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2nd class of the SnW Hackathon
Internet of Things and enabling technologies

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SnW: Internet of Things and enabling technologies

  1. 1. Firma convenzione Politecnico di Milano e Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano Aula Magna – Rettorato Mercoledì 27 maggio 2015 Lesson 2: Internet of Things and enabling technologies Luca Cerina – luca.cerina@polimi.it Ver. Updated – 30/11/2017
  2. 2. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB The Cloud
  3. 3. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB The Internet of Things
  4. 4. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB The Quantied Self “Not all important things in life can be measured and not everything that can be measured is important” (Quantified Self Institute)
  5. 5. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB The Hackathon Device design Software & infrastructure
  6. 6. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Device design: outline ● Existent technologies ● NFC ● Bluetooth ● LoRa ● Bird’s eye view on: Fog Computing ● Focus on: design for human interaction
  7. 7. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB NFC/RFID ● The reader uses the antenna to constantly scan the area sending radio waves ● The transponder send its ID, with an active signal (active RFID) or piggybacking the reader waves (passive RFID) The frequencies are: ● LF (125-134KHz) 1-10cm→ ● HF (13.56MHz) 1m (NFC)→ ● UHF (865-960MHz) long range→
  8. 8. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB NFC/RFID: Example RC 522 RFID READER Frequency: 13.56 MHz Connection protocol: SPI Support: Read/Write Usage: Arduino/Microcontrollers
  9. 9. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Call for Ideas What would you design?
  10. 10. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Bluetooth Low Energy Bluetooth LE enable short-burst wireless connections and uses multiple network topologies: ● Point-to-Point (1:1) data transfer and fitness→ trackers ● Broadcast (1:many) beacons, information→ sharing ● Mesh (HOT! NEW!) (m:m) large scale topology→ for sensor networks, automation, devices chatting
  11. 11. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Architecture
  12. 12. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB BLE Radio ● Frequency: 2.4 GHz ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) band ● 40 channels with 2 MHz spacing ● Range 0 – 100m (BT 5.0) ● Enabling technology invented by Hedi Lamarr
  13. 13. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB BLE Roles Advertiser broadcasts adv. packets, can be→ connectable or not Scanner listen to adv. Packets, passively or→ actively (scan request) Master/central device connected to→ slave/peripherals Slave/peripheral device connected to Central→ Mesh node advertise and scan at the same time,→ performs drop logic on the packets
  14. 14. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB BLE Generic Atribute Proile Provide access to device discovery & connection control GAP defines roles: ● Broadcaster advertiser→ ● Observer scanner→ ● Peripheral always slave→ ● Central always master, never advertise→
  15. 15. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB BLE GAP Modes Connectable ● Can make a connection ● Not connectable / connectable Discoverable ● Can be discovered (advertising) ● None, limited, general Bondable ● Can pair with a device for long term connections ● Not bondable / bondable
  16. 16. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB BLE Generic ATTributes (GATT) ● GATT defines only two roles: Server and Client ● The attribute is the smallest data element available, it is defined by a 128 bit Unique Identifier (UUID) or a 16bit handle. An attribute can be: Readable, Writable, R/W, None
  17. 17. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB GATT hierarchy GATT defines a precise hierarchy for data and reusability. Service/Profile: conceptually related attributes (e.g. heart rate) Characteristic: single value or metadata container Descriptor: single value, which meaning its defined by the characteristic metadata.
  18. 18. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB GATT hierarchy
  19. 19. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB How to use BLE in your applicaton Raspberry Pi & co: → Bluepy ( Python ) → BlueZ ( C ) Microcontrollers: → Redbear Nano/Duo (redbear.cc) → Arduino 101 (arduino.cc) → SensiBLE (sensiedge.com) Smartphone → Bluetooth core libraries
  20. 20. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Call for Ideas What would you design?
  21. 21. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB LoRaWAN: Long Range Wide Area Network
  22. 22. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB LoRaWAN: Long Range Wide Area Network Long range communication link ● Up to 2.5km in cities ● Up to 10km in countryside Frequency (Europe): 868 MHz Low data rate: 0.3 – 50 kbps
  23. 23. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB LoRaWAN structure
  24. 24. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB LoRa end-device Every network is identified by a 7bit identifier (NwkID, not unique). Private networks use 0x0 as ID. Each device has a 25bit address, static or given by the network at join-time. The full DevAddr is 32bit = NwkID + deviceID
  25. 25. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB LoRa end-device Every device should comply to a specific “application” and use a 64bit IEEE AppEUI value. To increase security, each end-device uses two 128bit AES symmetric keys: ● NwkSKey protection from network artefacts→ ● AppSKey protection on application layer traffic→
