Polio presentation 1

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Polio presentation 1

  1. 1. Poliomyelitis By: Neal T. Gregus
  2. 2. What is Poliomyelitis  Poliomyelitis is caused by the Poliovirus  Poliovirus= form of Enterovirus that affects humans, mammals.  Enteroviruses: spread primarily through the fecal-oral route (contact with feces somehow)  Children at highest risk.  Symptoms appear similar to common cold: difficult to diagnose early on.
  3. 3. History Of Polio  Ancient Egypt  England- Michael Underwood- 1789  “debility of lower extremities”>”HeineMedin disease”>”infantile paralysis”  Due to propensity to more commonly affect children
  4. 4. Causes & Transmission  More prevalent in warmer climates/ summer  Transmitted through fecal-oral route.  Most cases- Parent-to-Child due to close proximity, also unsanitary water.  Temporarily inhabits gastrointestinal tract, due to how contracted  Highly contagious during incubation period (6-20 days)
  5. 5. Effects of Transmission o 95% cases- Asymptomatic o 4%-8%- non-paralytic aseptic meningitis o 1%- Paralytic Polio: 3 types o Spinal (PV1), Bulbospinal (PV2), Bulbar (PV3) o Spinal- most closely associated w/ paralysis o 1/200 cases paralytic o 1/1,000 infant cases & 1/75 adult cases of polio.
  6. 6. Outbreaks & Outcomes  First global outbreaks: 1900’s- caused by increase sanitation.  Previous - common to contract Poliovirus as child but not see side-effects - latent immunization through constant exposure created immunity boost.  Increased populations allowed greater spread of infection.
  7. 7. Outbreaks & Outcomes Cont’d.  Infection age rose:  6 months- 4 yrs > 5-9 yrs.  Greater amount of paralytic polio due to age.  No prevalent hereditary links/suseptibility differences = difficult to diagnose  No vaccine developed  Wreaked havoc for 1st half of 20th Century
  8. 8. Race for a Cure  Increased Polio outbreaks forced need for a cure.  President Roosevelt- contracted Paralytic polio in mid 20’s. Founds National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1938.  World War II = on hold.  1952- greatest U.S. outbreak on record  58,000 reported cases  22,000 paralyzed & 4,000 killed.  1955: Salk & Sabin discover vaccines
  9. 9. Effects of Vaccination  Vaccination reported near 100% immunity  The WHO (World Health Organization) set out for global eradication in 1988.  350,000 cases in 1988 > 1,310 cases in 2007  99% decrease  Job not done  Still exists in India, Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan.
  10. 10. Where is the Future of Polio? • Difficulty in eradication caused by: • Re-infection from unvaccinated countries (25 from 2003-2005). • Civil War in Countries • Religious beliefs. • Threat of future endemic as virus still exists as long as polio exists anywhere in world.

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