Critical Literacy, communication & interaction 1 (GE3A)<br />University of Aruba<br />FAS: SW&D / OG&M<br />September 8, 2...
Today’s program:<br />Course organization logistics<br />Where are we now; framework, connecting UNIT 1 to UNIT 2 <br />Fo...
Reflection on where we are now (1):<br />Communication process is dynamic and symbolic<br />Is interactive and transactive...
Reflection on where we are now (2):<br />Communication is both intentional and unintentional <br />Communication process i...
Messages are composed of CODES<br />Stepping into ‘the code’ zone…<br />{Unit 1}Human beings are social, they communicate ...
Properties of Codes (Fiske, 1990)<br />codes are systemized (language, sentences, words, alphabet, agreement upon meaning ...
7<br />UNIT 2:<br />Making  sense  of  the  world and its  codes. <br />The  meaning  of  Literacy<br />
Objectives Unit 2 in terms of themes<br />The meaning of the concept literacy<br />Different approaches; interdisciplinary...
Today {08-09-09}:<br />International Literacy day<br />{09 theme}<br />“ The power of Literacy”<br />{is it a coincidence?...
10<br />What does the concept <br /> “ literacy ” <br />mean to you?<br />What does being ‘illiterate’ mean to you?<br />
The concept literacy<br />Many different definitions <br />In its most basis sense refers to a cognitive process that enab...
12<br />
Literacyliteracies<br />When we use the term literacy in its singular form, we intend it to apply to multiple literacies ...
Print literacy<br />The ability to understand and interpret written texts<br />14<br />
Cultural literacy<br />The ability to understand andinterpretcultural, social and ideological values that shape our readin...
More literacies<br />Visual literacy: the ability to understand and interpret images, signs, pictures and non-verbal langu...
Evolving concept of literacy(ies)<br />Rapid technological and social change<br />The nature of communication and technolo...
Evolving concept of literacy(ies) (2)<br />How people use literacy is tied up with the particular details of the situation...
Reflection so far…<br />The concept Literacy is an evolving and dynamic one<br />Linking Literacy with communication:<br /...
20<br />
Approaching the concept literacy<br />Dominant approach: formal literacy (educational setting) (in terms of skills; being ...
Literacy in everyday life<br />Approaching Literacy from everyday life:<br />Starting point: people’s uses of literacy, no...
The social basis of literacy (Barton, 2007)<br />Barton and Hamilton (1998) studied the role of literacy in people’s every...
The social basis of literacy (1) (Barton, 2007)<br />Literacy is a social activity and can be best described in terms of p...
The social basis of literacy (2)(Barton, 2007)<br />Literacy is based upon a system of symbols; symbolic system for commun...
The social basis of literacy (3)(Barton, 2007)<br />Literacy has a story. Our individual life histories contain many liter...
Literacy in everyday life:“How a family reads” <br />http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/27/books/27reading.hml?pagewanted=1&_r...
28<br />
29<br />Taking a critical stance:<br />Critical Literacy<br />
Learning to read the world while learning to read the word<br />30<br />{Critical Literacy}<br />Although there are severa...
What is CL?<br />CL shows us ways of looking at written, visual, spoken, multimedia and performance texts to question and ...
CL  attempts to develop 3 kinds of understanding (Morgan, 1996)<br />The way texts (and visuals etc. approach broad) and t...
CL includes (1):<br />Examining meaning within texts<br />Considering the purpose for the text and the composer’s motives<...
CL includes (2)<br />Having ‘you’ take a stance on issues<br />Providing ‘you’ with opportunities to consider and clarify ...
Why is CL important?<br />Our lifestyles are changing constantly, hi-tech, globalized world (boundaries of space and time ...
Rejecting the tension (1)(Gregory & Cahill, 2009)<br />The authors question the role schools (formal education in terms of...
Paulo Freire (1921-1997)<br />37<br />“ Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate integratio...
Rejecting the tension (2)(Gregory & Cahill, 2009)<br />Emancipatory literacy: the notion that literate individuals are abl...
39<br />
Adopting a critical stance (1)(Gregory & Cahill, 2009) <br />Questioning texts  problematizing knowledge<br />(Do you for...
Adopting a critical stance (2)(Gregory & Cahill, 2009) <br />We accept the tension! Tension is ‘growing’, being active<br ...
42<br />
Taking a critical stand<br />What kind of critical questions would you ask?<br />Work in pairs and formulate critical ques...
Examples of critical questions<br />Textual purpose<br />Textual structures and features<br />Construction of characters<b...
Literacy and development: “Literacy for life”<br />45<br />EFA:<br />“ Literacy is a right and the foundation for all furt...
