Unit 3 changing patterns of society without videos


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  • Egalitarian society: equality among the members
  • Material surplus=more resources necessary to sustain day-to-day living.
  • Material surplus=more resources necessary to sustain day-to-day living.
  • False consciousness?
  • What does Durkheim mean with the concepts of mechanical solidarity, organic solidarity and how does this relate to division in labour, morality and anomie?
  • Unit 3 changing patterns of society without videos

    1. 1.
    2. 2. objectives<br />Briefly talk about the different types of societies<br />Watch a short film on the evolution of technology and its influence on changes in society (illustrate point 1)<br />Reflect on the analysis of 3 classical thinkers in sociology on the nature of changing societies (Marx, Weber and Durkheim)<br />Watch the documentary: “Time for change” and discuss the classical analysis on changing nature of society and contemporary questions on where social change is heading (discuss point 3)<br />
    3. 3. 4 prominent changes during time:<br />New industrial economy: the growth of modern capitalism<br />The growth of cities<br />Political change: control vs. democracy<br />The loss of ‘gemeinschaft’ community binding elements in society<br />
    4. 4. Sociocultural evolution<br />“I studied the process of change that results from a society’s gaining new information, particularly Technology and came with a classification of 5 general types of societies through history”<br />Gerhard Lenski<br />
    5. 5. 5 types of societies (Lenski, 1995)<br />Hunting and gathering<br />Horticultural and pastoral<br />Agrarian <br />Industrial<br />Post-industrial<br />
    6. 6. Technological development as 1 metric for changes in society<br />Before we briefly explore the main characteristics of the different types of societies as categorized by Lenski, let’s watch Kevin Kelly’s story of technology<br />Technology is alive! What does technology want? How has technology influenced human development?<br />Kevin Kelly<br />
    7. 7. Technological (determinism) !<br />Discussion:<br />What are the disadvantages of analyzing social change from a technological perspective? <br />What are other possible perspectives for the analysis of social change?What are other metrics?<br />
    8. 8. Hunter and Gather societies<br />
    9. 9. Hunting & gathering societies<br />Refers to simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation <br />From the emergence of the human species until 12.000 years ago, all humans were hunters and gathers<br />There are still about 300 million indigenous people that organize their society as hunters & gathers<br />
    10. 10. Indigenous societies around the world<br />
    11. 11. Main characteristics of H&G societies:<br />Based on kinship (family bonds). Family obtains food, distributes this and secure each other<br />Small bands of a few dozen people living at some distance from each other. NOMADIC societies!<br />Rarely used their weapons (the spear, the bow, knife, arrow) to engage in war<br />Most activities are common to everyone and centre on seeking food, some specialization corresponds to age and sex<br />Social organization is simple and egalitarian<br />Few formal leaders (often a shaman). Believed in different spirits inhabiting the world<br />
    12. 12. Horticultural and pastoral societies<br />
    13. 13. Horticulture societies<br />Horticulture refers to technology based on using hand tools to cultivate plants<br />hoe to work the soil & digging stick to punch a hole in the ground<br />About 6.000 years old <br />Pastoralism is based on the domestication of animals<br />
    14. 14. Main characteristics of H&P societies:<br />The domestication of plants and animals greatly increased food production enabling societies to support hundreds of people<br />Pastoralists remain nomads, leading their herds to fresh grazing lands/Horticulturalists formed settlements, moving on only when they depleted the soil <br />Domesticating plants and animals generates material surplus. Trade emerged between settlements.<br />Material surplus frees some people from the job of securing food, that other kind of professions emerged. E.g. crafts, priests, engage in trade, cut hair etc.<br />Social inequalities increased. Rich and poor (even slavery). Warfare. <br />Religions emerged, based on the worship of God, the creator. God is directly related to well-being of the world (Christianity, Islam and Judaism)<br />
    15. 15. Agrarian societies<br />
    16. 16. Main characteristics of agrarian societies:<br />The technology of large scale farming using ploughs harnessed to animals or more sources of energy<br />Technological innovations of that period: irrigation, writing, numbers and explanding use of metals<br />Large food supplies, large food surpluses. <br />Population and areas of settlements expands (e.g. Roman Empire, Inca and Mayan Civilizations)<br />Trade, growth of cities, dramatic social inequalities<br />Increasing production meant greater specialization: the rise of occupations <br />
    17. 17. Industrial societies<br />
    18. 18. Main characteristics of Industrial societies:<br />Technology that empowers sophisticated machinery with advanced sources of energy<br />Dawns with the Industrial revolution, approximately in 1750 <br />Power supplies, electricity, steam, revolution in transportation and communication<br />Urbanization: emerging of cities<br />Social inequalities increased. Poverty and Richness .<br />Diminishing traditions: family and religion. Literacy emerges<br />
    19. 19. Sociology is born<br />We wanted to understand social change. How society transforms. Sociology reflects upon the past, tries to explain the present time and envisions future changes.<br />
