Mastering Active Directory for Windows Server 2008

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This in-depth guide delivers exactly the
information that systems administrators and network application developers need
to manage and maintain Active Directory.Each chapter has been revised to address
the new components, enhancements, and capabilities brought by Windows Server
2008 to the directory services. Covers domain name system design, Active
Directory forest and domain design, maintaining organizational units, managing
group policy, implementing best practices, and more; PowerShell is also
addressed throughout the book to provide specific scripting solutions in
context. Windows Server is the leading network operating system in the world,
topping Unix for first place in 2005

Published in: Technology, Business

Mastering Active Directory for Windows Server 2008

  1. 1. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Mastering Active Directory® for Windows Server® 2008 John A. Price Brad Price Scott Fenstermacher 46933book.fm Page iii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  2. 2. 46933book.fm Page ii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  3. 3. Mastering Active Directory® for Windows Server® 2008 46933book.fm Page i Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  4. 4. 46933book.fm Page ii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  5. 5. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Mastering Active Directory® for Windows Server® 2008 John A. Price Brad Price Scott Fenstermacher 46933book.fm Page iii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  6. 6. Acquisitions Editor: Tom Cirtin Development Editor: Karen L. Lew Technical Editor: Jim Kelly Production Editor: Christine O’Connor Copy Editor: Candace English Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Executive Publisher: Joseph B. Wikert Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Book Designer: Maureen Forys, Happenstance Type-O-Rama, Judy Fung Compositor: Laurie Stewart, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader: Sheilah Ledwidge, Word One Indexer: Nancy Guenther Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Cover Image: © Pete Gardner/Digital Vision/gettyimages Copyright © 2008 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-24983-3 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per- copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianap- olis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accu- racyorcompletenessofthecontentsofthisworkandspecificallydisclaimallwarranties,includingwithoutlimitationwarrantiesoffitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Web- site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Depart- ment within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformats.Somecontentthatappearsinprintmaynotbeavailableinelectronicbooks. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Price, John A., 1970- Mastering active directory for Windows Server 2008 / John A. Price, Brad Price, Scott Fenstermacher. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-470-24983-3 (paper/website) 1. Directory services (Computer network technology) 2. Microsoft Windows (Computer file) 3. Operating systems (Computers) I. Price, Brad. II. Fenstermacher, Scott. III. Title. TK5105.595.P759 2008 005.7'1376--dc22 2008014656 TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Active Directory and Windows Server are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 46933book.fm Page iv Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  7. 7. Dear Reader, Thank you for choosing Mastering Active Directory for Windows Server 2008. This book is part of a family of premium quality Sybex books, all written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching. Sybex was founded in 1976. More than thirty years later, we’re still committed to producing consis- tently exceptional books. With each of our titles we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on, to the authors we work with, our goal is to bring you the best books available. I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde@wiley.com, or if you think you’ve found a tech- nical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Best regards, Neil Edde Vice President and Publisher Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley 46933book.fm Page v Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  8. 8. For Jul, my best friend—I love you. —J.A.P. 46933book.fm Page vi Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  9. 9. Acknowledgments I want to start by thanking my wife and daughter for their patience while I work on yet another project. You two are the motivation to do all the things that I do. I know that I would not be where I am today if it weren't for the love and support you have given me, whether it is for writing, start- ing a new company, deciding to remodel the house, or some goofy “computer project” that you don’t even want to understand. You both make me laugh on a daily basis. Your smiles, hugs, and laughter are all I need to keep me going at this breakneck pace day after day. I would like to thank my family for giving me support throughout the writing process. There were times when the typical “let’s meet in town for dinner” was not an option as deadlines were looming (and often missed). Mom and Dad always understood and were always more than willing to babysit in a crunch. Brian—thank you for taking my mind out of the book and getting me back to reality with random phone calls and lunches to talk about the important stuff in life, like super- charging my GTO or starting a restoration on a diamond-in-the-rough Camaro. Professionally, I want to thank my brother Brad. Brad—we’ve worked on a lot of books together, and we’ve always talked about going into business together. Throughout everything, you’ve been a great brother, friend, and business partner, and I can’t wait to see where this road leads us. A very big thank-you goes out to Scott Fenstermacher and Robin Wright. Both of these talented authors stepped up to provide some great material, most of which was with very tight deadlines. Both of you are amazing and the book is a better product because of your knowledge and writing ability. To the Sybex crew—a HUGE thank you. Thanks to Tom Cirtin for going to bat and getting the new edition approved and working with us in the early stages; Pete Gaughan for keeping us on schedule and making sure we were not overloading the other editors' schedules; Jim Kelly for mak- ing sure everything is technically accurate; and last but certainly not least, Karen L. Lew. Karen is a master at taking my rambling thoughts and actually making me sound like I can write. I called Karen a showoff for taking a paragraph of mine that was close to 30 words and knocking it down to a 9-word sentence that had more power than my initial attempt. — John Price The work that I did on this book wouldn’t have been possible if not for the support of my family. DeAnn—you have been very patient and understanding when it comes to my long workdays and weeks away from home. One of these days I am going to repay you for all that you have done for me. To my beautiful daughters, Jami and Becca—you both make me so very proud to be your dad. You were great kids and have you have grown up to be intelligent, kindhearted, and honest adults. You have bright futures ahead of you. To Dad and Mom—thanks for your support through everything. It should come as no surprise that I think the world of you. To John—thanks for being the best friend a brother could have. To the rest of my family—I am glad I can call each and every one of you family. —Brad Price First I would like to thank the brothers Price for asking me once again to share the book-writing expe- rience with them. They're a couple of really smart guys, so you would think they’d have learned their lesson by now. And you can’t write a book without a great publisher and people like Tom Cirtin, Pete Gaughan, Jim Kelly, and Karen Lew, who make it tick, so a big thanks go out to the entire John Wiley & Sons staff for the too-often thankless job of actually producing the book that you now hold in your hands. It’s a task with details beyond my comprehension, so I’ll just stick to the easy things, like beta software. 