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Climate justice and tourism




© EED Tourism Watch
Disaster prevention, climate change and tourism

 as a follow-up of the Tsunami 2004 in Southeast
                        Asia
 accompanying lobby and advocacy activities on
                       ECOTs
„Disaster prevention, protection and management
                     programme


                on behalf of
  German Church Development Service (EED)
           - TOURISM WATCH -

           and their partner the
   ECUMENICAL COALITION ON TOURISM
Climate change and tourism
• Tourism is not just a potential victim of climate change. It
 also contributes to its causes.
Climate impact of tourism
• UNWTO: 5% of global emissions caused by tourism, calculating that
 aviation causes 3% of global emissions

• Scientific evidence points towards more serious impacts. Aviation
 causes up to 14 % of global emissions (Lee et al, 2009)

• On long-haul trips: 97% emissions are caused only by the flight

• Air travel has massive growth rates: By 2050 air travel is expected to
 contribute 25% of global emissions if business as usual

• Massive expansion of airports and low-cost carrier
UNWTO Forecast: Tourism 2020 Vision
Global Tourism Emissions
                         in 2005: CO2
   Sub-Sectors              CO2 (Mt)

         Air transport *      522      40%        Transportation
         Car transport        418      32%
                                                  of Tourists = 75%
                                                  of Sector Emissions
        Other transport       39       3%
      Accommodation           274      21%
               Activities     52       4%
                                                  * - does not include
TOTAL                        1,307
                                                  non-CO2 emissions
Total World                                       and impact on climate
 (IPCC 2007)                26,400

Tourism
Contribution                 4.95%
                                       Source: UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008
‘Business as Usual’ Projection of
                 Future CO2 Emissions from Tourism

          3500

          3000

          2500                                     Air Transport
                                     52%           Car Transport
 Mt CO2




          2000
                                                   Other Transport
          1500
                                     16%           Accommodation
          1000      40%                            Activities
                    32%              25%
          500
                    21%         4%          7%
            0

                   2005              2035


* Excluding same-day visitors        Source: UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008
The impact of climate change
              on developing countries
 Developing countries do not have the possibilities and funds to adapt
 to climate change
 We are drifting into a world of 'adaptation apartheid'.
 (Desmond Tutu, Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, South Africa.)

Climate Justice in Numbers:
• Oxfam estimates: Developing countries need 50 billion US-Dollars p/a
  only for adaptation if emissions are not reduced
• NGO Treaty Group: To help developing countries adapt to climate
  change, the 'treaty' calls for new and additional finance of the
  magnitude of at least $160 billion p/a (between 2013-2017)
• Copenhagen Accord: kick off with $US10 billion p/a (2010-2012) 2012
  -2020 climbing up to $US100 billion
The injustice of climate change and tourism

                    • 98% of the world population
                        does not fly
                    •   Most flights are taken for holiday
                        reasons

                    • Our concerns:
                         – the sector becomes
                           increasingly more energy
                           intense.
                         – Tourism might increase
                           conflicts in developing
                           countries re land use, water
                           consumption etc (small
                           islands, arid areas)
Actions taken by the industry

„Much will eventually come from the private sector with its appetite for
  innovation“ UNWTO

• Mitigation → no change in travel behaviour, growing flight numbers
• Adaptation → tourism adapts to new climate
• Inventing new technologies → new technology will not reduce carbon
    emissions
•   Carbon offsetting in tourism → on a voluntary market, air passengers
    pay the equivalent money to compensate the emissions caused by a
    flight by donating into renewable energy projects (less than 1 % of all
    air travellers)

Conclusion:
Industry did not show much appetite up to now on voluntary basis
Tackling emissions on policy level

• Global emissions are addressed by the UNFCCC
• Emissions from global tourism are not addressed, but only
  from aviation and shipping (so called bunker fuels,
  account for approx. 10% of global emissions)
• While the largest carbon emissions are legaly regulated in
  the Kyoto Protocol, the bunker emissions do not underlie
  legal regulations
• Under the Kyoto Protocol, responsibility for bunker
  emissions handed to ICAO and IMO, Article 2.2.
• Miserable failure of IMO and ICAO
Tourism and the UNFCCC

• Tourism within the UNFCCC process
   • Appears when negotiating the bunkers (emission from
     aviation and shipping)
   • ´Spill-over effects` – binding climate policies have not
     to derogate tourism as a development motor for poor
     countries (argument by UNWTO and tourism
     depending countries)
            →     undifferentiated debate about the
            profit of poor countries from international
            tourism
            →     reason for tourism critical groups to
            get involved into the UNFCCC process
Myths spill-over effects

• If growth rate of British air travel till 2025 would
 stagnate on 2009 level, it would mean eg for
 Kenya a lost of 0,09% of GNP p/a.


