Unit 5<br />Experience as knowledge<br />Data-oriented methods and structure<br />
Four paradigms<br />
Empiricism: a theory of knowledge that  says knowledge is gained through experience<br />Interpretative theory: a theory o...
Last week<br />Theory-ladenness<br />demarcation<br />Confirmation<br />Falsification<br />Paradigms<br />Non-scientific f...
Theory-ladenness of data<br />Data is infected with theory<br />Your worldview influences your theory<br />So your worldvi...
From theory to data<br />
August Comte (1798-1857): Positivism<br />
Positivism<br />Understanding the laws that control social reality<br />Empirical approach, confirming theory with data<br />
Structural functionalism<br />
Structural functionalism<br />Society is a whole, a structure<br />All parts of the structure are interrelated e.g. everyt...
Émile Durkheim (1858-1917)<br />
Social facts:<br />are external to the actor<br />are to be studied empirically, not philosophically<br />Invisible, only ...
Example:<br />Crime <br />is part of the social structure <br />releases social tensions<br />Is functional<br />
analogies<br />The human body as analogy for the state<br />The human body as analogy for a company<br />
Criticism<br />Tautological<br />Deterministic<br />Without context (historical, cultural etc.)<br />Uncritical of society...
Tautological character of structural functionalism<br />Every part of a structure has a function<br />The function of ever...
Determinism<br />
Determinism<br />There is no agency<br />Individuals are seen from a distance and have no free will<br />
Uncritical and without context<br />If poverty, racism, sexism etc. exist, they must have a function<br />This supports th...
Countering criticism<br />Karl Popper revisited<br />
Combining functionalism with falsification<br />Base theory on empirical research<br />Make conjectures<br />Falsify theor...
From data to theory<br />
Grounded theory<br />From data to theory<br />Qualitative<br />Generalisable results<br />
criticism<br />Naïve, it is impossible to free yourself from pre-conceptions<br />
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Unit 4. Experience as knowledge

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Unit 4. Experience as knowledge [Philosophy of Science]

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Unit 4. Experience as knowledge

  1. 1. Unit 5<br />Experience as knowledge<br />Data-oriented methods and structure<br />
  2. 2. Four paradigms<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Empiricism: a theory of knowledge that says knowledge is gained through experience<br />Interpretative theory: a theory of knowledge which aims at understanding rather than fact gathering<br />Critical theory: theories aimed at both understanding (knowledge)and critiquing society<br />Postmodernism: postmodern thinkers question the idea of a single truth<br />
  5. 5. Last week<br />Theory-ladenness<br />demarcation<br />Confirmation<br />Falsification<br />Paradigms<br />Non-scientific factors influencing science<br />
  6. 6. Theory-ladenness of data<br />Data is infected with theory<br />Your worldview influences your theory<br />So your worldview affects results<br />
  7. 7. From theory to data<br />
  8. 8. August Comte (1798-1857): Positivism<br />
  9. 9. Positivism<br />Understanding the laws that control social reality<br />Empirical approach, confirming theory with data<br />
  10. 10. Structural functionalism<br />
  11. 11. Structural functionalism<br />Society is a whole, a structure<br />All parts of the structure are interrelated e.g. everything has a function<br />Dysfunction leads to disequilibrium and therefore to change<br />macro-level research<br />
  12. 12. Émile Durkheim (1858-1917)<br />
  13. 13. Social facts:<br />are external to the actor<br />are to be studied empirically, not philosophically<br />Invisible, only discernable by induction<br />
  14. 14. Example:<br />Crime <br />is part of the social structure <br />releases social tensions<br />Is functional<br />
  15. 15. analogies<br />The human body as analogy for the state<br />The human body as analogy for a company<br />
  16. 16. Criticism<br />Tautological<br />Deterministic<br />Without context (historical, cultural etc.)<br />Uncritical of society<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Tautological character of structural functionalism<br />Every part of a structure has a function<br />The function of every part is being part of the structure<br />
  19. 19. Determinism<br />
  20. 20. Determinism<br />There is no agency<br />Individuals are seen from a distance and have no free will<br />
  21. 21. Uncritical and without context<br />If poverty, racism, sexism etc. exist, they must have a function<br />This supports the status quo<br />
  22. 22. Countering criticism<br />Karl Popper revisited<br />
  23. 23. Combining functionalism with falsification<br />Base theory on empirical research<br />Make conjectures<br />Falsify theory<br />
  24. 24. From data to theory<br />
  25. 25. Grounded theory<br />From data to theory<br />Qualitative<br />Generalisable results<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. criticism<br />Naïve, it is impossible to free yourself from pre-conceptions<br />

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