Applied Administrative Law: Water Law


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An exploration of federal water law focusing on how to search regulatory law and executive orders.

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Applied Administrative Law: Water Law

  1. 1. Applied Administrative Law: Water Law Neal R. Axton, Information Resources Energy Saving Template
  2. 2. Water Law <ul><ul><li>Will I be tested over this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface of statutes, regulations, cases, politics & public policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why water law? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Water Quality <ul><li>EPA's most recent assessment of the nation's water quality…lists just under half of the assessed rivers and lakes as “impaired” … EPA's lowest classification. </li></ul><ul><li>- Christopher H. Schroeder, Global Warming and the Problem of Policy Innovation: Lessons from the Early Environmental Movement , 39 ENVTL. L. 285, 287 (2009)(citations omitted). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cyclical Nature of Law Congress Legislation & Codification Executive (President) Veto & Signing Statements Executive (Agencies) Regulation & Enforcement Judiciary Interpretation & Gap Filling
  5. 5. Cyclical Nature of Law Congress Legislation & Codification Executive (President) Executive Orders Executive (Agencies) Formal & Informal Rule-Making Judiciary Injunctions & Invalidation
  6. 6. Informal Rule-making Process <ul><li>Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Comment Period </li></ul><ul><li>Final Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Variations on a theme </li></ul>
  7. 7.
  8. 8. GSA Regulatory Help: Reginfo.Gov
  9. 9. Watersheds <ul><li>Watershed: The area of land from which rainfall (and/or snow melt) drains into a single point. Watersheds are also sometimes referred to as drainage basins or drainage areas. </li></ul><ul><li> - North Carolina State University Soil Management Glossary, </li></ul>
  10. 10. Watershed Central <ul><li>EPA - Agency Website’s Educational Features </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Twin Cities Watershed
  12. 12. Modernity
  13. 13. Modern Problems, Modern Solutions <ul><li>Clean Water Act is Congress’ aptly-named water pollution control measure </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Water Act of 1977, aka CWA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Law 95-217 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codified at 33 USC 1251 et seq. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CWA amended and strengthened the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Public Law 80-845, 62 Stat.1155 (1948). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Citation Review <ul><li>Public Law (Pub. Law or Pub. L. or P.L.) </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes At Large (Stat.) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Law 80-845, 62 Stat.1155 (1948) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Law 80-845 was 845 th law adopted by 80 th Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>It is published in the Statutes at Large in Volume 62 on Page 1155 </li></ul><ul><li>Public Law 80-845 became law in 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that Congresses span two calendar years. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Long Legislative Interest <ul><li>The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899: 30 Stat. 1151 </li></ul><ul><li>Public Health Service Act of 1912: 37 Stat. 309 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Pollution Act of 1924: 43 Stat.604 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thinking it Through <ul><li>Why use Statutes at Large versus public law number? </li></ul><ul><li>Why use Statutes at Large versus United States Code ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why not use United States Code Annotated ? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cyclical Nature of Law Congress Legislation & Codification Executive (President) Executive Orders Executive (Agencies) Formal & Informal Rule-Making Judiciary Construction of the Law
  18. 18. Clean Water Act: Impetus for Industry <ul><li>US v. Republic Steel , 362 U.S. 482 (1960) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 16 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 aka Refuse Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No refuse discharged into waterways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Suspended Solids” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal Liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounty to Whistleblowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of Courts and Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial Activism? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Public Impetus <ul><li>Santa Barbara Offshore Oil Spill – 11 days in 1969, killed 1000s of birds </li></ul><ul><li>Cuyahoga River Conflagration </li></ul><ul><li>Cleveland, Ohio on June 22, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Long History of Fires </li></ul><ul><li>Drains into Lake Erie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 square mile surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>119 cubic miles </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cyclical Nature of Law Congress Legislation Executive (President) Executive Orders Executive (Agencies) Formal & Informal Rule-Making Judiciary Construction of the Law
  21. 21. 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act <ul><li>Game Changer </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Scheme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitting of Point Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe Harbor for Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Waters </li></ul><ul><li>Waters of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction and Enforcement </li></ul>
  22. 22. Federal Pollution Control Act <ul><li>Reflects Congressional Practice to Amend Previous Enactments, Updated Version: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Water Pollution Control Act </li></ul><ul><li>As Amended Through Public Law 107-303 </li></ul><ul><li>Amendment versus Revision </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1972 blends into 1977 <ul><li>Federal Water Pollution Control Act amended again in 1977 by the “official” Clean Water Act, PL 95-217 </li></ul><ul><li>More amendments to come… </li></ul>
  24. 24. Memes & Memory <ul><li>Popular Names </li></ul><ul><li>Populist Names </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Water Act </li></ul>
  25. 29. Popular Name
  26. 30. Keeping it all straight
  27. 32. 1972 Amendment
  28. 33. Tracking the Amendments <ul><li>Perplexing at Times </li></ul><ul><li>Drafter’s Choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amend United States Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amend prior enactment (session law) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of Art </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul>