46933book.fm Page vii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  10. 10. viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The biggest thanks go out to my wife Lori for being supportive through all these late nights at the computer. Between the endless hours of her own job and the endless hours of managing a family, she has managed to keep things together while I mumble incoherently at operating systems and software products that aren’t always what they claim to be (perils of beta software). I owe you big- time, and one of these days I know you’re going to make me pay for it. More thanks go out to the mess-makers of the house, Jaina and Shelby. Sometimes I think my best idea was putting your playroom next to my office so I can see you while I work. I said it in the last book, and the sentiment still holds true: you might not have contributed words to the book or work around the house, but everyday you manage to put a smile on my face without even trying. Now go pick up those toys; they wake me up when I’m sleepwalking. Of course, I wouldn’t be who I am today without the molding at the hands of my parents. To Carol, my mother, the words escape me sometimes, but always know that I am proud to call you Mom. To Craig, my father, I miss you. You taught me lessons about life that I’m still just realizing. Your time with us was too short, but you made every moment count. Happy hunting. And last but not least, the friends that probably think I’m just naturally not right in the head (usually Linux is involved in those conversations), if for nothing else than simply putting up with me. To Jeff Miller and Ken Ratliff for the constant stream of jobs to do. To Michelle Ingram and Penny Morgan for keeping me entertained with the soap opera. To “Fun Aunt Susan” for always being the voice of encouragement. To Phil Feese for the constant stream of jokes to my inbox. And finally to Jay Howerter, Chris King, Tim O’Brien, Paul Emery, Doug Sims, Darrin Bentley, and Mark Feleccia just for being a great bunch of guys to work with. —Scott Fenstermacher 46933book.fm Page viii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  11. 11. About the Authors John A. Price is the Lead Architect for a Microsoft Gold consulting firm in the Midwest. He has 11 years of experience with several Microsoft products, specializing in Active Directory, Exchange Server, and the System Center line of products. Brad Price is an MCT with 16 years of experience in the IT field, specializing in Active Directory, Exchange Server, Systems Management Server, and Operation Manager. He is the author of several books on Active Directory. Scott Fenstermacher holds a degree in Computer Science, along with Microsoft certifications for Systems Engineer, Database Administrator and Solutions Developer. Somewhere in there, he even managed to squeak in a Cisco certification. He has worked with networks from Linux to Novell to Windows, and with programming languages from Assembly to C# and Visual Basic.NET. Prior to his current position as a network engineer for a Fortune 500 software and consulting company, Scott taught classes for a Microsoft CPLS ranging from application and database development to Windows and Linux system administration. 46933book.fm Page ix Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
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  13. 13. Contents at a Glance Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv Part 1 • Active Directory Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Chapter 1 • Active Directory Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 2 • Domain Name System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Chapter 3 • Active Directory Domain Services Forest and Domain Design . . . . . . . . . 43 Chapter 4 • Organizing the Physical and Logical Aspects of AD DS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Chapter 5 • Flexible Single Master Operations Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Part 2 • Active Directory Object Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Chapter 6 • Managing Accounts: User, Group, and Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Chapter 7 • Maintaining Organizational Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Chapter 8 • Managing Group Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Chapter 9 • Managing Active Directory Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Part 3 • Active Directory Service Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Chapter 10 • Managing Access with Active Directory Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Chapter 11 • Managing Active Directory Rights Management Services . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Chapter 12 • Managing Active Directory Certificate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Chapter 13 • Managing the Flexible Single Master Operations Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Chapter 14 • Maintaining the Active Directory Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 46933book.fm Page xi Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  14. 14. xii CONTENTS AT A GLANCE Part 4 • Active Directory Best Practices and Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409 Chapter 15 • Microsoft’s Troubleshooting Methodology for Active Directory . . . . . 411 Chapter 16 • Troubleshooting Problems Related to Network Infrastructure . . . . . . . 425 Chapter 17 • Troubleshooting Problems Related to the Active Directory Database . 451 Part 5 • Streamlining Management with Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483 Chapter 18 • ADSI Primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 Chapter 19 • Active Directory Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Chapter 20 • Monitoring Active Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 Chapter 21 • Managing Active Directory with PowerShell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 Appendix A • The Bottom Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709 46933book.fm Page xii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  15. 15. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv Part 1 • Active Directory Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1 • Active Directory Fundamentals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Do I Need Active Directory? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Two Sides of AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 What’s New in Windows Server 2008? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 What’s in a Name? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Active Directory Federation Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Active Directory Rights Management Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Active Directory Certificate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Windows Server Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Read-Only Domain Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Server Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Pre-Design: Microsoft Solutions Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Risk Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chapter 2 • Domain Name System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 How DNS and AD DS are Tied Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Resolving the IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Selecting a Zone Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 How to Name a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Internal and External Name Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Keeping Internal and External Names Separate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Internal and External Name Confusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Understanding the Current DNS Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 That Other DNS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Propagating the Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Protecting DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Limit the Dynamic Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Monitor for Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Set Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Disable Recursion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Use Appropriate Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Keeping the System Accurate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Use IPSec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Use Secure DDNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 46933book.fm Page xiii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  16. 16. xiv CONTENTS Avoid Cache Poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Allow Appropriate Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Lock Down Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Chapter 3 • Active Directory Domain Services Forest and Domain Design . . . . 43 AD DS Forest Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Schema Considerations and OID-Issuing Authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Security Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Replication Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 A Common Global Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Kerberos Authentication and Trust Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Political and Administration Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Multiple Forests: Pros and Cons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Designing with Change-Control Policies in Mind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Building a Design Based on the Standard Forest Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Separating Extranet Applications into Their Own Forest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Forest Functionality Mode Features in AD DS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 AD DS Domain Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 AD DS Domain Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Defining Domain Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Domain Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Defining Tree Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Multiple Domains: Pros and Cons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 DNS Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Authentication Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Interforest Trusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Domain Controller Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Domain Functional Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Chapter 4 • Organizing the Physical and Logical Aspects of AD DS . . . . . . . . . . 79 Determining the Site Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Understanding the Current Network Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Identifying the Current Network Infrastructure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Setting Your Sites to Support the AD DS Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Designing Site Links and Site-Link Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Site Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Site-Link Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Organizational-Unit Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Designing OUs for Administrative Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Understanding the OU Design Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Understanding OU Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Designing OUs for Group Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Understanding Company Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 46933book.fm Page xiv Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  17. 17. CONTENTS xv Creating a Simple Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Creating the OU Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Chapter 5 • Flexible Single Master Operations Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 What Are the FSMO Roles? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Schema Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Domain Naming Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Infrastructure Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 RID Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PDC Emulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Choosing FSMO Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Operations Masters in a Single-Domain Forest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Operations Master Site Placement in a Multiple-Domain Forest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Part 2 • Active Directory Object Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Chapter 6 • Managing Accounts: User, Group, and Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Account Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Security Principal Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Non–Security Principal Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Active Directory Users and Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Command-Line Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 LDAP Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Default Folder Redirectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Chapter 7 • Maintaining Organizational Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Understanding Organizational Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Components of Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Granting Administrative Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 User Rights and Permissions when Accessing Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 User Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Security Descriptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Security Principals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Discretionary Access Control List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 System Access Control List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Security Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Access Token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Implicit and Explicit Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Permissions Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Special Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 46933book.fm Page xv Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  18. 