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03 2frame Str Steel Jan07sbq&C2213&42


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03 2frame Str Steel Jan07sbq&C2213&42

  2. 2. Steel frame structure
  3. 3. Steel Structure
  4. 4. STEEL STRUCTURES <ul><li>Selain daripada struktur kerangka konkrit, bangunan boleh dibina daripada struktur kerangka keluli. </li></ul><ul><li>Bangunan daripada struktur ini dibina dengan menggunakan Steel Sections tertentu untuk elemen Tiang, Rasuk, dan Lantai. </li></ul><ul><li>Pembinaan lebih teguh dan tinggi serta cepat kerana dibina di kilang. </li></ul><ul><li>Masalah utama adaalh pengkaratan kerana iklim Malaysia yang panas dan lembap serta perlindungan daripada bahaya api kerana keluli akan kehilangan kekuatannya apabila terdedah kepada tindakan bahang api lebih 550  C. (Kebakaran lebih 1000  C) </li></ul><ul><li>Contoh bangunan di Malaysia daripada strukturkeluli adalah Daya Bumi, PNB, The Weld, KLCC Twin Tower (composite) dsb. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Photos of Buildings featuring Steel Framework
  6. 6. Steel Structure <ul><li>Buildings with steel skeletal framework consisting of: </li></ul><ul><li>STEEL SECTIONS </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Hot Rolled Steel Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Castella Beams </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow Steel Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Rolled Steel Sections </li></ul>TYPES OF STEEL SECTIONS
  8. 8. HOT ROLLED STEEL SECTIONS <ul><li>Universal beams </li></ul><ul><li>Joist </li></ul><ul><li>Universal columns </li></ul><ul><li>Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Angels </li></ul><ul><li>T-bars </li></ul>Universal Beam & Column yang paling biasa digunakan. Mengikut Piawai BS 4, Part 1&2
  10. 10. Hot Rolled Steel Section Universal Sections Angle Channel T bars <ul><li>Universal beams </li></ul><ul><li>Joist </li></ul><ul><li>Universal columns </li></ul>Castellated Sections
  11. 12. Universal Beam (I section) T-Bars Channel Angles
  12. 13. CASTELLATED BEAM Built up Section from UC Beam or Joist
  13. 14. Castella beams <ul><li>Formed by flame cutting a standard universal beam or column section </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in depth gives greater resistance to deflection without adding extra weight </li></ul><ul><li>Economical when used to support lightly loaded floor or roof slabs </li></ul>
  15. 18. HOLLOW STEEL SECTION Hollow square steel section Hollow rectangular Steel section Circulars Hollow Steel Section
  16. 19. Hollow steel section <ul><li>Hollow sections are tubes of circular, square or rectangular cross-section. They can also be made from plates or double-T profiles by welding </li></ul><ul><li>Square hollow sections have the advantage that they have the same resistance in the two principal directions, enabling the minimum section dimensions to be obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes hollow sections are filled with concrete, giving an increase in strength and, at the same time, achieving significant fire resistance. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Hollow Rectangular Steel Section
  18. 21. Hollow Rectangular Steel Section
  19. 22. Circular Steel Section
  20. 23. COLD ROLLED STRIP SECTIONS <ul><li>Untuk bangunan rendah kerana ianya lebih ringan dan mudah dari segi pengangkutan. </li></ul>
  21. 24. Cold rolled strip sections <ul><li>manufactured from hot rolled coil that has been chemically cleaned before being rolled. </li></ul><ul><li>reduces the thickness of the steel and at the same time changes the  mechanical properties of the steel. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Channel steel Inwardly turned lip Outwardly turned lip
  23. 26. STEEL STRUCTURE METHODS OF CONNECTIONS <ul><li>Bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Black bolts </li></ul><ul><li>High strength friction bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Rivets </li></ul><ul><li>Welding </li></ul>
  25. 28. Joining steel Members Rivets Bolts Welding
  26. 29. RIVETS <ul><li>Rivets are manufactured from mild steel bars </li></ul><ul><li>Rivets are made from bars by a machine which forms the head and cuts the rivet of the desired length as required. </li></ul><ul><li>The size rivet is the diameter of the shank. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally superseded by bolted and welded connections </li></ul><ul><li>Available as cold or hot forged with a variety of head shapes </li></ul>
