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03 2frame Str Steel Jan07sbq&C2213&42

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03 2frame Str Steel Jan07sbq&C2213&42

  1. 1. STEEL STRUCTURES
  2. 2. Steel frame structure
  3. 3. Steel Structure
  4. 4. STEEL STRUCTURES <ul><li>Selain daripada struktur kerangka konkrit, bangunan boleh dibina daripada struktur kerangka keluli. </li></ul><ul><li>Bangunan daripada struktur ini dibina dengan menggunakan Steel Sections tertentu untuk elemen Tiang, Rasuk, dan Lantai. </li></ul><ul><li>Pembinaan lebih teguh dan tinggi serta cepat kerana dibina di kilang. </li></ul><ul><li>Masalah utama adaalh pengkaratan kerana iklim Malaysia yang panas dan lembap serta perlindungan daripada bahaya api kerana keluli akan kehilangan kekuatannya apabila terdedah kepada tindakan bahang api lebih 550  C. (Kebakaran lebih 1000  C) </li></ul><ul><li>Contoh bangunan di Malaysia daripada strukturkeluli adalah Daya Bumi, PNB, The Weld, KLCC Twin Tower (composite) dsb. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Photos of Buildings featuring Steel Framework
  6. 6. Steel Structure <ul><li>Buildings with steel skeletal framework consisting of: </li></ul><ul><li>STEEL SECTIONS </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Hot Rolled Steel Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Castella Beams </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow Steel Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Rolled Steel Sections </li></ul>TYPES OF STEEL SECTIONS
  8. 8. HOT ROLLED STEEL SECTIONS <ul><li>Universal beams </li></ul><ul><li>Joist </li></ul><ul><li>Universal columns </li></ul><ul><li>Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Angels </li></ul><ul><li>T-bars </li></ul>Universal Beam & Column yang paling biasa digunakan. Mengikut Piawai BS 4, Part 1&2
  9. 9. STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMES <ul><li>Consists </li></ul>UNIVERSAL BEAMS JOISTS UNIVERSAL COLUMN CHANNELS ANGLES T bars
  10. 10. Hot Rolled Steel Section Universal Sections Angle Channel T bars <ul><li>Universal beams </li></ul><ul><li>Joist </li></ul><ul><li>Universal columns </li></ul>Castellated Sections
  11. 12. Universal Beam (I section) T-Bars Channel Angles
  12. 13. CASTELLATED BEAM Built up Section from UC Beam or Joist
  13. 14. Castella beams <ul><li>Formed by flame cutting a standard universal beam or column section </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in depth gives greater resistance to deflection without adding extra weight </li></ul><ul><li>Economical when used to support lightly loaded floor or roof slabs </li></ul>
  14. 17. CASTELLATED BEAM
  15. 18. HOLLOW STEEL SECTION Hollow square steel section Hollow rectangular Steel section Circulars Hollow Steel Section
  16. 19. Hollow steel section <ul><li>Hollow sections are tubes of circular, square or rectangular cross-section. They can also be made from plates or double-T profiles by welding </li></ul><ul><li>Square hollow sections have the advantage that they have the same resistance in the two principal directions, enabling the minimum section dimensions to be obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes hollow sections are filled with concrete, giving an increase in strength and, at the same time, achieving significant fire resistance. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Hollow Rectangular Steel Section
  18. 21. Hollow Rectangular Steel Section
  19. 22. Circular Steel Section
  20. 23. COLD ROLLED STRIP SECTIONS <ul><li>Untuk bangunan rendah kerana ianya lebih ringan dan mudah dari segi pengangkutan. </li></ul>
  21. 24. Cold rolled strip sections <ul><li>manufactured from hot rolled coil that has been chemically cleaned before being rolled. </li></ul><ul><li>reduces the thickness of the steel and at the same time changes the  mechanical properties of the steel. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Channel steel Inwardly turned lip Outwardly turned lip
  23. 26. STEEL STRUCTURE METHODS OF CONNECTIONS <ul><li>Bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Black bolts </li></ul><ul><li>High strength friction bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Rivets </li></ul><ul><li>Welding </li></ul>
  24. 27. CONNECTING STEEL MEMBERS
  25. 28. Joining steel Members Rivets Bolts Welding
  26. 29. RIVETS <ul><li>Rivets are manufactured from mild steel bars </li></ul><ul><li>Rivets are made from bars by a machine which forms the head and cuts the rivet of the desired length as required. </li></ul><ul><li>The size rivet is the diameter of the shank. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally superseded by bolted and welded connections </li></ul><ul><li>Available as cold or hot forged with a variety of head shapes </li></ul>