Approach UNESCO<br />Literacy as a human rightinclusion for human development<br />Human benefits: self-esteem, empowerme...
“The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and ...
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UNIT 2 Critical Literacy, Communication and Interaction 1

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Literacy and Critical Literacy

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UNIT 2 Critical Literacy, Communication and Interaction 1

  1. 1. Critical Literacy, communication & interaction 1 (GE3A)<br />University of Aruba<br />FAS: SW&D / OG&M<br />September 8, 2009<br />UNIT 2<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Today’s program:<br />Course organization logistics<br />Where are we now; framework, connecting UNIT 1 to UNIT 2 <br />Focusing on the theme of UNIT 2<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Reflection on where we are now (1):<br />Communication process is dynamic and symbolic<br />Is interactive and transactive: <br />Sender and receiver interaction is based on (en)coding and decoding of messages<br />Messages are composed of codes <br />Negotiation of meaning, interpretation and identity<br />Communication process is contextual (multi-layered effect of contexts<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Reflection on where we are now (2):<br />Communication is both intentional and unintentional <br />Communication process is Ubiquitous (omnipresent) <br />Communication process is cultural (one specific context: the cultural context)<br />Communication shapes and re-shapes our identities<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Messages are composed of CODES<br />Stepping into ‘the code’ zone…<br />{Unit 1}Human beings are social, they communicate and make sense of their selves and their world through codes (messages, ideas, conventions, rules etc.) <br />{Unit 2}Being ‘literate’ means here, being aware of and being able to deal with these codes (coding and decoding process) (understanding the world and who you are in this world)<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Properties of Codes (Fiske, 1990)<br />codes are systemized (language, sentences, words, alphabet, agreement upon meaning of arbitrary signs: A B etc.) (verbal/non-verbal codes)<br />All codes convey meaning: they are vehicles for messages, ideas, rules <br />Codes depend upon agreement amongst their user and upon a shared sociocultural background<br />All codes perform an identifiable social or communicative function<br />All codes are transmittable by their appropriate media or channels of communication<br />6<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />UNIT 2:<br />Making sense of the world and its codes. <br />The meaning of Literacy<br />
  8. 8. Objectives Unit 2 in terms of themes<br />The meaning of the concept literacy<br />Different approaches; interdisciplinary approach<br />The social basis of literacy<br />It is an evolving concept<br />Critical Literacy; taking a critical stance<br />Literacy and development<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Today {08-09-09}:<br />International Literacy day<br />{09 theme}<br />“ The power of Literacy”<br />{is it a coincidence?} <br />9<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />What does the concept <br /> “ literacy ” <br />mean to you?<br />What does being ‘illiterate’ mean to you?<br />
  11. 11. The concept literacy<br />Many different definitions <br />In its most basis sense refers to a cognitive process that enables reading, writing, speaking and listening<br />Is the means by which people learn to be at home in the worlds they choose [or find themselves in]<br />Refers to the consciousness of the uses and problems of language and the ability to express that awareness in ways sanctioned by the culture<br />Language is here the code. Language in the broadest sense of the word.<br />Literacy encompasses more than only the world of language <br />11<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />
  13. 13. Literacyliteracies<br />When we use the term literacy in its singular form, we intend it to apply to multiple literacies as well<br />Literacies include multiple kinds of processes including the following: <br />13<br />
  14. 14. Print literacy<br />The ability to understand and interpret written texts<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Cultural literacy<br />The ability to understand andinterpretcultural, social and ideological values that shape our reading of ‘texts’ <br />15<br />
  16. 16. More literacies<br />Visual literacy: the ability to understand and interpret images, signs, pictures and non-verbal language<br />Media Literacy: the ability to understand and interpret cultural messages presented by the media, such as from TV and film<br />Information Technology literacy: the ability to use, access and evaluate information and ideas via computers<br />Numeracy: the ability to understand and interpret mathematical symbols, including reading charts and tables<br />And when talking about worlds, an example of such a world:<br />Political literacy: the ability for citizens  to participate in a society’s democracy process and government (an understanding of how government works and of the important issues facing society, as well as the critical thinking skills to evaluate different points of view) <br />16<br />
