ENGINEERING CHALLENGES FOR
FUTURE WIND ENERGY
DEVELOPMENT
Neil D. Kelley
National Wind Technology Center
11th H.T. Person ...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 2
We Will Be Discussing . . .
• What has been accomplished in...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 3
Where the Wind Is In the United States
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 4
What has been accomplished in wind
energy technology to dat...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 5
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 6
There are a Range of Wind Turbine Sizes and Applications
Sm...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 7
Growth of Wind Energy Capacity Worldwide
0
10000
20000
3000...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 8
2012 Goal :
3.6 cents/kWh
with no PTC#
Cost of Energy Trend...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 9
How has this been accomplished?
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 10
The Wind Turbine Designer’s Toolbox: The NWTC
Suite of Adv...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 11
The Development of
New Testing Facilities
A new 45-meter w...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 12
Tools for Developing
Advanced Generators and
Drive Trains
...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 13
Meet the Need for Understanding Available
Materials and De...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 14
Future Goal: Provide 20% of U.S. Electrical
Energy from Wi...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 15
What Are the Barriers To Meeting These
Goals?
• Adequate t...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 16
Advanced Wind Turbine Component Design
Studies
WindPACT: W...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 17
Where is the Wind Resource Located That
Will Provide the N...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 18
onshore and offshore
Source of Wind Energy for 20% Scenario
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 19
U.S. Rational to Pursue Offshore Wind
Energy Development
U...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 20
Region 0 - 30 30 - 60 60 - 900 > 900
New England 10.3 43.5...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 21
What Are The Engineering Challenges
Necessary To Overcome ...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 22
Coming to Grips with Turbulence Within the
Atmospheric Bou...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 23
Multi-Megawatt
Capacity Wind
Turbines Are
Huge Structures
...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 24
A Ubiquitous Structure in the Nighttime Atmospheric
Bounda...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 25
Source: R. Banta, NOAA/ESRL
Horizontal distance (km)
Heigh...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 26
LIDAR Observation of Low-Level Jet and Spatial
Distributio...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 27
Role of Jets and Turbine Structural Loads
Intense vertical...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 28
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
12 AM 4 AM 8 AM 12 PM 4 PM 8...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 29
The Need for Close Collaboration Between
the Engineering a...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 30
An Example of Collaborative Synergism
Development of a Low...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 31
The Engineering Challenge of Building Wind
Farms Offshore
...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 32
The Development of Turbine Platforms for Deep
Water Instal...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 33
The Deep Water Operating Environment:
A Major Engineering ...
October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 34
Conclusions
• A tremendous opportunity exists for engineer...
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Engineering challenges for future wind energy development, 11th h.t. person lecture, univ of wyo, october 13, 2006

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Engineering challenges for future wind energy development, 11th h.t. person lecture, univ of wyo, october 13, 2006

  1. 1. ENGINEERING CHALLENGES FOR FUTURE WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT Neil D. Kelley National Wind Technology Center 11th H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture in Engineering University of Wyoming October 13, 2006
  2. 2. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 2 We Will Be Discussing . . . • What has been accomplished in wind energy technology to date? • What are the future goals? • What are current barriers to meeting those goals? • What are the engineering challenges that will need to be surmounted in order to overcome these barriers? • The need for a multi-disciplinary approach to carry out those challenges.
  3. 3. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 3 Where the Wind Is In the United States
  4. 4. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 4 What has been accomplished in wind energy technology to date?
  5. 5. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 5
  6. 6. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 6 There are a Range of Wind Turbine Sizes and Applications Small (≤10 kW) • Homes (Grid connected) • Farms • Remote Applications (e.g. battery changing, water pumping, telecom sites, icemaking) Intermediate (10-500 kW) • Village Power • Hybrid Systems • Distributed Power Large (500 kW – 6 MW) • Central Station Wind Farms • Distributed Power • Offshore Wind Generation Stations
  7. 7. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 7 Growth of Wind Energy Capacity Worldwide 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 Rest of World Actual Projected Rest of World North America North America Europe Europe Jan 2006 Cumulative MW = 56,813 Rest of World = 7,270 North America = 9,550 Europe = 39,993 Sources: BTM Consult Aps, Sept 2005 Windpower Monthly, January 2006
  8. 8. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 8 2012 Goal : 3.6 cents/kWh with no PTC# Cost of Energy Trend 1981: 40 cents/kWh Decreasing Cost Due to: • Increased Turbine Size • R&D Advances • Manufacturing improvements NSP 107 MW Lake Benton, MN wind farm 2006: 5-8 cents/kWh with no PTC# Cost Increases Due to: • Price increases in Steel & Copper • Turbines Sold Out for 2 Years #Federal production tax credit
  9. 9. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 9 How has this been accomplished?
