over 540,867410,65415-64(Including Kidapawan) 385,688332,9310-14Cotabato Province 20001990 Household Population Age GroupArea 91,89956,89465 & over 1,846,9951,305,61015-64 1,276,3331,033,6900-14REGION XII 9,4154,56865 & over 248,241140,97115-64 153,192103,9590-14Gen. Santos City 3,8602,47565 & over 100,03974,97515-64 57,61849,1860-14Cotabato City 16,0979,91265 & over 331,728235,54615-64(Including Tacurong) 237,943189,9960-14Sultan Kudarat 21,53714,17865 & over 399,295292,61615-64(Including Koronadal) 268,831231,6330-14South Cotabato 10,2516,19765 & over 226,825150,84815-64 173,061125,9850-14Sarangani 30,73919,56465 & over 540,867410,65415-64(Including Kidapawan) 385,688332,9310-14Cotabato Province 20001990 Household Population Age GroupArea Table 2.8 Household Population by Age Group, by Area, Region XII, 1990 & 2000 Source: NSO XII
  30. 30. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-13 76.8 72.6 76.4 80.7 60.1 65.3 85.9 84.0 84.9 87.6 68.9 77.0 Cotabato 1/ South Cotabato 2/ Sultan Kudarat 3/ Sarangani Cotabato City General Santos City 73.183.2Region XII 20001990 Age Dependency Ratio by Province/CityArea 76.8 72.6 76.4 80.7 60.1 65.3 85.9 84.0 84.9 87.6 68.9 77.0 Cotabato 1/ South Cotabato 2/ Sultan Kudarat 3/ Sarangani Cotabato City General Santos City 73.183.2Region XII 20001990 Age Dependency Ratio by Province/CityArea Table 2.9 Age Dependency Ratio, 1990 & 2000, By Area 1/ Includes Kidapawan City 2/ Includes Koronadal City 3/ Includes Tacurong City Source: NSO XII Cebuano 25.0% Waray 0.3% T'boli 0.6% Maranao 0.6% Ilocano 9.5% Manobo 2.3% Tagalog 3.6% Bilaan 1.2% Maguindanao 18.2% Ilongo 38.7% Figure 2.3 Language/ Dialect Generally Spoken,. By household, Region XII, 1999 g. Movement of Population Migration Netmigrationrateistheratioofthedifference between the in-migrants and out-migrants in a population to the mid-year population during the same period. Cotabato province and Cotabato city were characterized by negative net migration rate, which means there were more people going out or out-migrants, from 1990 until year 2020. On the other hand, in-migration was prevalent in the provinces of South Cotabato, Sarangani and Sultan Kudarat.
  31. 31. 2-14 The Planning Environment -0.012763 -0.023696 -0.012763 -0.023696 -0.012589 -0.020648 -0.012417 -0.017992 -0.012248 -0.015677 -0.012081 -0.013661 Cotabato City Male Female 0.001849 0.000641 0.001849 0.000641 0.002531 0.000918 0.003465 0.001314 0.004742 0.001881 0.006491 0.002693 Sultan Kudarat Male Female 0.067489 0.091745 0.674890 0.091745 0.537950 0.066640 0.428790 0.048405 0.034178 0.035160 0.027243 0.025539 Sarangani Male Female 0.073090 0.100576 0.073090 0.100576 0.057586 0.072060 0.045370 0.051629 0.035746 0.036990 0.028163 0.026502 South Cotabato Male Female -0.004555 0.008313 -0.004555 -0.008313 -0.003961 -0.007229 -0.003601 -0.006571 -0.003430 -0.006259 -0.003430 -0.006259 Cotabato Prov. Male Female 2015- 2020 2010-20152005- 2010 2000- 2005 1995- 2000 1990- 1995 Area -0.012763 -0.023696 -0.012763 -0.023696 -0.012589 -0.020648 -0.012417 -0.017992 -0.012248 -0.015677 -0.012081 -0.013661 Cotabato City Male Female 0.001849 0.000641 0.001849 0.000641 0.002531 0.000918 0.003465 0.001314 0.004742 0.001881 0.006491 0.002693 Sultan Kudarat Male Female 0.067489 0.091745 0.674890 0.091745 0.537950 0.066640 0.428790 0.048405 0.034178 0.035160 0.027243 0.025539 Sarangani Male Female 0.073090 0.100576 0.073090 0.100576 0.057586 0.072060 0.045370 0.051629 0.035746 0.036990 0.028163 0.026502 South Cotabato Male Female -0.004555 0.008313 -0.004555 -0.008313 -0.003961 -0.007229 -0.003601 -0.006571 -0.003430 -0.006259 -0.003430 -0.006259 Cotabato Prov. Male Female 2015- 2020 2010-20152005- 2010 2000- 2005 1995- 2000 1990- 1995 Area Table 2.10 Projection of Sex-Specific Net Migration Rates by Province/City, 1990-2020 Source: NSO XII 8,1197,56018,63511,44612,79120,43178,982Not Stated 3,1839672,4831,0801,7642,87112,348Post