LLED 556 #3<br />Oral and Written Language<br />
Why oral language is important<br /><ul><li>strong relationship to literacy learning, school achievement (“4th Grade Slump...
preschool oral language abilities predict reading three to five years later
In particular:
expressive vocabulary, and
specific school-based language practices (oral and written genres / Discourses)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Expressive vocab...
Semantic skills (meaning vocabulary) predict passage comprehension
Phonemic awareness appears to be a side effect of more general language abilities</li></li></ul><li>Oral Vocabulary Gap Wi...
delayed children (25th percentile) are about a year behind</li></ul>At Grade 3 entry<br /><ul><li>advanced children’s comp...
slower-progressing children are similar to grade 2 children or younger</li></li></ul><li>Concerns<br /><ul><li>Current sch...
Children who enter grade 4 with lower vocabulary show increasing problems with reading comprehension, even if they have go...
To increase children’s ability to profit from education, we need to enrich their oral language development during the earl...
“It has been decades since anyone believed that poor and minority children entered school with 'no language’”(Labov, 1972;...
Oral Language: Key Ideas<br /><ul><li>Meaning-making system (signs, symbols, semiotics)
Main tool for communication, upon which others are built
Related to literacy, other forms of representation, other symbol systems
Related to action, thinking and knowledge-building</li></li></ul><li>Language as Social Practices<br /><ul><li>In the “rea...
People use language for specific purposes - to get things done
Language practices vary across cultures
Within cultures/societies, language varies with different contexts and activities</li></li></ul><li>Language learning is:<...
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Lled 556 2010-3-oral