(Plane truths - Do the economic arguments for aviation growth really fly? (2008)
  World Development Movements)
UNWTO within UNFCCC

• Official position: Tourism will be at the leading edge of the global
    response to climate change, coherent with the Millennium
    Development Goals.
•   UNWTO is taking questionable role within UNFCCC
      • UNWTOs main argument and focus is to avoid „spill over effects“
•   Critical debate is missing:
    →Tourism - a development motor for poor countries?

• New concerns about UNWTOs climate policies and requests:
    “Some Clean Development Mechanism and Emissions Trading
    projects and trading revenues to be earmarked for specified allotment
    to related aviation and tourism projects, including financial and other
    incentives for the earliest possible global introduction of sustainable
    aviation biofuels”
About sustainable aviation biofuels

If tourism uses agrofuels
on high commercial
level, new problems will
occur re land use, water
shortage, food security
Tourism critical groups involved
                         • 09/2008, World
                          Tourism Day, Lima
                          workshop
                          „changing the
                          atmosphere in
                          tourism“

                         • 04/2009 –
                          Mailinggroup:
                          "climate change,
                          tourism and
                          development"
                          <tourismclimate@li
                          sten.jpberlin.de>
Tourism critical groups involved
                     Copenhagen process
                     • 07/2009, Berlin, meeting
                       with a working group
                       from the North

                     • 10/2009, South
                      Consultative Meeting by
                      Ecumenical Coalition On
                      Tourism during the
                      UNFCCC Climate Talks,
                      Bangkok

                     • 12/2009, Side event
                      „Climate justice and
                      tourism“ during
                      UNFCCC, COP 15,
                      Copenhagen
NGOs demand..

• Continue the process with tourism critical groups and voices
• Enhance the debate around climate protection in tourism
    beyond CO2-reduction measures
•   No increasing growth rates, but fair distribution of revenues
•   Reducing flow of foreign exchange, diversified economies etc.
•   Binding regulations for emissions from aviation and shipping
•   Avoid that tourism is used as an excuse against climate
    protection measures!
•   Beyond binding regulations, promote climate protection
    measures as part of holistic CSR strategies

               Conclusion:
               → Tourism is debated on a very low level
               → It is essential to bring tourism critical groups into
                      the UNFCCC process
Other groups and networks
• Climate Action Network is a worldwide network of roughly 500 Non-
    Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working to promote government
    and individual action
•   Third World Network (not part of CAN)- is an independent non-profit
    international network of organisations and individuals involved in issues
    relating to development, Third World and North-South affairs.
•   GenderCC - Women for Climate Justice is a global network of women
    and gender activists and experts from all world regions working for
    gender and climate justice
•   The Climate Alliance of European Cities with the Indigenous Rainforest
    Peoples / Alianza del Clima e. V. is Europe's largest city network
•   Climate Justice Now - A network of organisations and movements from
    across the globe committed to the fight for social, ecological and gender
    justice (part of CAN)
•   Climate Justice Action - is a new global network of people and groups
    committed to take the urgent actions needed to avoid catastrophic
    climate change (open network, not CAN).
Thank you!

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Climate justice and tourism: Addressing the impacts of climate change