Baccalaureate 16,8538,27711,0972,50518,56718,64875,947 Academic Degree Holder 43,23423,90038,45516,19250,76165,459238,001College Undergraduate 13,4854,44710,0643,14722,68319,15572,981Post Secondary 115,59935,633135,29968,544175,295221,973752,343High School 130,12544,422217,614181,831247,193381,7511,202,936Elementary 10,5582,35112,7747,53618,06519,84871,132Pre-School 15,92914,24761,42659,27654,87382,316288,067No grade completed Gen. Santos City Cot. City Sultan Kudarat Saran- gani South Cotabato Cotabato Province Region XII Highest Educational Attainment 8,1197,56018,63511,44612,79120,43178,982Not Stated 3,1839672,4831,0801,7642,87112,348Post Baccalaureate 16,8538,27711,0972,50518,56718,64875,947 Academic Degree Holder 43,23423,90038,45516,19250,76165,459238,001College Undergraduate 13,4854,44710,0643,14722,68319,15572,981Post Secondary 115,59935,633135,29968,544175,295221,973752,343High School 130,12544,422217,614181,831247,193381,7511,202,936Elementary 10,5582,35112,7747,53618,06519,84871,132Pre-School 15,92914,24761,42659,27654,87382,316288,067No grade completed Gen. Santos City Cot. City Sultan Kudarat Saran- gani South Cotabato Cotabato Province Region XII Highest Educational Attainment Table 2.11 Highest Grade Completed of Household Population, By Province/City, 2000 Source: NSO XII
  32. 32. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-15 h. Educational Status Population by Educational Attainment Based on NSO data, in 2000, about 43 pe cent of the household population 5 years old and over in the region, completed elementary educa- tion, and 27 percent reached high school level. While those holding college degrees constituted 2.7 percent of the population. Besides, around 10 percent of the total household population had no grade completed. Proportion of household population who had earned academic degree was higher in Cotabato and General Santos cities at 5.8 and 4.7 percent. Literacy Rate Simple Literacy Simple literacy refers to the ability of a population aged 10-64 years old to read and write simple message in any language or dialect. In 1994, simple literacy among the population was highest in Cotabato City at about 97.66 percent. Also, male and female literacy rates in Cotabato City were recorded the highest at 98.11 percent and 97.27 percent, respectively. On the other hand, Cotabato Province recorded the lowest simple literacy rate at 89.36 percent with male literacy rates at 89.76 percent and female literacy rate at 88.91 percent. Table 2.12 Simple and Functional Literacy by Province and City, Region XII, CY 1994 Source: NSO XII 81.7475.3588.75General Santos City 93.9492.7395.00Cotabato City 78.6376.7180.67Sultan Kudarat 73.6370.5376.76South Cotabato 72.7679.8176.07Cotabato Province Functional Literacy 96.7297.2496.14General Santos City 97.6698.1197.27Cotabato City 95.9495.1095.40Sultan Kudarat 90.2190.8489.46South Cotabato 89.3689.7688.91Cotabato Province Simple Literacy Both SexesMaleFemaleProvince/City 81.7475.3588.75General Santos City 93.9492.7395.00Cotabato City 78.6376.7180.67Sultan Kudarat 73.6370.5376.76South Cotabato 72.7679.8176.07Cotabato Province Functional Literacy 96.7297.2496.14General Santos City 97.6698.1197.27Cotabato City 95.9495.1095.40Sultan Kudarat 90.2190.8489.46South Cotabato 89.3689.7688.91Cotabato Province Simple Literacy Both SexesMaleFemaleProvince/City Functional Literacy Functional literacy refers to the ability of the population aged 10-64 years old to perform basic numerical skills. In 1994, highest functional litera- cy was in Cotabato City where 93.94 percent were found to be functionally literate. This means that ten (10) out of 100 had deficiency in numeracy skills. Cotabato Province had the lowest function- al literacy rate at 72.76 percent. Enrolment Enrolment in the public elementary schools showed moderate increase by about 2.0 percent from 532,580 in SY 2001-2002 to 541,460 in SY 2002-2003. In the secondary level, enrolment posted 187,186 in SY 2000-2001 to 224,951, for SY 2002-2003 noting an increase of 9.10 percent. The enrolment record in the region exhibits fluctuating trend as observed during each school
