Ch 19.3 oil

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Ch 19.3 oil

  1. 1. 19.3 OIL D o r i s V. Ne’Shonda D.
  2. 2.  Petroleum is taken from organic molecules created by living organisms millions of years ago and buried under sediments where high pressure and temperatures transformed them into energy -rich compounds Petroleum deposits can be ,mixtures of oil, gas, and a solid tar-like material. Oil and gas are often found under layers of shale and other sediments, mainly where folds and deformations create pockets that trap hydrocarbons
  3. 3. OIL Ultra deep wells have been drilled in the ocean under 10,000ft of water and on land 40,000ft below the surface Directional drilling 3.75mi horizontally away from the original target, can create up to 50 wells with dif ferent directions and depths ANWR(Artic National Wildlife Refuge) in Alaska claims that this will only impact 2% of the land surface during drilling We only recover 30-40% of the oil in an area, because extraction reaches a point where it’s uneconomical to continue
  4. 4. RESOURCES AREN’T EVENLY DISTRIBUTED There’s about 4 trillion barrels worth of oil in the world, half is recoverable 465 billion barrels have already been consumed, as of 2006 28.5 billion barrels are consumed each year, at this rate there’s only enough to last about 40 years. Saudi Arabia claims 262.7 billion barrels, almos ¼ of the total preserve. 10 countries hold 84% of all known recoverable oil
  5. 5. OIL’S IMPACTS Advantages:  Relatively easy to attain  Cheap  generates electricity Disadvantages:  Produce CO₂ emissions which contribute to global warming  oil spills can occur, wildlife is harmed  $250 billion are paid directly to oil producing countries each year  Oil Spills
  6. 6. ALASKA’S ARCTIC WILDLIFE REFUGE Home to an abundant amount of wildlife (e.g. caribou, waterfowl, polar bears, arctic wolves, etc) Might be the site of the last big, onshore liquid petroleum field in North America Estimated to contain 12 billion barrels of oil & several trillion cubic feet of gas Conservationist say that oil drilling would harm the area Oil company engineers claim that careless ways are no longer permitted in their operations
  7. 7. ALASKA’S ARCTIC WILDLIFE REFUGE
  8. 8. TAR SANDS Composed of sand & shale particles coated with bitumen, a viscous mixture of long chain hydrocarbons Pros: cheap to extract, abundant source in Canada Cons: typical plant produces 15 million m³ of toxic sludge, 500 tons of greenhouse gases, contaminates water, destroy boreal forests
  9. 9. OIL SHALE Not oil or shale, but finely grained sedimentary rock rich in solid organic material called kerogen When heated to 480°C (900°F) the kerogen liquefies and can be extracted Pros: might yield the equivalent of several trillion barrels of oil Cons: produces lots of waste, it’s expensive, high potential for air and water pollution

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