  10. 10. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 10 The Wind Turbine Designer’s Toolbox: The NWTC Suite of Advanced Numerical Simulation Codes Measurements (power, loads, accel., wind) Aerodynamics (AeroDyn) Structural Dynamics (FAST, ADAMS) Controls (user-defined) Wind Field (TurbSim, field exp., etc.) Actuator Inputs (blade pitch, gen. torque, yaw) Aerodynamic Loads (lift, drag, pitch mom.) Blade Motions (blade pitch, element pos. & vel.) Wind-Inflow Time Series Loads (forces, moments) Time Series Motions (defl., vel., accel.) Output Other External Conditions External Loads (earthquake, wave) Platform Motions (defl., vel., accel.)
  11. 11. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 11 The Development of New Testing Facilities A new 45-meter wind turbine blade design being tested in the NWTC Blade Test Facility Latest blades are now reaching 61.5 m lengths for 5 MW size turbines.
  12. 12. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 12 Tools for Developing Advanced Generators and Drive Trains GEC NPS Today 1.5 MW Commercial Technology Tomorrow Prototype Technology NWTC 2.5 MW Dynamometer Facility
  13. 13. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 13 Meet the Need for Understanding Available Materials and Developing New Ones
  14. 14. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 14 Future Goal: Provide 20% of U.S. Electrical Energy from Wind by the Year 2030  Increasing the reliability and service lifetime of wind turbine components and systems (risk reduction)  Improving both the power quality and consistency to increase the net worth of wind-generated electricity  Reducing the cost of wind turbine operations and maintenance  Removing technical barriers/issues Achieve This Through Market Transformation by . . .
  15. 15. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 15 What Are the Barriers To Meeting These Goals? • Adequate transmission to connect wind resource regions with load centers • The current level of intermittency and the accuracy of wind forecasts • The accuracy of the initial resource assessment and the lack of site-specific characteristics in those assessments that may affect the operation and lifetime of the installed turbines • Interference with ground-based RADAR and other military and civilian communications and navigational systems • Environmental impacts such as avian interactions, noise, esthetics
  16. 16. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 16 Advanced Wind Turbine Component Design Studies WindPACT: Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies Blades Drive Trains Towers
  17. 17. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 17 Where is the Wind Resource Located That Will Provide the Needed Power to Feed the Primary U.S. Load Centers? • Onshore • Offshore
  18. 18. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 18 onshore and offshore Source of Wind Energy for 20% Scenario
  19. 19. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 19 U.S. Rational to Pursue Offshore Wind Energy Development US Population Concentration US Wind Resource Graphic Credit: GE Energy % of with Class 3 winds or above • Windy onshore sites are not close to population centers • The electric utility grid cannot be easily set up for interstate transmission • Load centers are close to offshore sites
  20. 20. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 20 Region 0 - 30 30 - 60 60 - 900 > 900 New England 10.3 43.5 130.6 0.0 Mid-Atlantic 64.3 126.2 45.3 30.0 Great Lakes 15.5 11.6 193.6 0.0 California 0.0 0.3 47.8 168.0 Pacific Northwest 0.0 1.6 100.4 68.2 Total 90.1 183.2 517.7 266.2 GW by Depth (m) U.S. Offshore Resource Southeast and Gulf Coasts have not been evaluated
  21. 21. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 21 What Are The Engineering Challenges Necessary To Overcome These Barriers? • Develop engineering solutions and methodologies that utilize new materials, structures, and controls to accommodate a wide range of turbine operating environments • Understanding the detailed role of atmospheric motions in the aeroelastic response of wind turbine structures and its long-term consequences • Collaborate with the atmospheric science community in the development of new tools to predict not only future wind farm power output over a period of 24-48 hours in advance but conditions that may have a deleterious impact on turbine operations
  22. 22. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 22 Coming to Grips with Turbulence Within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Its Impact on the Dynamic Response of Wind Turbines • Wind turbines experience the greatest numbers of fatigue cycles of any man-made structure within their lifetime • The source of these cycles is primarily atmospheric turbulence