  33. 33. 2-16 The Planning Environment 219,266 61,325 20,930 35,654 35,545 13,905 200,944 57,165 19,202 43,566 32,485 12,713 187,186 59,897 17,252 36,835 29,911 11,815 b. Secondary Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato City Sultan Kudarat 541,460 157,636 71,019 89,766 95,418 27,527 63,227 16,980 19,888 532,580 151,400 68,634 110,329 95,251 26,742 63,546 16,678 538,427 165,424 63,609 111,442 93,581 26,433 61,407 16,531 ENROLMENT a. Elementary Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 2002-20032001-20022000-2001INDICATORS BY PROVINCE 219,266 61,325 20,930 35,654 35,545 13,905 200,944 57,165 19,202 43,566 32,485 12,713 187,186 59,897 17,252 36,835 29,911 11,815 b. Secondary Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato City Sultan Kudarat 541,460 157,636 71,019 89,766 95,418 27,527 63,227 16,980 19,888 532,580 151,400 68,634 110,329 95,251 26,742 63,546 16,678 538,427 165,424 63,609 111,442 93,581 26,433 61,407 16,531 ENROLMENT a. Elementary Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 2002-20032001-20022000-2001INDICATORS BY PROVINCE Table 2.13 Public Elementary and Secondary Education Enrolment, SY 2000-2001 to SY 2001-2003, Region XII Source: NSO XII year which could be as- cribed to unstable peace and order condition and rising cost of education. This condition somehow caused disturbance in the regular and continu- ous education of school- going children. Participation Rate E l e m e n t a r y participation rate (PR) measures the proportion ofschoolgoingpopulation who are actually in school. The PR in public schools showed a very slight increase between SY 2000-2001 and SY 2001-2002 from 92.37 Regional Physical Framework Plan, 2004-2030 2-17 percent to 92.91 percent, respectively. In SY 2002- 2003, PR showed a decrease to 78.56 percent. Across provinces and cities, the participation rate in public elementary was highest in Cotabato City in SY 2000-2001 at 99.90 percent and lowest in Sarangani at 67.61 percent. In the following year, SY 2001-2002, PR was highest in General Santos City at 104.75 percent and lowest in South Cotabato at 84.41 percent. For SY 2002-2003, PR was again highest in Cotabato City at 91.65 percent, and lowest in Sarangani Province at 73.03 percent. In the secondary level, slight improvements in PR from 72.13 percent in SY 2000-2001 to 72.96 percent in SY 2001-2002 was noted. However, in SY 2002-2003 PR in all areas were very low based on the new formula used by DepEd in computing PR. Highest PR was in General Santos City while the lowest PR was noted in Sarangani. Low participation rate may be attributed to a number of children of indigenous peoples from the hinterlands that either do not have enough access to basic education or are forced to work to augment family income. Cohort-Survival Rate School-aged children who enter Grade I mustbeabletofinishelementaryforsixconsecutive years and those enrolled in first year high school must also complete the secondary education for four consecutive years to assure a 100 percent survival rate at both levels. Cohort-Survival Rate (CSR) in the elementary posted 66.05 percent in SY 2000-2001 to 53.29 percent in SY 2002-2003. Despite massive advocacy about children’s rights and parents’ responsibilities under the Child- Friendly Movement program of government with UNICEF, CSR is generally very low in the region. The lowest CSR in the elementary level was consistently noted in Sarangani for two school years, 2000-2001 to 2002-2002. In SY 2002-2003, CSR was lowest in Kidapawan City. In the secondary level, regional data on CSR was recorded at 68.06 percent in SY 2000- 2001 and 71.52 percent in SY 2001-2002. However, in SY 2002-2003, CSR showed a decrease of 61.86 percent.