  • 1. Climate justice and tourism © EED Tourism Watch
  • 2. Disaster prevention, climate change and tourism as a follow-up of the Tsunami 2004 in Southeast Asia accompanying lobby and advocacy activities on ECOTs „Disaster prevention, protection and management programme on behalf of German Church Development Service (EED) - TOURISM WATCH - and their partner the ECUMENICAL COALITION ON TOURISM
  • 3. Climate change and tourism • Tourism is not just a potential victim of climate change. It also contributes to its causes.
  • 4. Climate impact of tourism • UNWTO: 5% of global emissions caused by tourism, calculating that aviation causes 3% of global emissions • Scientific evidence points towards more serious impacts. Aviation causes up to 14 % of global emissions (Lee et al, 2009) • On long-haul trips: 97% emissions are caused only by the flight • Air travel has massive growth rates: By 2050 air travel is expected to contribute 25% of global emissions if business as usual • Massive expansion of airports and low-cost carrier
  • 6. Global Tourism Emissions in 2005: CO2 Sub-Sectors CO2 (Mt) Air transport * 522 40% Transportation Car transport 418 32% of Tourists = 75% of Sector Emissions Other transport 39 3% Accommodation 274 21% Activities 52 4% * - does not include TOTAL 1,307 non-CO2 emissions Total World and impact on climate (IPCC 2007) 26,400 Tourism Contribution 4.95% Source: UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008
  • 7. ‘Business as Usual’ Projection of Future CO2 Emissions from Tourism 3500 3000 2500 Air Transport 52% Car Transport Mt CO2 2000 Other Transport 1500 16% Accommodation 1000 40% Activities 32% 25% 500 21% 4% 7% 0 2005 2035 * Excluding same-day visitors Source: UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008
  • 8. The impact of climate change on developing countries Developing countries do not have the possibilities and funds to adapt to climate change We are drifting into a world of 'adaptation apartheid'. (Desmond Tutu, Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, South Africa.) Climate Justice in Numbers: • Oxfam estimates: Developing countries need 50 billion US-Dollars p/a only for adaptation if emissions are not reduced • NGO Treaty Group: To help developing countries adapt to climate change, the 'treaty' calls for new and additional finance of the magnitude of at least $160 billion p/a (between 2013-2017) • Copenhagen Accord: kick off with $US10 billion p/a (2010-2012) 2012 -2020 climbing up to $US100 billion
  • 9. The injustice of climate change and tourism • 98% of the world population does not fly • Most flights are taken for holiday reasons • Our concerns: – the sector becomes increasingly more energy intense. – Tourism might increase conflicts in developing countries re land use, water consumption etc (small islands, arid areas)
  • 10. Actions taken by the industry „Much will eventually come from the private sector with its appetite for innovation“ UNWTO • Mitigation → no change in travel behaviour, growing flight numbers • Adaptation → tourism adapts to new climate • Inventing new technologies → new technology will not reduce carbon emissions • Carbon offsetting in tourism → on a voluntary market, air passengers pay the equivalent money to compensate the emissions caused by a flight by donating into renewable energy projects (less than 1 % of all air travellers) Conclusion: Industry did not show much appetite up to now on voluntary basis
  • 11. Tackling emissions on policy level • Global emissions are addressed by the UNFCCC • Emissions from global tourism are not addressed, but only from aviation and shipping (so called bunker fuels, account for approx. 10% of global emissions) • While the largest carbon emissions are legaly regulated in the Kyoto Protocol, the bunker emissions do not underlie legal regulations • Under the Kyoto Protocol, responsibility for bunker emissions handed to ICAO and IMO, Article 2.2. • Miserable failure of IMO and ICAO
  • 12. Tourism and the UNFCCC • Tourism within the UNFCCC process • Appears when negotiating the bunkers (emission from aviation and shipping) • ´Spill-over effects` – binding climate policies have not to derogate tourism as a development motor for poor countries (argument by UNWTO and tourism depending countries) → undifferentiated debate about the profit of poor countries from international tourism → reason for tourism critical groups to get involved into the UNFCCC process
  • 13. Myths spill-over effects • If growth rate of British air travel till 2025 would stagnate on 2009 level, it would mean eg for Kenya a lost of 0,09% of GNP p/a. (Plane truths - Do the economic arguments for aviation growth really fly? (2008) World Development Movements)
  • 14. UNWTO within UNFCCC • Official position: Tourism will be at the leading edge of the global response to climate change, coherent with the Millennium Development Goals. • UNWTO is taking questionable role within UNFCCC • UNWTOs main argument and focus is to avoid „spill over effects“ • Critical debate is missing: →Tourism - a development motor for poor countries? • New concerns about UNWTOs climate policies and requests: “Some Clean Development Mechanism and Emissions Trading projects and trading revenues to be earmarked for specified allotment to related aviation and tourism projects, including financial and other incentives for the earliest possible global introduction of sustainable aviation biofuels”
  • 15. About sustainable aviation biofuels If tourism uses agrofuels on high commercial level, new problems will occur re land use, water shortage, food security
  • 16. Tourism critical groups involved • 09/2008, World Tourism Day, Lima workshop „changing the atmosphere in tourism“ • 04/2009 – Mailinggroup: "climate change, tourism and development" <tourismclimate@li sten.jpberlin.de>
  • 17. Tourism critical groups involved Copenhagen process • 07/2009, Berlin, meeting with a working group from the North • 10/2009, South Consultative Meeting by Ecumenical Coalition On Tourism during the UNFCCC Climate Talks, Bangkok • 12/2009, Side event „Climate justice and tourism“ during UNFCCC, COP 15, Copenhagen
  • 18. NGOs demand.. • Continue the process with tourism critical groups and voices • Enhance the debate around climate protection in tourism beyond CO2-reduction measures • No increasing growth rates, but fair distribution of revenues • Reducing flow of foreign exchange, diversified economies etc. • Binding regulations for emissions from aviation and shipping • Avoid that tourism is used as an excuse against climate protection measures! • Beyond binding regulations, promote climate protection measures as part of holistic CSR strategies Conclusion: → Tourism is debated on a very low level → It is essential to bring tourism critical groups into the UNFCCC process
  • 19. Other groups and networks • Climate Action Network is a worldwide network of roughly 500 Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working to promote government and individual action • Third World Network (not part of CAN)- is an independent non-profit international network of organisations and individuals involved in issues relating to development, Third World and North-South affairs. • GenderCC - Women for Climate Justice is a global network of women and gender activists and experts from all world regions working for gender and climate justice • The Climate Alliance of European Cities with the Indigenous Rainforest Peoples / Alianza del Clima e. V. is Europe's largest city network • Climate Justice Now - A network of organisations and movements from across the globe committed to the fight for social, ecological and gender justice (part of CAN) • Climate Justice Action - is a new global network of people and groups committed to take the urgent actions needed to avoid catastrophic climate change (open network, not CAN).