  17. 17. Evolving concept of literacy(ies)<br />Rapid technological and social change<br />The nature of communication and technology is changing in fundamental ways<br />Literacy is central; new forms of literacies are emerging<br />The concept of literacy evolves and is affected by the concept of time:<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Evolving concept of literacy(ies) (2)<br />How people use literacy is tied up with the particular details of the situation and that literacy events are particular to a specific community at a specific point in history <br />Compare baby boomers, gen X, gen Y, {gen Einstein} and what about the gen Z?<br />Talking about new literacies and rapid technological changes<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpEnFwiqdx8<br />(*Response of class after watching video)<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Reflection so far…<br />The concept Literacy is an evolving and dynamic one<br />Linking Literacy with communication:<br />Communication for our purposes, refers here both to the process of sending and receiving ideas, information, messages etc. by means of speech, writing or signs as well as to the study of that process<br />Communication and {critical} literacy skills are consistently identified as being the hallmark of an educated person  approaching Literacy in terms of critical thinking and in terms of development (=to empower)<br />19<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />
  21. 21. Approaching the concept literacy<br />Dominant approach: formal literacy (educational setting) (in terms of skills; being able to read, write, speak and listen)<br />Literacy as a concept is way too broad for it to be approached only through the lenses of the formal educational setting and in terms of performance<br />Our approach will be a multidisciplinary one: Performance, Social, Psychological, Historical, Developmental and Critical<br />Barton’s approach is very useful for our understanding of literacy<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Literacy in everyday life<br />Approaching Literacy from everyday life:<br />Starting point: people’s uses of literacy, not from their formal learning of literacy {everyday events}<br />Example:<br />Video new ways of reading:<br />http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/27/books/27reading.html?pagewanted=1&_r=2&sq=linear%20attention&st=cse&scp=1<br />22<br />
  23. 23. The social basis of literacy (Barton, 2007)<br />Barton and Hamilton (1998) studied the role of literacy in people’s everyday life. (4 year long study; qualitative research based on interviews and observation)<br />*(assignment idea)<br />23<br />
  24. 24. The social basis of literacy (1) (Barton, 2007)<br />Literacy is a social activity and can be best described in terms of people’s literacy practices which they draw upon in literacy events;<br />People have different literacies which they make use of, associated with different domains of life. These differences are increased across different cultures or historical periods<br />People’s literacy practices are situated in broader social relations; social settings and social institutions are important<br />24<br />
  25. 25. The social basis of literacy (2)(Barton, 2007)<br />Literacy is based upon a system of symbols; symbolic system for communication. It is a way of representing the world to others (literacy as communication)<br />Literacy is a symbolic system used for representing the world to us (literacy as thought)<br />We have awareness, attitudes and values with respect to literacy and these attitudes and values guide our action (values and awareness)<br />25<br />
  26. 26. The social basis of literacy (3)(Barton, 2007)<br />Literacy has a story. Our individual life histories contain many literacy events from early childhood onwards which the present is built upon. We change, and as children and adults are constantly learning about literacy (individual history: growth and development and that of a whole culture over a longer time period (opening of Colegio, Lago school)<br />Literacy events and practices have a social history (social history ex. Renaissance, Enlightment) <br />26<br />
  27. 27. Literacy in everyday life:“How a family reads” <br />http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/27/books/27reading.hml?pagewanted=1&_r=2&sq=linear%20attention&st=cse&scp=1<br />(watch video)<br />A Family of Readers:<br /> Jane Sims and her husband, David, spend hours reading newspapers, magazines and books. Their children spend most of their reading time online.<br />27<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Taking a critical stance:<br />Critical Literacy<br />
  30. 30. Learning to read the world while learning to read the word<br />30<br />{Critical Literacy}<br />Although there are several approaches to critical literacy, each underpinned by different theoretical perspectives , they all have in common that:<br />CL involves an active, challenging approach to reading and textual practices. CL involves the analysis and critique of the relationship among texts, language, power, social groups and social practices<br />
  31. 31. What is CL?<br />CL shows us ways of looking at written, visual, spoken, multimedia and performance texts to question and challenge the attitudes, values and beliefs that lie beneath the surface<br />Literacy is as much about ideologies, identities, and values as it is about codes and skills. CL provides us with ways of thinking that uncover social inequalities and injustices. It enables us to address disadvantage and become agents of social change (Gregory and Cahill, 2009)<br />31<br />
  32. 32. CL attempts to develop 3 kinds of understanding (Morgan, 1996)<br />The way texts (and visuals etc. approach broad) and their discourses work to represent reality and define what is necessary for us;<br />A sympathetic understanding of the people who are affected (shaped) by those discourses; (voice, voiceless, representation)<br />Ways we can engage with those texts and their debates<br />Questioning texts, reflecting, taking a stance from the position of the passive reader to the position of the active reader Negotiation of meaning, interpretation and identities!<br />32<br />