  34. 34. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-17 43.29 43.20 31.67 41.07 37.25 59.82 54.35 54.27 58.42 72.96 76.41 41.36 60.97 68.65 92.48 71.19 99.66 n.d.a 72.13 73.98 38.65 56.84 72.03 98.86 64.69 99.83 n.d.a b. Secondary Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato City Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 78.56 83.40 73.03 75.61 75.05 91.65 80.31 73.43 76.37 92.91 97.24 99.81 84.41 95.76 88.26 104.75 91.32 n.d.a 92.37 98.94 67.61 81.35 98.37 99.90 91.25 91.49 n.d.a PARTICIPATION RATE a. Elementary Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 2002-20032001-20022000-2001INDICATORS BY PROVINCE/CITY 43.29 43.20 31.67 41.07 37.25 59.82 54.35 54.27 58.42 72.96 76.41 41.36 60.97 68.65 92.48 71.19 99.66 n.d.a 72.13 73.98 38.65 56.84 72.03 98.86 64.69 99.83 n.d.a b. Secondary Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato City Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 78.56 83.40 73.03 75.61 75.05 91.65 80.31 73.43 76.37 92.91 97.24 99.81 84.41 95.76 88.26 104.75 91.32 n.d.a 92.37 98.94 67.61 81.35 98.37 99.90 91.25 91.49 n.d.a PARTICIPATION RATE a. Elementary Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 2002-20032001-20022000-2001INDICATORS BY PROVINCE/CITY Table 2.14 Public Elementary & Secondary Education Participation Rate, SY 2000-2001 to SY 2001-2003, Region XII n.d.a. - No Data Available Source: NSO XII 61.86 56.29 50.32 64.67 58.18 63.56 58.04 59.29 49.63 71.52 68.00 59.17 66.81 61.56 88.72 81.88 74.50 68.66 64.23 61.58 66.21 61.38 73.69 79.83 73.73 Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato City Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 53.29 48.20 51.45 59.94 49.16 52.56 67.06 47.04 59.20 63.77 56.45 51.84 64.97 61.69 64.35 81.86 65.24 66.05 54.00 45.78 71.36 63.23 67.43 76.72 83.81 COHORT-SURVIVAL RATE Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato City Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 2002-20032001-20022000-2001INDICATOR BY PROVINCE/CITY 61.86 56.29 50.32 64.67 58.18 63.56 58.04 59.29 49.63 71.52 68.00 59.17 66.81 61.56 88.72 81.88 74.50 68.66 64.23 61.58 66.21 61.38 73.69 79.83 73.73 Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato City Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 53.29 48.20 51.45 59.94 49.16 52.56 67.06 47.04 59.20 63.77 56.45 51.84 64.97 61.69 64.35 81.86 65.24 66.05 54.00 45.78 71.36 63.23 67.43 76.72 83.81 COHORT-SURVIVAL RATE Region XII Cotabato Province Sarangani South Cotabato City Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City General Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City 2002-20032001-20022000-2001INDICATOR BY PROVINCE/CITY Table 2.14 Public Elementary & Secondary Education Cohort-Survival Rate, SY 2000-2001 to SY 2001-2003, Region XII Source: NSO XII
  35. 35. 2-18 The Planning Environment i. Health Status Crude Birth Rate In 2001, the crude birth rate (CBR) for the region was placed at 18 births per 1,000 popula- tion, which slightly increased to 20 births per 1,000 population in 2003. Looking at the downtrend in CBR for the last three years somehow implies gains from the region’s population management program. Across provinces, Sultan Kuda- rat registered the highest CBR at 21.4 while General Santos City also post- ed the highest at 27.0 among the cit- ies. Apparently, General Santos City also registered the fastest doubling time of population. Crude Death Rate The crude death rate (CDR) or the total deaths from all ages in the region indicated fluctuating trend from 2001 to 2003. For provinces and cities, Cotabato City registered the most number of deaths since 2001 while Sarangani posted the least number of deaths for the past three years. It could be observed that those areas with lower CBR have relatively higher CDR. Conversely, those LGUs with higher CBR also registered lower CDR. This suggests that the growth of population is directly influenced by the trend in CBR and CDR. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) The infant mortality rate expresses the prob- ability of death in the first year of life, usually stat- ed as a number per 1,000 livebirths. The incidence of infant mortality exhibited a downtrend from 2001 to 2003. Between 2001 and 2003, the figure decreased from 11 infant deaths for every 1,000 livebirths to 5.3 per 1,000 livebirths. Among the provinces, South Cotabato has the highest incidence of infant deaths since 2001, followed by Sultan Kudarat Province. Across cities, General Santos registered consistently the most number of infant deaths in the past three years. Compared with the national figure however, the re- gions IMR is still lower than the national target of 32 by 2004. Crude Death Rate By Province/City Region XII, CYs 2001-2003 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 2001 2002 2003 Per1,000Population Cotabato Sarangani SouthCot. Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City Gen.Santos City Kidapawan Source: DOH XII, P/CHOs Crude Death Rate By Province/City Region XII, CYs 2001-2003 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 2001 2002 2003 Per1,000Population Cotabato Sarangani SouthCot. Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City Gen.Santos City Kidapawan Source: DOH XII, P/CHOs Figure 2.4 Crude Death Rate by Province/City, Region XII, CYs 2001-2003 Infant Mortality Ratio By Province/City Region XII, CYs 2001-2003 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 2001 2002 2003 Per1,000livebirths Cotabato Sarangani SouthCot. SultanKudarat Cotabato City Gen.Santos City KidapawanCity KoronadalCity Source: DOH XII, P/CHOs Infant Mortality Ratio By Province/City Region XII, CYs 2001-2003 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 2001 2002 2003 Per1,000livebirths Cotabato Sarangani SouthCot. SultanKudarat Cotabato City Gen.Santos City KidapawanCity KoronadalCity Source: DOH XII, P/CHOs Figure 2.5 Infant Mortality Rate by Province/City, Region XII, CYs 2001-2003
  36. 36. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-19 Maternal Mortality Ratio By Province/City Region XII, CYs 2001-2003 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cotabato Sarangani South Cot. Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City Gen. Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City Tacurong City Provinces/Cities Per1,000livebirhts 2001 2002 2003 Source: DOH XII, P/CHOs Maternal Mortality Ratio By Province/City Region XII, CYs 2001-2003 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cotabato Sarangani South Cot. Sultan Kudarat Cotabato City Gen. Santos City Kidapawan City Koronadal City Tacurong City Provinces/Cities Per1,000livebirhts 2001 2002 2003 Source: DOH XII, P/CHOs Leading causes of infant deaths are the common infectious but preventable diseases like pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome and diarrhea. They remained to be the leading infant killer-disease in the region. Health and nutrition condition of infants directly affect their chances to survive. Other indirect causes ofinfantdeathsareinadequatequalityprenatal care and malnutrition among pregnant women which most often than not, result to infants mborn with congenital disorders and defects. Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) In terms of maternal mortality or the number of mothers who died due to pregnancy or as a result of childbirth, the incidence is also on a declining trend, from 1.3 in 2001 to 0.7 per 1,000 livebirths in 2003. Just like infant mortality, the leading causes of maternal deaths were the common preventable diseases such as post-partum hemorrhage or bleeding after childbirth, septicemia, hypertension and its complications and obstructed labor. Maternal deaths also occurred because of failure to detect high-risk pregnancies earlier due to irregular or no pre-natal check ups at all. Figure 2.6 Maternal Mortality Rate by Province/City, Region XII, CYs 2001-2003 Health Manpower Complement On health manpower, as of 2003, the total number of government physicians in Region XII was 163; nurses, 245; dentists, 57; nutritionists, 17; medical technologists, 70; midwives, 810; sanitary inspectors, 80; and Ba- rangay Health Workers (BHWs), 6,613. Most of the health professionals are stationed in Rural Health Units and/or government hospi- tals, leaving the rural folks with limited choice but to seek health services of midwives who, most of the times, are covering more than just one barangay. Based on the current ratio of health manpower to population, particularly doctors, midwives and sanitary inspectors, the region is in need of additional doctors and sanitary inspectors due to backlog. In 2003, on the average, one doc- tor (MHO) served around 21,823 persons over the standard of 1:20,000; while a sanitary inspec- tor served about 44,465 persons, more than double the standard ratio of 1:20,000. For nurses and midwives, the ratios are within the standard level. Among the LGUs, Cotabato Province need an addi- tional of about 31 doctors and 30 sanitary inspectors, while General Santos City need an additional of about 30 doctors, 67 midwives and 10 sanitary inspectors to be able to cater adequately to the health care needs of the current population.
