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NCompass Live: Bed Bug Biology

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NCompass Live

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NCompass Live: Bed Bug Biology

  1. 1. Bed Bug Biology Opportunistic. Secretive. Bloodsuckers Dr. Jody Green Urban Entomologist jgreen17@unl.edu
  2. 2. Worldwide distribution  Reported in all 50 States  1930-1980 Since 1980  Evolved thicker, waxier exoskeleton  Evolved faster metabolism Insecticide Resistance  Increased travel  Pest control practices  Lack of awareness  Insecticide resistance Why?
  3. 3. J.Green,NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty Human bed bug  Order: Hemiptera/Heteroptera  True bug  Piercing-sucking mouthparts Cimex lectularius Beak
  4. 4. Bed bug identification  Adults 1/4 inch (5mm) long  Oval shape  Dorsoventrally compressed (flattened from the top)  reddish-brown, mahogany J.Green,NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty
  5. 5. Photos:NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty Bed bug identification
  6. 6. Identifying features Vestigial wings Golden hairs 3-segmented beak 4-segmented antennae Photos:T.Myles 1 2 3 4
  7. 7. Traumatic insemination  Male pierces female’s abdominal wall, inseminates into body cavity  Adaptations in female exoskeleton  Sperm travels to ovaries  Sexual conflict between males and femalesPhoto:RickardIgnell,WikimediaCommons
  8. 8. Egg laying capabilities  Female lays eggs individually  Glued to surfaces  Hatch between 7-12 days  200-500 eggs in lifespan J.Green,NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty
  9. 9. Incomplete metamorphosis Egg → nymph → adult ~ 5-6 weeks  Instar is a phase of development  Smaller versions of adult  Undergoes a molt, sheds exoskeleton
  10. 10. Rate of growth and development  Depends on food and temperature  3-4 generations per year  Lifespan 6-12 months  Optimal conditions 70°F - 90°F life cycle 1 month Apple seed Lethal Temps: 0°F for 4 days, >120°F for 30 min J.Green,NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty
  11. 11. When the bug is not a bed bug Bat bug  May feed on humans, but prefer bats  Behavior differences  Treatment differences Eastern bat bug JimKalisch,UNLDepartmentofEntomology
  12. 12. Bed bugs evolved from bat bugs bat bug bed bug Bat bugs J.Green,NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty
  13. 13. Photos:WhitneyCranshaw Blood: A necessity for survival  Locate host by detecting:  Carbon dioxide  Body heat  Human scent  Consume 3x weight  Engorgement 3-12 min.
  14. 14. Blood feeding behavior  Adults feed every 3-5 days  Exposed skin  Inject compounds to aid in feeding  Reaction of host  Itchy, red bumps  Some individuals do not react J.Green,NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty
  15. 15. Post meal behavior: Rest and digest  After blood meal Rests up to a week Digests blood Molts or lays eggs  Hitchhike on “stuff” to other areas  Aggregate new host resting areas J.Green,NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty
  16. 16. Adults and nymphs live together  Emit strong odor  Harborage contains: Fecal stains Eggs Shed exoskeletons or skins Live bugs Photo:A.Taisey
  17. 17. Check bed and surrounding areas J.Green,NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty
  18. 18. Infestations close to humans Photos:NebraskaExtensioninLancasterCounty
  19. 19. Unwelcomed house guests Photo:JimKalisch
  20. 20. Now the library is involved Photo:JimKalisch

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