18. xvi CONTENTS Effective Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Taking Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Delegation of Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Designing Delegation of Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Implementing Delegation of Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Auditing of Security Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Auditing Printers and Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Moving Objects in Active Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Moving Objects within the Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Moving Objects between Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Moving Objects between Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Chapter 8 • Managing Group Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Group Policy Primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 What Makes Up a Group Policy Object? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Editing Group Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Using the Group Policy Management Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Backing Up and Restoring Group Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Differences between Group Policy Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Managing Your Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Planning and Monitoring Group Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Chapter 9 • Managing Active Directory Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 AD DS Security Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Security Principals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Access Control Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Access Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Securing the Base Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Physical Security for Domain Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Guarding against Remote-Access Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Protecting Systems during Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Securing Well-Known User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Defining Domain Controller Communication with IPSec Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Modifying the Default Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Securing AD DS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Placement of the Active Directory Database File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Maintaining the Service Account Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Creating a Baseline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Using Secure Administrative Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 46933book.fm Page xvi Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  19. 19. CONTENTS xvii Part 3 • Active Directory Service Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Chapter 10 • Managing Access with Active Directory Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Active Directory Federation Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 How AD FS Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 AD FS Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Federated Web Single Sign-On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Configuring Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Installing SSL Certificates on Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Configuring Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Installing AD LDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Configuration Options for AD LDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 DSDBUtil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Coming Up Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Chapter 11 • Managing Active Directory Rights Management Services . . . . . . 297 Understanding Active Directory Rights Management Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Who Are Publishers, Authors, and Consumers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Components of AD RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Types of AD RMS Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 AD RMS Publishing and Consumption Work Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Installing and Configuring AD RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Step 1: Ensure that the Server Meets the Hardware and Software Requirements and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Step 2: Create an AD RMS Service Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Step 3: Create an AD RMS Installation Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Step 4: Review the Considerations for Installing AD RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Step 5: Assign an Email Address to AD RMS Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Step 6: Raise the Domain Functional Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Step 7: Install SQL Server 2005 on a Member Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Step 8: Install AD RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Step 9: Configure AD RMS Cluster Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Step 10: Verify AD RMS Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 AD RMS Application Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Step 1: Create a Shared Folder on the AD RMS Cluster to Store Application Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Step 2: Create an AD RMS Application Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Step 3: Configure an AD RMS Client to Allow Access to the Rights Policy Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Step 4: Verify the AD RMS Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 AD RMS Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Chapter 12 • Managing Active Directory Certificate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 What Is Certificate Services? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 X.509—Digital Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 46933book.fm Page xvii Saturday, May 10, 2008 9:30 AM
  20. 20. xviii CONTENTS Life Cycle of a Digital Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Where Digital Certificates Are Used Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Microsoft’s Implementation of Certificate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Certificate Services Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Certificate Services Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Certificate Services Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 What’s New for Certificate Services in Windows Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 New Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Hardware and Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Installing Certificate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Installing the Certificate Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Installing the Online Responder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Installing the Certificate Authority Snap-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Configuring the CA for OCSP Response Signing Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Configuring a Revocation Config