  37. 37. 2-20 The Planning Environment Hospital Bed Population Ratio and Hospital Bed Backlog As of 2003, the region has a total of 3,237 hospital beds both in public and private hospitals. Of this number, 1,140 are found in the government hospitals while 2,097 beds are in private hospitals. Considering both public and private hospital beds, the hospital bed to population ratio is 1:1,099, which is still within the standard ratio of 1: 2,000. Table 2.17 Hospital Beds & Bed Population Ratio (Government & Private) By Province/City, Region XII, CY 2003 * - Data for Koronadal City and Tacurong City are integrated with South Cotabato & Sultan Kudarat data, respectively Source: FHSIS, DOH-CHD XII 9191 : 3,2051 : 1,0993,2372,097301,110Region XII 420 : 108,2291 : 474179179Tacurong City --1 : 4381 : 642224124100Koronadal City 540 : 108,2291 : 467232232Kidapawan City 1361 : 4,7201 : 800590490100General Santos City --1 : 8701 : 470370170200Cotabato City 1651 : 5,0091 : 1,570351241110Sultan Kudarat 2541 : 11,2371 : 1,76635029555South Cotabato 1661 : 6,7341 : 6,20276670Sarangani 2421 : 3,6621 : 1,51861536030225Cotabato NON- DOH DOH PRIVAT E GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL BED BACKLOG GOVT HOSPITAL BED- POPULA- TION RATIO Total BED- POPULA- TION RATIO TOTAL BEDS (Govt & Private) NUMBER OF AUTHORIZED BEDS PROVINCE/ CITY 9191 : 3,2051 : 1,0993,2372,097301,110Region XII 420 : 108,2291 : 474179179Tacurong City --1 : 4381 : 642224124100Koronadal City 540 : 108,2291 : 467232232Kidapawan City 1361 : 4,7201 : 800590490100General Santos City --1 : 8701 : 470370170200Cotabato City 1651 : 5,0091 : 1,570351241110Sultan Kudarat 2541 : 11,2371 : 1,76635029555South Cotabato 1661 : 6,7341 : 6,20276670Sarangani 2421 : 3,6621 : 1,51861536030225Cotabato NON- DOH DOH PRIVAT E GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL BED BACKLOG GOVT HOSPITAL BED- POPULA- TION RATIO Total BED- POPULA- TION RATIO TOTAL BEDS (Govt & Private) NUMBER OF AUTHORIZED BEDS PROVINCE/ CITY Table 2.16 Distribution of Government Health Manpower Complement by Province/City, Region XII, CY 2003 98-1580810577017245163Region XII Tacurong City * Koronadal City * 2-335021152Kidapawan City 106715142752279General Santos City --595522084Cotabato City No data--No data166132056542Sultan Kudarat 14--24208163258971South Cotabato 11-513949723519Sarangani 30-311721010623616Cotabato SANITARY INSPTRS MID- WIVES DOC- TORS SANITARY INSPTRS MID- WIVES DEN- TISTS MED. TECHNO NUTRI- TIONISTS NUR- SES DOC- TORS Health Manpower BacklogNumber of Government Health Personnel/Workers Province/ City 98-1580810577017245163Region XII Tacurong City * Koronadal City * 2-335021152Kidapawan City 106715142752279General Santos City --595522084Cotabato City No data--No data166132056542Sultan Kudarat 14--24208163258971South Cotabato 11-513949723519Sarangani 30-311721010623616Cotabato SANITARY INSPTRS MID- WIVES DOC- TORS SANITARY INSPTRS MID- WIVES DEN- TISTS MED. TECHNO NUTRI- TIONISTS NUR- SES DOC- TORS Health Manpower BacklogNumber of Government Health Personnel/Workers Province/ City
  38. 38. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-21 2.1.2 Settlements Settlements are defined as areas where concentrations of population are engaged in economic, political, cultural and social activities. In Region XII, these settlements vary from small agriculture- based rural towns to primary urban areas with population ranging to hundreds of thousand. Rural settlements are basically agriculture-based settlements while urban centers are those where certain functions and higher level of services can be found related to commercial, trade and industry, service and administrative services. a. Urbanization and Settlement Pattern Urban- Rural Population Growth Region XII is characterized as predominantly rural having registered a very minimal change in its urban population between 1990 and 2000. Majority of the region’s population still reside in rural areas that constitute about sixty-five (65) percent of the total populace. The settlements in the southern part of the region are also predominantly agriculture- based. This pattern is mirrored by the positive increment of the agriculture’s share in the Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) while the industrial sector’s contribution indicated a decreasing trend. The urban growth rate for the whole of Region XII from 1990-2000 was posted at 3.56. Across provinces