  23. 23. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 23 Multi-Megawatt Capacity Wind Turbines Are Huge Structures Boeing 747-400 GE 3.6 MW Turbine Designed for Offshore Use 104-m Rotor Diameter
  24. 24. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 24 A Ubiquitous Structure in the Nighttime Atmospheric Boundary Layer: The Low-Level Jet Stream Eventual Max Turbine Depth p 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Height(m) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Typical Vertical Wind Profiles Associated With Low-Level Jets Lamar, Colorado Low-Level Jet 10-min mean wind speed (m/s) Strong Correlation Between Wind Resource and Jet Bi-annual Frequency After Bonner, 1968
  25. 25. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 25 Source: R. Banta, NOAA/ESRL Horizontal distance (km) Height(km) waves low-level jet organized turbulent air motions from waves height of wind speed maximum high vertical shear region LIDAR Observation of Wave Motions in Southern Kansas Low-Level Jets Are Responsible for the Generation of Organized or Coherent Turbulence by Atmospheric Wave Motions SCHEMATIC OF COHERENT TURBULENCE GENERATION
  26. 26. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 26 LIDAR Observation of Low-Level Jet and Spatial Distribution of Turbulence in Southeast Colorado 20:16 to 21:12 LST 23:11 to 23:29 LST15 September 2003 Jet Maxima Organized Turbulent Region Turbine Rotors
  27. 27. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 27 Role of Jets and Turbine Structural Loads Intense vertical shear and stable flow beneath the low-level jet provides the catalyst for developing atmospheric wave motions Breaking atmospheric wave motions produce bursts of coherent turbulence Transient loads are induced when turbine rotors encounter coherent turbulent regions
  28. 28. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 28 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 12 AM 4 AM 8 AM 12 PM 4 PM 8 PM 12 AM Time FaultTime(hours) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 WindShearExponent Fault Time Shear Diurnal Variation in Turbine Fault and Vertical Wind Shear Patterns Observed at Big Spring, Texas Number of Hours With Turbines In Fault Status Vertical Wind Shear Source: Global Energy Concepts Turbines Tend to Develop Fault Conditions More Often at Night. Why? peak low- level jet activity
  29. 29. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 29 The Need for Close Collaboration Between the Engineering and Atmospheric Science Communities • Atmospheric dynamics clearly have a significant impact on wind turbine operations and longevity beyond just the amount of wind energy available for power production • It is likely that turbine load reduction will require a more detailed knowledge of turbulent atmospheric structures and mitigation approaches that include real-time atmospheric measurements in the control scheme • The future ability to utilize operational weather forecast models to warn of potentially harmful events as well as predicting future power production will contribute to increased wind farm productivity and efficiency
  30. 30. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 30 An Example of Collaborative Synergism Development of a Low- Dimensional Wind Turbine Inflow Model William Lindberg Jonathan Naughton Department of Mechanical Engineering Thomas Parish Robert Kelly Department of Atmospheric Science John Spitler Department of Mathematics Simulated detailed turbine inflow Low-dimensional reconstruction
  31. 31. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 31 The Engineering Challenge of Building Wind Farms Offshore •Platforms •The Operating Environment
  32. 32. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 32 The Development of Turbine Platforms for Deep Water Installations Current Technology
  33. 33. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 33 The Deep Water Operating Environment: A Major Engineering Challenge Turbulent winds Irregular waves Gravity / inertia Aerodynamics:  induction  skewed wake  dynamic stall Hydrodynamics:  scattering  radiation  hydrostatics Elasticity Mooring dynamics Control system Fully coupled
  34. 34. October 13, 2006 N.Kelley --- H.T. Person Homecoming Lecture 34 Conclusions • A tremendous opportunity exists for engineers trained in a range of disciplines to contribute to the development of a mature wind energy industry poised to meet the 2030 goal. • The same holds true for meteorologists who wish to work in numerical forecasting and those who enjoy problem solving and working with engineers toward a common goal. • Future progress on overcoming the barriers discussed and improving the reliability and worth of wind-generated electricity will depend on the extent these problems are approached using a multi-disciplinary, synergistic methodology.

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