  29. 34. Comparative Codification <ul><li>Session Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutes at Large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enactments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House Bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate Bills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Codification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States Code (Statutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code of Federal Regulations (Regulations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minnesota Statutes (Statutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minnesota Rules (Regulations) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. Cyclical Nature of Law Congress Legislation & Codification Executive (President) Executive Orders Executive (Agencies) Informal Rule-Making: Federal Register & CFR Judiciary Injunctions & Invalidation
  31. 36. Historical, Administrative Research
  32. 37. CFR as it changed year to year
  33. 39. Federal Register Library
  34. 41. Find by Date
  35. 42. Clean Water <ul><li>Everything that man himself injects into the biosphere - chemical, biological or physical - can ultimately find its way into the earth's water. And these contaminants must be removed, by nature or by man, before that water is again potable. </li></ul><ul><li>- Charles C. Johnson, Jr., Asst. Surgeon General </li></ul>
  36. 43. <ul><li>Water Quality Standards (WQS) </li></ul><ul><li>Designated Uses (DU) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher use = cleaner water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking, Swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing, Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower Use = more polluted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Transfer </li></ul></ul>1972 CWA Innovations
  37. 44. Multiple Designated Uses <ul><li>Source: </li></ul>
  38. 45. 1972 CWA Innovations <ul><li>National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System </li></ul><ul><li>Permits Required to Discharge Waste Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factory Discharge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage Discharge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedlot Discharge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Discharge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Exempted by Statute from NPDES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Point Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fertiliser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbicide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insecticide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Grey Area: Irrigation Return Flows, exempted </li></ul>
  39. 46. 1972 Clean Water Act Highlights <ul><li>Section 101: Goal – No Toxic Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Section 102: Comprehensive Pollution Control Plan with water quality standards, effluent & thermal discharge regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Section 103: Interstate Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Section 104: Research, Documentation, Mitigation, Restoration & Training </li></ul><ul><li>Section 105: Grants for Research & Development </li></ul>
  40. 47. Highlights of CWA <ul><li>Section 303 & 307 – EPA defines pollutants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1972 law gave EPA 90 days to define </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA missed deadline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once pollutants identified, States implement Total Maximum [Waste] Daily Loads </li></ul><ul><li>State TDMLs to be approved by EPA </li></ul><ul><li>If not approved, EPA to create TDML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Section 402 takeover provision) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No staffing for EPA to set TDMLs </li></ul>
  41. 48. Non-Point Sources <ul><li>Section 208 of Clean Water Act </li></ul><ul><li>Section 319 added by Water Quality Act, 109 Stat. 727 (1987) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State-wide Non-Point Source (NPS) Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Management Practices (BMPs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer Exemption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation Returns exempted by statute </li></ul></ul>
  42. 49. Division of Power and Responsibility <ul><li>Section 402 – National Pollution Discharge Elimination System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility Standards for Effluents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1972 law did not envision allowing polluted discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Section 404 – Dredge and Fill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corps of Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 vetoes in 160,000 permits* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Kenneth M. Murchison, Learning from Five-and-a-Half Decades of Federal Water Pollution Control Legislation: Twenty Lessons for the Future , 32 B.C. ENVTL. AFF. L. REV. 527 n. 209 (2005) citing Oliver A. Houck, Hard Choices: The Analysis of Alternatives Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and Similar Environmental Laws, 60 U. COLO. L. REV. 773, 790 (1989) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 50. Clean Water Act Highlights <ul><li>Section 401 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established Water Quality Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitted Use and Discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loans for Water Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Section 402 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implements National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System for point sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA compiles all final rules: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Section 404 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dredging & Filling Permits: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corps of Engineers & EPA Vetoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Empowerment </li></ul></ul>
  44. 51. A Fistful of Regulations <ul><li>Pollutant Discharge Regulations at 40 CFR Part 122 et al. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1978, EPA sought to consolidate permit program requirements for five major programs: </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Waste Management program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). </li></ul><ul><li>The Underground Injection Control (UIC) program under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). </li></ul><ul><li>The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program under the Clean Water Act (CWA). </li></ul><ul><li>State Dredge or Fill (&quot;404&quot;) programs under the Clean Water Act (CWA). </li></ul><ul><li>The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program under the Clean Air Act (CAA). </li></ul>
  45. 52. NPDES Proposed Rule’s Preamble - 1978
  46. 53. Final Rule – NPDES Preamble
  47. 54. Consolidation of Regulations
  48. 55. Reduce Overlap
  49. 56. Jimmy!