    20. 20. Explaining modern industrial society from different perspectives : 3 classical sociological accounts<br />How do the societies of the past and present differ from each other?<br />How and why does a society change? What forces divide a society? hold it together? Are societies getting better or worse?<br />Karl Marx<br />Emile Durkheim<br />Max Weber<br />
    21. 21. Marx’s materialist analysis of society<br />
    22. 22. Marx analysis of changing patters of society: “critique on capitalism”<br />In a society so rich, how could so many be so poor? And how can we change this situation?<br />There are two groups in conflict: <br />Capitalists people who onw factories and other productive enterprises<br />Proletariats: people who provide labour necessary to operate the productive enterprises of the capitalists<br />
    23. 23. Marx’s analysis of social inequalities with the rise of industrial societies:<br />To conflict between capitalists and proletariats has its roots on the ‘process of production’ itself:<br />low wages, maximum profit<br />Social conflict: struggle between different segments of society over valued resources: <br />Capitalists vs. proletariats<br />Social change will come if we all abandon the capitalist system. <br />Transform what he calls False consciousness into <br />Class consciousness<br />Social inequalities increased during history: agrarian societies were much equal.<br />Alienation keeps inequalities in place and prevent social change: alienation from the act of working, from the products of work, from the workers, from human potentials<br />Capitalism is grounded in other social institutions: religion, political order and morality<br />
    24. 24. Capitalism is the natural order! I don’t have any talents, I deserve to be poor and remain poor<br />False consciousness: explanations of social problems grounded in the shortcomings of individuals rather than the flaws of society itself<br />
    25. 25. I am captured in a system. Hey, I don’t deserve this and hey, I’m not alone, I’m in the majority<br />Class consciousness: the recognition by workers of their unity as a class in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to capitalism itself<br />Revolution!<br />Marx idealized socialism as the opposite of capitalism! “a more equal society”, according to Marx<br />
    26. 26. Weber’s rationalization of society<br />
    27. 27. Tradition and Rationality<br />Ideas, especially beliefs and values have transforming power. Society is the product (not just of new technology and capitalism) of a new way of thinking.<br />Growing out of changes in religious belief, the modern world can be characterized as an increasingly rational world<br />
    28. 28. Sentiments and believes passed from generation to generation. <br />tradition<br />Deliberate, matter of fact calculation of the most efficient ways to accomplish a goal. <br />
    29. 29. Rational social organization (Weber)<br />
    30. 30. Bureaucracy became the symbol of rationalization and modernization. But it has a dehumanizing effect<br />
    31. 31. Durkheim’s notion of solidarity in society<br />
    32. 32. “To love society is to love something beyond us and something in ourselves”<br />“Patterns of human behaviour form established structures, these are social facts that have an objective reality beyond the lives and perceptions of particular individuals”<br />“Cultural norms, values, religious believes all endure social facts. Society is larger than individual lives: it shapes individual lives”<br />
    33. 33. Durkheim’s notion of solidarity<br />Modern societies impose fewer restrictions on everyone but this gives rise to anomie. A condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals<br />The fall of morality: guiding values<br />Traditional societies are characterised by mechanical solidarity<br />Industrial societies gives way to organic solidarity based on productive specialization<br />
    34. 34. Assignment: concept exploration<br />Question :<br />What does Durkheim mean with the concepts of “mechanical solidarity”, “organic solidarity” and how does this relate to “division in labour”, “morality” and “anomie”?<br />How does an expanding division of labour contribute to social change, according to Durkheim?<br />
    35. 35. Post-industrial societies<br />
    36. 36. Main characteristics of post-industrialist societies:(more in Unit 8, 9 and 10)<br />Computer-linked technology that supports an information based society (term coined by David Bell )<br />Information society, network society, <br />post-modern society<br />Liquid society: living in times of uncertainties<br />Globalization, unequal world<br />
    37. 37. Contemporary thinkers: where are we heading?<br />Liquid society, a new form of society that is much more fluid than previous modern and traditional ones. Everything changes, we live in times of uncertainties, everything flows. Mobility is the key<br />Zygmunt Bauman<br />
    38. 38. Manuel Castells: information/network societies<br />A new form of society dependent upon new information technologies and networking<br />Manuel Castells<br />
    39. 39. Question:<br />Why do you think inequalities increased the more societies changed from hunter& gather to post-industrialization?<br />
    40. 40. Documentary: Time for change<br />Reflect upon the following questiosn:<br />Do Marx’s , Weber’s and Durkheim’s ideas/analysis of society still apply to contemporary problems in society?<br />Reflect upon the following concepts: change, anger/rage, alienation, false-, class- and any kind of ‘new’ consciousness that emerges in these times, bureaucracy, good governance, debts, after watching the documentary.<br />