and cities, Kidapawan City posted the highest growth in urban population at 9.11; Tacurong City, 5.77; Cotabato Province, 4.62; closely followed by General Santos City with 4.23. Sultan Kudarat, South Cotabato, Koronadal City and Cotabato City showed almost the same pace of urban growth, growing at over 2 percent rate, while the lowest was Sarangani Province with 1.98. Tempo of Urbanization Across provinces, the province of South Cotabato posted the fastest urbanization as urban population increased from 21 percent in 1980 to 31 percent in 1990. Among the fast urbanizing towns in the regions are those situated in the said province, such as Polomolok and Tupi. For the cities, Cotabato and General Santos are considered highly urbanized while the relatively new cities of Kidapawan, Tacurong, and Koronadal still have population in rural areas. Notably, two of the fastest growing areas are the newly established cities of Kidapawan and Tacurong. The infusion of infrastructure support and improvement of existing ones, and the growing commercial and small- medium enterprises may have invited rural migration to these newly urbanizing cities in search for employment and better economic opportunities, typical of rural-urban migration processes. Other than economic factors, social, cultural, and enhanced inter-linkages between and among adjacent places from the province of Sultan Kudarat, and nearby towns of Maguindanao provinces contributed to the burgeoning growth or urban populace in these cities. However, the ratio based on government ho pital beds only, was higher at 1: 3,205 pa- tients, way below the standard. The absence of government hospitals in Kidapawan City and Tacurong City could have aggravated this situation. Thus, the region still needs around 919 hospital beds to meet the standard requir ment.
  39. 39. Map 2.5 Existing Settlements Map
  40. 40. 2-23 The Planning Environment A few of the region’s rural towns exhib- ited relatively fast urban growth trends like Ba- nisilan and Libungan in Cotabato Province. These two towns are among the agriculture production areas of the province of Cotabato. Libungan is situated along the major route from Cotabato City to Davao City. It is proxi- mate to Midsayap, one of the fast urbanizing - 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 Cotabato City General Santos City Tacurong City Koronadal City Kidapawan City Cotabato Province Sultan Kudarat Province Sarangani Province South Cotabato Provinces/Cities Population 1990 Urban Population 2000 Urban Population - 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 Cotabato City General Santos City Tacurong City Koronadal City Kidapawan City Cotabato Province Sultan Kudarat Province Sarangani Province South Cotabato Provinces/Cities Population 1990 Urban Population 2000 Urban Population towns of the province that serve as both cen- ters of education, commerce and trade. It may be possible to attribute such fast growth to the moderate development taking place in the area coupled with the fact that it being adjacent to Midsayap could have served as immediate ex- pansion area for the spill of population of said municipality. Figure 2.7 Urbanization Trend By Area, Region XII, 1990-2000 Source: National Statistics Office Population Concentration Tendencies The population of the new region exhib- its unequal distribution. However, it showed moderate improvement as gleaned from popu- lation of each census year. In 1990, the popu- lation that has to be redistributed to attain a rational, efficient and desirable spatial organi- zation of population was posted at 18.50 percent. The swift growth of the regions in the post-war era up to the sixties was primarily due to vast availability of prime lands for ag- riculture, an economic opportunity available to them at that time along with the alternative settlement opportunity offered by the govern- ment during the same period. Population growth in the 70’s somehow slackened and this could be partly ascribed to more attractive opportunities available in other regions in the island in terms of employ- ment, education and stable peace and order condition. Only minor portions of differential growth rates among the areas in the region can be accounted for by fertility differences and even less by mortality variations. Thus, internal migration may be viewed as the major factor underlying observed population differ- entials.
