specific school-based language practices (oral and written genres / Discourses)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Expressive vocabulary is a stronger predictor of reading than phonemic awareness (only related to single-word reading)
Phonemic awareness appears to be a side effect of more general language abilities</li></li></ul><li>Oral Vocabulary Gap Widens<br />At Kindergarten entry<br /><ul><li>advanced children (75th percentile) are about a "year" ahead of average children
delayed children (25th percentile) are about a year behind</li></ul>At Grade 3 entry<br /><ul><li>advanced children’s comprehension is equivalent to that of average children in grade 4
slower-progressing children are similar to grade 2 children or younger</li></li></ul><li>Concerns<br /><ul><li>Current school practices typically have little effect on oral language development during the primary years
Children who enter grade 4 with lower vocabulary show increasing problems with reading comprehension, even if they have good decoding/word identification skills
To increase children’s ability to profit from education, we need to enrich their oral language development during the early years of schooling (Biemiller, 2003)</li></li></ul><li>Yet, the correlation between language abilities and success in learning to read hides an important reality:<br /><ul><li>Most children (even poor children) enter school with large vocabularies, complex grammar, and deep understandings of experiences and stories.
“It has been decades since anyone believed that poor and minority children entered school with 'no language’”(Labov, 1972; Gee, 1996, 2001).</li></li></ul><li>The critical difference:<br />Children who fail in school do not lack not general language abilities, but rather,<br />specific verbal abilities tied to specific school-based practices and school-based genres of oral and written language.<br />Children whose vocabularies are larger in ways that enhance their early school success: <br />know, and especially can use, more words tied to the specific forms of language that school-based practices use.<br />
Oral Language: Key Ideas<br /><ul><li>Meaning-making system (signs, symbols, semiotics)
Main tool for communication, upon which others are built
Related to literacy, other forms of representation, other symbol systems
Related to action, thinking and knowledge-building</li></li></ul><li>Language as Social Practices<br /><ul><li>In the “real world” language is contextualized, integrated with human activities rather than “apart”
People use language for specific purposes - to get things done
Social</li></li></ul><li>Language mediates thought and action (Vygotsky)<br />The child begins to master his/her environment with the use of speech, <br /><ul><li> which produces new relations with the environment
speech not only accompanies a specific activity, but also plays a specific role - facilitating the attainment of the goal, and guiding the child’s behaviour.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>For young children talking to self “out loud” enables problem-solving
Internalization of social speech, at about age 7, becomes private or inner speech, which then precedes action (planning).
“internal dialogue”(Lindfors, 1999)</li></li></ul><li>Contributions of the Social World<br />Cultural Resources<br /><ul><li>language system (vocabulary, syntax, alphabet)
genres - typical ways of using language - oral and written
Taking time from content area curriculum to spend on language arts</li></li></ul><li>Fostering Oral Language <br /><ul><li>Broadly speaking, language can only "grow" through interaction with people and texts that introduce new vocabulary, concepts, and language structures (Biemiller, 2003).
Much language growth comes from non-print sources (parents, peers, teacher explanations, class discussions, television, etc.)
“wrap language in and around experience”</li></li></ul><li>Enriched Language Environments<br />Enhanced verbal abilities result from family, community, and school language environments in which children: <br /><ul><li>interact intensively with adults and more advanced peers and
experience cognitively challenging talk and texts