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Lled 556 2010-3-oral

  1. 1. LLED 556 #3<br />Oral and Written Language<br />
  2. 2. Why oral language is important<br /><ul><li>strong relationship to literacy learning, school achievement (“4th Grade Slump”), and success beyond school
  3. 3. preschool oral language abilities predict reading three to five years later
  4. 4. In particular:
  5. 5. expressive vocabulary, and
  6. 6. specific school-based language practices (oral and written genres / Discourses)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Expressive vocabulary is a stronger predictor of reading than phonemic awareness (only related to single-word reading)
  7. 7. Semantic skills (meaning vocabulary) predict passage comprehension
  8. 8. Phonemic awareness appears to be a side effect of more general language abilities</li></li></ul><li>Oral Vocabulary Gap Widens<br />At Kindergarten entry<br /><ul><li>advanced children (75th percentile) are about a "year" ahead of average children
  9. 9. delayed children (25th percentile) are about a year behind</li></ul>At Grade 3 entry<br /><ul><li>advanced children’s comprehension is equivalent to that of average children in grade 4
  10. 10. slower-progressing children are similar to grade 2 children or younger</li></li></ul><li>Concerns<br /><ul><li>Current school practices typically have little effect on oral language development during the primary years
  11. 11. Children who enter grade 4 with lower vocabulary show increasing problems with reading comprehension, even if they have good decoding/word identification skills
  12. 12. To increase children’s ability to profit from education, we need to enrich their oral language development during the early years of schooling (Biemiller, 2003)</li></li></ul><li>Yet, the correlation between language abilities and success in learning to read hides an important reality:<br /><ul><li>Most children (even poor children) enter school with large vocabularies, complex grammar, and deep understandings of experiences and stories.
  13. 13. “It has been decades since anyone believed that poor and minority children entered school with 'no language’”(Labov, 1972; Gee, 1996, 2001).</li></li></ul><li>The critical difference:<br />Children who fail in school do not lack not general language abilities, but rather,<br />specific verbal abilities tied to specific school-based practices and school-based genres of oral and written language.<br />Children whose vocabularies are larger in ways that enhance their early school success: <br />know, and especially can use, more words tied to the specific forms of language that school-based practices use.<br />
  14. 14. Oral Language: Key Ideas<br /><ul><li>Meaning-making system (signs, symbols, semiotics)
  15. 15. Main tool for communication, upon which others are built
  16. 16. Related to literacy, other forms of representation, other symbol systems
  17. 17. Related to action, thinking and knowledge-building</li></li></ul><li>Language as Social Practices<br /><ul><li>In the “real world” language is contextualized, integrated with human activities rather than “apart”
  18. 18. People use language for specific purposes - to get things done
  19. 19. Language practices vary across cultures
  20. 20. Within cultures/societies, language varies with different contexts and activities</li></li></ul><li>Language learning is:<br /><ul><li>Biological / Physical - capability for oral language
  21. 21. Cognitive & Affective
  22. 22. capacity is “hard wired” in humans
  23. 23. learned through use
  24. 24. active engagement
  25. 25. experimentation & play
  26. 26. successive approximations
  27. 27. Social</li></li></ul><li>Language mediates thought and action (Vygotsky)<br />The child begins to master his/her environment with the use of speech, <br /><ul><li> which produces new relations with the environment
  28. 28. speech not only accompanies a specific activity, but also plays a specific role - facilitating the attainment of the goal, and guiding the child’s behaviour.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>For young children talking to self “out loud” enables problem-solving
  29. 29. Internalization of social speech, at about age 7, becomes private or inner speech, which then precedes action (planning).
  30. 30. “internal dialogue”(Lindfors, 1999)</li></li></ul><li>Contributions of the Social World<br />Cultural Resources<br /><ul><li>language system (vocabulary, syntax, alphabet)
  31. 31. genres - typical ways of using language - oral and written
  32. 32. texts of various kinds (print, multimodal)
  33. 33. participation structures (discourses; Discourses)
  34. 34. children learn their primary Discourses within the family</li></ul>Immersion (language environment)<br />Opportunities for social interaction<br />
  35. 35. modelling and demonstration of oral language<br /><ul><li>forms and purposes
  36. 36. social practices, participation structures
  37. 37. contextualized
  38. 38. integrated within purposeful activity
  39. 39. shared attention
  40. 40. collaborative
  41. 41. dialogic - built on others’ words
  42. 42. transactional - meaning created in the interaction</li></ul>Social Interaction (adults and other children)<br />
  43. 43. Scaffolding by more advanced language users<br /><ul><li>Focus on meaning and purpose
  44. 44. Acceptance of approximation
  45. 45. Feedback
  46. 46. Contingent response
  47. 47. Support
  48. 48. Extension and elaboration (stretching)</li></ul> (Joan Tough, Gordon Wells)<br />
  49. 49. What does not work well in promoting oral language?<br /><ul><li>Too much teacher talk (e.g., IRE, whole class instruction, ability grouping)
  50. 50. Mostly-quiet classrooms
  51. 51. Isolated vocabulary instruction
  52. 52. Vocabulary worksheets, etc.
  53. 53. Taking time from content area curriculum to spend on language arts</li></li></ul><li>Fostering Oral Language <br /><ul><li>Broadly speaking, language can only "grow" through interaction with people and texts that introduce new vocabulary, concepts, and language structures (Biemiller, 2003).
  54. 54. “texts that stretch”
  55. 55. Much language growth comes from non-print sources (parents, peers, teacher explanations, class discussions, television, etc.)
  56. 56. “wrap language in and around experience”</li></li></ul><li>Enriched Language Environments<br />Enhanced verbal abilities result from family, community, and school language environments in which children: <br /><ul><li>interact intensively with adults and more advanced peers and
  57. 57. experience cognitively challenging talk and texts
  58. 58. on sustained topics, and
  59. 59. in a variety of oral and written genres</li></li></ul><li>Contributions of Schooling<br /><ul><li>Build on children’s existing language (vocabulary, primary Discourses)
  60. 60. Acknowledge cultural and linguistic differences in children’s backgrounds
  61. 61. Provide children with rich language resources and experiences for learning across the curriculum</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Facilitate children’s capacity to use language
  62. 62. for communication and social interaction
  63. 63. as a tool for thinking and learning
  64. 64. secondary Discourses and genres needed for success in school and beyond</li>

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