  27. 30. Head Shanks Head Shanks RIVETS
  28. 31. RIVETS
  29. 32. BOLT & Nuts
  30. 33. <ul><li>four types of bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Black bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Tension bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Torshear bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Load indicating bolt </li></ul>
  31. 34. Bolts Black Bolt Torshear Bolt Load Indicating Bolt Tension Bolt Nut &Washer
  32. 35. Black bolts <ul><li>The cheapest form of bolt available,the black bolt can be either hot or cold forged,the thread being machined onto the shank. </li></ul><ul><li>BS 4190 for black bolts and nuts for a diameter range of 5 to 68 mm exclusive. </li></ul>HEXAGON HEADED 5 TO 68MM DIAMETER SHANK THREAD
  33. 36. Black Bolt
  34. 37. Tension Bolt Nut &Washer Load Indicating Bolt Torshear Bolt
  35. 38. <ul><li>Steel grade 2 Zinc plated low carbon steel. Best for general hardware </li></ul><ul><li>use where high strength is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel grade 5 Made from medium carbon steel, </li></ul><ul><li>tempered and zinc plated. </li></ul><ul><li>Best for automotive use and other areas where </li></ul><ul><li>higher strength is desired. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel grade 8 Made from medium carbon alloy steel, </li></ul><ul><li>tempered and yellow zinc plated. </li></ul><ul><li>Best suited for applications where high strength and </li></ul><ul><li>hardness is required. </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NUTS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>NUTS </li></ul>Hex nuts Used for fastening to a bolt when mechanically joining materials together Hex machine screw nuts This type refers to nuts used with smaller machine screw sizes under ¼. Prevailing torque lock nuts All metal lock nuts are non-reverseable and often used high temperature applications. more... Square nuts Square nuts, once very common, were mostly replaced by hex nuts.
  38. 41. BOLT & Nuts CONNECTION
  39. 42. WELDING
  40. 43. <ul><li>WELDING </li></ul><ul><li>The basic method of welding are oxy-acetylene and electric arc </li></ul><ul><li>Classify as fillet or butts weld; </li></ul><ul><li>Fillet-used to the edges and end of members. </li></ul><ul><li>Butts-used on chamfered end to end connections. </li></ul>
  42. 45. square bolt weld V’ shaped weld ‘ J’ shaped weld back weld atau surface bead weld
  43. 46. Welding joint
  45. 48. Structural steel connections Column based Beam to column Beam to beam
  46. 49. <ul><li>Column based </li></ul>Strutural steel connections
  47. 50. Column Based CONNECTIOn
  48. 51. Column Based CONNECTIOn
  49. 52. Steel Connection Column-Column Beam-column
  50. 53. Beam to column connection
  51. 54. Beam to column connection column to column connection
  52. 55. Beam to column Universal column Site connection beam beam
  53. 56. <ul><li>Beam to beam </li></ul>Structural steel connections
  54. 57. Universal column Beam to beam connection
  55. 61. <ul><li>Either shop connections and can be made by using bolts , welding or combine.. </li></ul>connections BOLTS WELDING CONNECTIONS COMBINE BOLT AND WELDING
  59. 67. PERLINDUNGAN API UNTUK STRUKTUR KERANGKA KELULI <ul><li>cara-cara melindungi struktur kerangka keluli </li></ul>
  60. 68. PERLINDUNGAN API UNTUK STRUKTUR KERANGKA KELULI <ul><li>Disebabkan keluli akan kehilangan kekuatan secara mendadak, suhunya mencapai lebih 550  C maka perlindungan api bagi struktur kerangka yang dibina daripada keluli adalah sangat penting. </li></ul><ul><li>Di bawah adalah cara-cara yang biasa digunakan untuk melindungi struktur kerangka keluli daripada api kebakaran; </li></ul>
  61. 69. Composite Structure <ul><li>Composite systems utilize both steel and concrete together in ways that neither material predominates over the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation of composite structural systems: </li></ul><ul><li>i. steel frame surrounding concrete core </li></ul><ul><li>ii. steel beams encased in and interacting with concrete enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>iii. steel outrigger beams used with concrete structure. </li></ul>
  62. 70. Photos of Buildings featuring Composite Framework