  27. 30. Head Shanks Head Shanks RIVETS
  28. 31. RIVETS
  29. 32. BOLT & Nuts
  30. 33. <ul><li>four types of bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Black bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Tension bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Torshear bolts </li></ul><ul><li>Load indicating bolt </li></ul>
  31. 34. Bolts Black Bolt Torshear Bolt Load Indicating Bolt Tension Bolt Nut &Washer
  32. 35. Black bolts <ul><li>The cheapest form of bolt available,the black bolt can be either hot or cold forged,the thread being machined onto the shank. </li></ul><ul><li>BS 4190 for black bolts and nuts for a diameter range of 5 to 68 mm exclusive. </li></ul>HEXAGON HEADED 5 TO 68MM DIAMETER SHANK THREAD
  33. 36. Black Bolt
  34. 37. Tension Bolt Nut &Washer Load Indicating Bolt Torshear Bolt
  35. 38. <ul><li>Steel grade 2 Zinc plated low carbon steel. Best for general hardware </li></ul><ul><li>use where high strength is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel grade 5 Made from medium carbon steel, </li></ul><ul><li>tempered and zinc plated. </li></ul><ul><li>Best for automotive use and other areas where </li></ul><ul><li>higher strength is desired. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel grade 8 Made from medium carbon alloy steel, </li></ul><ul><li>tempered and yellow zinc plated. </li></ul><ul><li>Best suited for applications where high strength and </li></ul><ul><li>hardness is required. </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NUTS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>NUTS </li></ul>Hex nuts Used for fastening to a bolt when mechanically joining materials together Hex machine screw nuts This type refers to nuts used with smaller machine screw sizes under ¼. Prevailing torque lock nuts All metal lock nuts are non-reverseable and often used high temperature applications. more... Square nuts Square nuts, once very common, were mostly replaced by hex nuts.
  38. 41. BOLT & Nuts CONNECTION
  39. 42. WELDING
  40. 43. <ul><li>WELDING </li></ul><ul><li>The basic method of welding are oxy-acetylene and electric arc </li></ul><ul><li>Classify as fillet or butts weld; </li></ul><ul><li>Fillet-used to the edges and end of members. </li></ul><ul><li>Butts-used on chamfered end to end connections. </li></ul>
  41. 44. TYPES OF WELDING
  42. 45. square bolt weld V’ shaped weld ‘ J’ shaped weld back weld atau surface bead weld
  43. 46. Welding joint
  44. 47. WELDED CONNECTIONS
  45. 48. Structural steel connections Column based Beam to column Beam to beam
  46. 49. <ul><li>Column based </li></ul>Strutural steel connections
  47. 50. Column Based CONNECTIOn
  48. 51. Column Based CONNECTIOn
  49. 52. Steel Connection Column-Column Beam-column
  50. 53. Beam to column connection
  51. 54. Beam to column connection column to column connection
  52. 55. Beam to column Universal column Site connection beam beam
  53. 56. <ul><li>Beam to beam </li></ul>Structural steel connections
  54. 57. Universal column Beam to beam connection
  55. 61. <ul><li>Either shop connections and can be made by using bolts , welding or combine.. </li></ul>connections BOLTS WELDING CONNECTIONS COMBINE BOLT AND WELDING
  56. 62. JOINT DETAILS
  57. 64. FIRE PROTECTIONS
  58. 66. WORLD TRADE CENTER-US
  59. 67. PERLINDUNGAN API UNTUK STRUKTUR KERANGKA KELULI <ul><li>cara-cara melindungi struktur kerangka keluli </li></ul>
  60. 68. PERLINDUNGAN API UNTUK STRUKTUR KERANGKA KELULI <ul><li>Disebabkan keluli akan kehilangan kekuatan secara mendadak, suhunya mencapai lebih 550  C maka perlindungan api bagi struktur kerangka yang dibina daripada keluli adalah sangat penting. </li></ul><ul><li>Di bawah adalah cara-cara yang biasa digunakan untuk melindungi struktur kerangka keluli daripada api kebakaran; </li></ul>
  61. 69. Composite Structure <ul><li>Composite systems utilize both steel and concrete together in ways that neither material predominates over the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation of composite structural systems: </li></ul><ul><li>i. steel frame surrounding concrete core </li></ul><ul><li>ii. steel beams encased in and interacting with concrete enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>iii. steel outrigger beams used with concrete structure. </li></ul>
  62. 70. Photos of Buildings featuring Composite Framework

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