  50. 57. Executive Orders in the Code of Federal Regulations <ul><li>Published for current year ONLY </li></ul><ul><li>Title 3 of CFR </li></ul><ul><li>Historically in Federal Register </li></ul><ul><li>Collections of Presidential Papers </li></ul><ul><li>My favorite site for Executive Orders: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul>
  51. 59. Disposition Table
  52. 60. Busy Years
  53. 61. Updating the Law
  54. 63. Regulatory Agenda <ul><li>What do agencies plan to regulate in the next six months </li></ul><ul><li>What regulations need updated </li></ul><ul><li>Notice </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Warning to Counsel </li></ul><ul><li>Back to our story… </li></ul>
  55. 64. Final Rule – Consolidated Permits
  56. 66. <ul><li>Natural Resources Defense Council v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency et al., 673 F.2d 392 (1980). </li></ul>
  57. 67. Cyclical Nature of Law Congress Delegate Power to Agency Executive (President) Executive Orders Executive (Agencies) Formal & Informal Rule-Making Judiciary Ensure Agencies do not exceed authority
  58. 68. 1972 CWA <ul><li>Required List of Pollutants within 90 Days </li></ul><ul><li>Agency Misses Deadline </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens Suits </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative Enforcement Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Why did EPA not heed Congress’ will? </li></ul>
  59. 69. Cyclical Nature of Law Congress Delegate Power to Agency Executive (President) Executive Orders Executive (Agencies) Implement Congress’ Vision Judiciary Ensure Agencies do not exceed authority
  60. 70. 1987 Amendments to the CWA <ul><li>NPDES Augmented </li></ul><ul><li>Storm Water Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>TDML morphs into Maximum Extent Possible (MEP) </li></ul>
  61. 71. Storm Water Runoff <ul><li>Impervious Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flagstones </li></ul></ul>
  62. 72. Modernity
  63. 73. Circumvention <ul><li>Industrial Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storm Drains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal Dumping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials exposed to elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washes away </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used motor oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shade Tree Mechanics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Down the drain… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 75. Stormwater Runoff Pollution <ul><li>StormWater, Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Industrial Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Cities of 100,000 or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Cities of 250,000 or more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Rule found at 53 FR 49416 </li></ul><ul><li>Final Rule found at 55 Fed. Reg. 47990 (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Codified at 40 CFR parts 122, 123, 124 </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as a Section 402(p) permit </li></ul>
  65. 76. Preamble – Unique to Final Rule Consent Decree
  66. 77. Proposed Rule
  67. 78. More Storm Water Regulation <ul><li>Phase II </li></ul><ul><li>Small Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Under 100,000 residents </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Rule 63 FR 1536 (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Final Rule 64 Fed. Reg. 68, 722 (1999) </li></ul>
  68. 79. Law & Economics <ul><li>Designated Uses reflects society’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Balance needs of all users </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage beneficial use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior Allocation Rule at Common Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Law abrogated by Statute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be useful when statutes ambiguous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Law in a Nutshell </li></ul></ul>
  69. 81. Cost-Benefit Analysis
  70. 82. The Seventh Generation <ul><li>Cost-Benefit Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Value of Potable Water </li></ul><ul><li>The perfect should not be the enemy of the good </li></ul><ul><li>Water as a Human Right </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming in Deep Water </li></ul><ul><li>Water Wars </li></ul><ul><li>California Dreaming </li></ul>
  71. 83. Searching for Government Information
  72. 84. Businesses and Non-Profits… NGOs
  73. 85. Laws and Regulations Link from Business Tab
  74. 86. Tabs for the search box!
  75. 87. Dual Display
  76. 88. Clustered Results by Vivisimo
  77. 90. From TDML cluster or folder
  78. 93. Narrow your Google Universe <ul><li> </li></ul>
  79. 94. New Topic: Drinking Water <ul><li>Safety Drinking Water Act of 1974: Pub. L. 93-523, codified at 21 USCS § 349 (FDA); 42 USCS §§ 201 , 300f -- 300j-9 (EPA). </li></ul><ul><li>SDWA Amdmts of 1977: P. L. 95-190, 42 USCS §§ 300f </li></ul><ul><li>SDWA Amdmts of 1986: P. L. 99-339, 42 USCS §§ 300f , 300g-1 et seq., 300h et seq., 300i , 300i-1 , 300j et seq. </li></ul><ul><li>SDWA Amdmts of 1996, P. L. 104-182, 110 Stat. 1613 codified at 42 USC 300 and 21 USC 349 </li></ul><ul><li>SDWA Amdmts of 2000, P. L. 106-457, 33 USCS § 1263a , Grants to Alaska to improve sanitation in rural and Native villages </li></ul>
  80. 95. Maximum Contaminant Levels <ul><li>40 CFR 141 details limits for: </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfectants </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection Byproducts </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Radionuclides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See </li></ul></ul>
  81. 96. Secondary Drinking Water Standards <ul><li>40 CFR Part 143 defines limits: </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum.................................. 0.05 to 0.2 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride.................................. 250 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>Color..................................... 15 color units. </li></ul><ul><li>Copper.................................... 1.0 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosivity............................... Non-corrosive. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoride.................................. 2.0 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>Foaming agents............................ 0.5 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron...................................... 0.3 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>Manganese................................. 0.05 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>Odor...................................... 3 threshold odor number. </li></ul><ul><li>pH........................................ 6.5-8.5. </li></ul><ul><li>Silver.................................... 0.1 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfate................................... 250 mg/l. </li></ul>
  82. 97. Balancing the Needs <ul><li>Potable Water </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking Water </li></ul><ul><li>Recreational Use </li></ul><ul><li>Fishable Water </li></ul><ul><li>Swimmable Water </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Use </li></ul>
  83. 98. Pending Legislation <ul><li> </li></ul>