  41. 41. Regional Physical Framework Plan 2004-2030 2-24 b. The Region’s Existing Functional Net work of Settlements Settlements are usually formed where social and economic opportunities abound, wherebetterqualityoflifeisperceivedpossible. The concentration of people in one specific geographic area results to the formation of settlements. Settlements evolve depending on the scale and level of activities brought about by economic, social and political functions of a locality. Modernization in the field of transportation, communication, public health and safety, and industries also shaped the kind of settlements. In the region, the settlement pattern could be explained by a variety of factors, economic activities, presence of social facilities or amenities, political stability, peace, order and security, and other institutions and structures that provide higher standards of living. The reconfigured Region XII is characterized by uneven spatialdistribution of its population but is more contiguous and homogeneous, geographically. Also, the present settlement trend of the region follows a linear pattern where settlements tend to concentrate along the major transportation axis interconnecting the provinces, cities and municipalities throughout the region. Patches of settlements, however, are located in the rural areas, particularly in hinterlands and coastal areas. The component cities in the region, Kidapawan, Koronadal, and Tacurong all grew from inland towns with their population concentrating in the urban while the rural areas are sparsely populated. The region has a three—tiered settlement structure with General Santos City and Cotabato city serving as the primary urban centers; the cities of Kidapawan, Koronadal and Tacurong, and the towns of Isulan, Alabel, Kabacan, and Midsayap as the intermediate urban centers. All the rest of the municipalities would either be considered as medium town or small town serving as primary production areas. The region is comprised of four (4) provincesrepresenting5percentofthenation’s total provinces. There are forty-five (45) municipalities, accounting for just 2.7 percent of the total municipalities nationwide. There are also five (5) cities, of which one, General Santos City, is classified as a highly urbanized city and Cotabato city as independent chartered city. The three others, Kidapawan, Tacurong and Koronadal are component cities. The region’s provinces and cities exhibit varied degree of development characterized by its prime socio-economic roles and functions and geographical location. The nine (9) provinces and cities comprising the region play specialized but reinforcing and complementary roles that sustain its economy and people. General Santos, the region’s only highly urbanized city, is the center of international trade and commerce owing to the thriving industries in the area. The presence of principal infrastructures boosts the primacy of the city in terms of higher level of services. Among its major physical facilities are the international airport and the marine ports. Industries located in the place range from small to medium industries related to food processing, fruit processing and cold storage facilities for its fishery products. Cotabato City, also one of the primary urban centers of the region, served as regional center of administrative Region XII, until the recent issuance of Executive Order No. 304. It also provides basic tertiary level
  42. 42. 2-25 The Planning Environment services through key institutions providing higher level education, modern health and medical, commercial, industrial, modern communication, as well as, financial, market support and recreation services. The Cotabato Regional and Medical Center is situated in the city, serving both the region’s public health clients and that of the neighboring ARMM provinces. As the former administrative seat of Region XII, the city plays significant political and economic influences over its outlying areas. It also serves as a transshipment point because of the Cotabato Airport, even if it is located in Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao of the ARMM, its proximity to the city make possible the role of the city as port of entry and exit for both people and products. The Polloc Port in Parang, Maguindanao also provides interconnection and mobility of people and goods from within the region to other points of destinations. Other major urban growth centers are those that serve as provincial capital towns. They host offices of both the provincial and national governments for effective governance and service delivery. These areas manifest fast urbanization as evidenced by rapid urban growth,growingtradeandcommerce,financial and social institutions, minor processing and manufacturing enterprises, among others. Kidapawan City is located about 106 kilometers north of Cotabato City, and 120 kilometers from Davao City. The Provincial Capitol of Cotabato, its seat of government, is situated in Barangay Amas of Kidapawan City, about 14 kilometers to the city proper. Kidapawan, known as fruit city, is essentially an agro-ecotourism center. Part of Mt. Apo, which is a popular tourist destination, is situated in the city. It also has a geothermal plant, the Philippine National Oil Corporation, located in Barangay Ilumavis, of the city. It is also fast developing into a trade, commerce and financial center as manifested by the increasing number of banks and commercial complex in the area. As such, it plays a crucial role of filling the gap for tertiary level social services, institutions, commercial, market and banking needs of the outlying rural neighbors. Tacurong City, a component city of Sultan Kudarat, became a city almost at the same time Kidapawan and Koronadal were created. It is also adjacent to Isulan, the capital town of the province. It serves as the trading and commerce center and transport hub for the areas surrounding it, including the towns of Buluan and Datu Paglas of Maguindanao province of the ARMM region. Koronadal City is the seat of government of the Province of South Cotabato and recently declared through Executive Order No. 304 as the regional center of Region XII. Koronadal is bounded on the north by Tacurong and on the southern part by General Santos City Located strategically at the heart of the region, Koronadal City is emerging as commerce and trading center. The city is endowed with abundantsourceofwaterthatfeeditsirrigation systems, and about 1.7 percent of its land with a slope ranging from 0 to 8 per cent, the city is also best suited for general agriculture and industrial development activities. Alabel is the capital town of Sarangani province, hosting the seat of its Provincial Government. It is an intermediate urban center providing secondary level services, trade and commerce, and other administrative services. Isulan serves as the capital town of Sultan Kudarat province. It also provides specialized services like markets, trade and commerce; with educational institutions and a provincial hospital catering to the outlying rural areas in the province.

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