  33. 33. CL includes (1):<br />Examining meaning within texts<br />Considering the purpose for the text and the composer’s motives<br />Texts are not neutral, they represent particular views, silence other points of views and influence people’s ideas<br />Questioning and challenging the ways texts have been constructed<br />Analyzing the power of language in contemporary society<br />Emphasizing multiple readings of texts (because people interpret texts in the light of their own believes and values, texts will have different meanings to different people) Kaleidoscope! <br />33<br />
  34. 34. CL includes (2)<br />Having ‘you’ take a stance on issues<br />Providing ‘you’ with opportunities to consider and clarify your own attitudes and values:<br /> { being aware of different perspectives  reflection negotiation of identities: who am I, do I agree? (metaphor of room)}<br />Providing ‘you’ with opportunities to take social action (e.x. writing a letter of complaint)<br />34<br />
  35. 35. Why is CL important?<br />Our lifestyles are changing constantly, hi-tech, globalized world (boundaries of space and time are dissolving)<br />Changing societal structures<br />Cultural diversity<br />Marketing of ideas<br />Lifelong learning<br />35<br />
  36. 36. Rejecting the tension (1)(Gregory & Cahill, 2009)<br />The authors question the role schools (formal education in terms of curriculum and methods) play on the development of students as active citizens. Schools have the potential to be places where students can come to understand how and why knowledge and power are constructed<br />Critical perspective: Inspired by Paulo Freire (1921-1997: Brazilian educational reformer) (you can read more about Freire on the wiki)<br />In Freirian terms CL involves “ reading the world” so that we can come to understand how we encode power structures and the roles we play in these processes (Freire & Mancedo, 1987)<br />36<br />
  37. 37. Paulo Freire (1921-1997)<br />37<br />“ Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world.” <br />
  38. 38. Rejecting the tension (2)(Gregory & Cahill, 2009)<br />Emancipatory literacy: the notion that literate individuals are able to function independently and flexible in society (survive)<br />Citizenship in a democracy (Dewey’s view of democracy 1916) <br />“Children become literate at school” : “literacy is and must always be ideologically situated (…) qualified by the context of assumptions, beliefs, expectations, and related conceptual material that accompanies its use by particular groups of people in particular socio-historical circumstances” <br />38<br />
  39. 39. 39<br />
  40. 40. Adopting a critical stance (1)(Gregory & Cahill, 2009) <br />Questioning texts  problematizing knowledge<br />(Do you for instance question nowadays (25th September 2009) the media you consume here in Aruba ?)<br />Engaging in such a problematization creates tension. You’re world is shaking: you are aware that reality is something constructed<br />You can choose to reject the tension and not begin a critical questioning process schooling, passive agency. <br />This can be motivated by fear: ‘fear for the unknown’ or ‘fear for reprisals (groups you belong to, want to belong to; social identity, questioning your own identity. <br />If you decide to contend with the tension, then a critical stance is necessary(democracy) education<br />40<br />
  41. 41. Adopting a critical stance (2)(Gregory & Cahill, 2009) <br />We accept the tension! Tension is ‘growing’, being active<br />Critical stance: you read the world, not only the words/pictures/actions/sounds/etc. A text is seen here as a “ vehicle through which individuals communicate with one another using the codes and conventions of society” with a purpose!<br />Examples: songs, novels, conversations, movies, art, photographs (all forms of communication are considered to be texts)<br />41<br />
  42. 42. 42<br />
  43. 43. Taking a critical stand<br />What kind of critical questions would you ask?<br />Work in pairs and formulate critical questions. <br />43<br />
  44. 44. Examples of critical questions<br />Textual purpose<br />Textual structures and features<br />Construction of characters<br />Gaps and silence<br />Power and interest<br />Whose view: whose reality?<br />Interrogating the composer<br />Multiple meanings<br />(I will post of list of critical questions on our wiki)<br />44<br />
  45. 45. Literacy and development: “Literacy for life”<br />45<br />EFA:<br />“ Literacy is a right and the foundation for all further learning.<br />Literacy gives peoples the tools, knowledge and confidence to improve their livelihoods, to participate more actively in their societies and to make informed choices. In today knowledge economies, literacies are more vital than ever. Yet literacy remains a right denied to some 771 million people”<br /> (UNESCO, 1996) <br />
  46. 46. Approach UNESCO<br />Literacy as a human rightinclusion for human development<br />Human benefits: self-esteem, empowerment<br />Political benefits: political participation, democracy (ethic equality, post-conflict situations)<br />Cultural benefits: dealing with cultural change, preserving cultural identities and –diversity<br />Social benefits: health, reproductive behavior, education, gender equality, emancipation of minority groups etc.,<br />Economic growth, sustainability<br />46<br />
  47. 47. “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.”<br />Alvin Toffler<br />47<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o&eurl=http://worldbuilder.ning.com/video/a-vision-of-students-today-a&feature=player_embedded<br />

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