  26. 26. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB LoRa dynamic join End-device could also avoid pre-provisioning and perform a join request to the network. In this case the device needs: ● A 128 bit unique appKey for encryption ● A valid 64 bit AppEUI ● A device ID which should be a valid EUI called devEUI If the join is successful, the server answers with a join accept and provide DevAddr, NwkSKey and AppSKey through the downlink
  27. 27. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB LoRa devices Nodes → The things UNO → Arduino MKR WAN 1300 → Adafruit Feather LoRa Gateways (~200-250 )€ → Multitech Conduit → Lorrier LR2 → The things gateway
  28. 28. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB How to connect Free, community based, LoRa network
  29. 29. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Call for Ideas What would you design?
  30. 30. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB The rise of Edge/Fog computng https://nordicapis.com/what-is-fog-computing/
  31. 31. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB State of the art: challenges 31 To represent the real breakthrough in Cloud and IoT technologies, the Fog needs to be: Reliable and scalable [1] ● Deployment plan of nodes ● Orchestration models ● Nodes interaction control [1] Z. Wen, R. Yang, P. Garraghan, T. Lin, J. Xu, and M. Rovatsos, “Fog orchestration for internet of things services,” 2017.
  32. 32. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB State of the art: challenges To represent the real breakthrough in Cloud and IoT technologies, the Fog needs to be: Secure [2] ● Resistance to attacks ● Trusted authentication systems ● Detection of rogue nodes [2] A. Alrawais, A. Alhothaily, C. Hu, and X. Cheng, “Fog computing for the internet of things: Security and privacy issues,”, 2017.
  33. 33. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB State of the art: challenges Manageable [3] ● Workflow policies ● Data migration ● Scheduling at runtime [3] Z. Hao, E. Novak, S. Yi, and Q. Li, “Challenges and software architecture for fog computing,” 2017. To represent the real breakthrough in Cloud and IoT technologies, the Fog needs to be:
  34. 34. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB FPGAs in the Fog The OpenFog consortium technical reference includes hardware accelerators such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) to: “Provide supplementary computational throughput” and “satisfy both latency and power constraints as it relates to a given scenario” Minimal power consumption and high performance Extreme re-programmability Faster time-to-market and lower costs
  35. 35. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Proposed architecture
  36. 36. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Interacton layer Sensors produces data, Actuators consume it in form of commands, and both communicate with the Mesh Layer above them. The Human-in-the-loop can consume and produce data, and act upon it (e.g. application interaction or physical outcomes). All the elements communicate through wireless protocols (BLE 4.2 in the current deployment)
  37. 37. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Fog node and cloud The Fog Node acts as a central point of communication between the Mesh and the Cloud. It comprises an ARM CPU and an FPGA accelerator (Xilinx Zynq 7000 Architecture) The FPGA circuit can be reprogrammed at runtime to handle specific tasks, like data aggregation from sensors towards the Cloud, or to directly act on physical actuators without the intervention of Cloud computing.
  38. 38. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Call for Ideas What would you design?
  39. 39. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Design for human interacton One basic principle: KISS
  40. 40. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Them?
  41. 41. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Of course not
  42. 42. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Design for human interacton
  43. 43. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Design for human interacton “Interaction design is about shaping digital things for people’s use” (Jonas Lowgren) “An interaction designer must become an expert in how human beings relate to each other, and to the world, and to the changing nature of technology” (Jon Kolko)
  44. 44. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Design thinking process https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/5-stages-in-the-design-thinking-process
  45. 45. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Empathise CHALLENGE ASSUMPTIONS
  46. 46. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Deine https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/stage-2-in-the-design-thinking-process- define-the-problem-and-interpret-the-results
  47. 47. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Ideate Brainstorm, Brainwrite, Worst Possible Idea, SCAMPER
  48. 48. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Prototype INEXPENSIVE, scaled down versions of the product/feature to be analyzed
  49. 49. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Test Pay close attention to the concepts of COGNITIVE FRICTION and OVERLOAD
  50. 50. Luca Cerina, R.A. @ NECSTLab – DEIB Last take away www.shutterstock.com User engagement / Actionable items No direct meaning in the numbers Abandon rate up to 33% after 6 months Jacket1234 @Deviantart Data quality Need for consistency and validation Mean heart rate Insights with low valence→ Kasey McMahon Technology To integrate wearables with multi-task smart ambient devices

2nd class of the SnW Hackathon Internet of Things and enabling technologies

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