Ronald Milne - Fair Use


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Ronald Milne - Fair Use

  1. 1. The Google Library Project: an eruption in the information landscape Ronald Milne
  2. 5. The Universal Library <ul><li>Thomas Bodley: refounded University of Oxford’s Library (1602). Arrangement with the Stationers’ Company (1610) that a copy of each new publication registered at Stationers’ Hall should be deposited at the Bodleian </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriel Naudé, Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627) promoted the concept of a superlibrary where every enquirer would find the item he was looking for, even if it could be found nowhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>Leibniz proposed to develop an encyclopaedic collection at the Bibliotheca Augusta at Wolfenb üttel (1691). </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio Panizzi, Principal Librarian of the British Museum Library (1856-67) maintained that the ideal library was one in which he could fathom the most intricate enquiry. </li></ul>
  3. 6. ‘ Boutique’ digitisation <ul><li>One-off </li></ul><ul><li>Self-selecting i.e. obvious treasures </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers: cultural restitution, wider public access </li></ul><ul><li>Costs can be subsidised by digitisation for facsimile publication </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes private sponsorship, especially for iconic items </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes possible to ignore cumulative effect of other costs, e.g. hosting </li></ul>
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  9. 14. Oxford Google digitisation <ul><li>Agreement signed December 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Digitisation of 19 th -century out-of-copyright material: originally estimated over 1M items </li></ul><ul><li>Included material from the Bodleian Library and other major Oxford University libraries </li></ul><ul><li>A multi-year project </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning work began March 2006 </li></ul>
  10. 15. Oxford Google Digitisation (2) <ul><li>Two digital copies made: Google and Oxford free to exploit non-exclusively </li></ul><ul><li>English Law if there are issues relating to contract </li></ul><ul><li>Why 19 th century materials? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of copyright and out of print (1886 chosen as cut-off date; becomes a moving wall) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxford already a principal partner in Early English Books Online (EEBO) and Eighteenth Century Collections (ECCO) projects </li></ul></ul>
  11. 24. Mass digitisation: some notes <ul><li>For libraries these are digitisation projects, but for Google it is as much an indexing project </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial scale: ‘Selection’ of books: – digitisation en masse rather than ‘cherry-picking’ </li></ul><ul><li>Access, with preservation benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Digital copies linked to library catalogue entries </li></ul><ul><li>Very heavy investment by Google and cost to the institution in staff time and opportunity costs </li></ul><ul><li>But … without this level of investment, mass digitisation would not happen </li></ul>
  12. 25. Duplication among libraries, and language: collections analysis <ul><li>Analysis of holdings on WorldCat </li></ul><ul><li>Collection overlap among the ‘Google Five’: 56% of works are held uniquely by one ‘Google Five’ library </li></ul><ul><li>When comparing only two libraries out of the five, eight out of ten books are held uniquely </li></ul><ul><li>On average, about 50% of ‘Google Five’ libraries’ holdings are in English </li></ul><ul><li>Over 430 different languages represented </li></ul><ul><li>See: Lavoie, Connaway and Dempsey: Anatomy of aggregate collections: the example of Google Print for libraries, D-Lib Magazine, 11 (9) September 2005 </li></ul>
  13. 26. Some figures <ul><li>Survey revealed that circa 20% of 19 th century stock was uncut … </li></ul><ul><li>Survey also revealed that circa 3% of 19 th century stock was uncatalogued … </li></ul><ul><li>Google digitised 400,000 out-of-copyright books (140m pages) held at Oxford University </li></ul><ul><li>In one week in October 2009, 30% of the Oxford content was accessed, and an 1852 edition of Emma was downloaded 18,000 times! </li></ul><ul><li>Google now claim to have digitised a total of 10m books </li></ul><ul><li>Many are in-copyright books from University of Michigan, University of California and Stanford University, and cannot currently be viewed </li></ul>
  14. 27. Mass digitisation projects <ul><li>Available to anyone, anywhere, on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Access is free </li></ul><ul><li>Saves the time of researchers, particularly in closed access libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to search full text a huge advantage to researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Mass digitisation projects represent a step-change in the dissemination of information </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially a transforming agent in learning, teaching and research </li></ul><ul><li>With the advent of mass digitisation, is it possible, in the Digital Age, to create a new type of ‘universal library’ which would meet the aspirations of Naudé, Leibniz and Panizzi? </li></ul>
  15. 28. Some issues <ul><li>The following were issues in the digital landscape before the Google project, but the sheer scale of the digitisation undertaken by Google has made the issues points of heated discussion </li></ul><ul><li>IPR in digitised works </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright dates: varying legislation across the world </li></ul><ul><li>Orphan works (works still in copyright, but where the copyright-holder cannot be traced) </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction: whole books viewable in the US under the Google Book settlement may not be viewable elsewhere in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use/fair dealing </li></ul>