OCR - New Media Theory and Key Terminology


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OCR - New Media Theory and Key Terminology

  1. 1. Name: _____________________________________ G325: Critical Perspectives in Media – Section B • AO1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of media concepts, contexts and critical debates, using terminology appropriately and with accurate and coherent written expression. • AO2 Apply knowledge and understanding to show how meanings are created when analyzing media products and evaluating their own practical work (Section A) Social Networking and New Media Key terms Social Networking is a form of Web 2.0 (2004), which can be denoted as the “second generation of web based communities” and a lot of what makes Social Networking so appealing is the fact that it consists of and encourages UCC (User Created Content). Anthropomorphising Definition: “Giving a technology human like qualities, for example: Facebook – UCC media product that all of a sudden conveys a picture of the member, interests etc, even down to the “Like” status (Thumb)” How can I apply this is in the exam? How the user has become a “PROSUMER” (Producer-Consumer) and how their creations and consumption of other products become recognised by other institutions – there is a fine lien between privacy and sharing…. Technological Determinist Definition: “How technology dictates or determines the nature of society” How can I apply this is in the exam? “Technological determinism denotes how…” – Define what it is and relate it to relevant examples from either of the Case Studies – Give statistics to support how this case study (and VITALLY your own) has determined the nature of society. Constructionist View 1
  2. 2. Definition: “A view of representation that suggests our knowledge of the World is constructed by media representations” How can I apply this is in the exam? “A constructionist view of the media denotes…” - Define what it is and relate it to relevant examples from either of the Case Studies and your own – e.g how does Facebook allow users to gain a better understanding of their peers and contemporary society? Moral Panic Definition: “When something or someone threatens the ‘normality’ of society and social order” How can I apply this is in the exam? “Media products such as Social networking will create a morla panic in society (give a brief definition) for example…” – Support this understanding with examples form the media highlighting the ‘dangers’ of Social Netwroking to a passive society. - Also state how the example(s) you have studied (e.g ‘Youtube Gangsters’ - Metro article or ‘Facebook Under Fire’ – Daily Mail) present a dystopian view of the contemporary media landscape. Liberal Pluralism Definition: “Challenges Marxist approaches to the media. It sees society as being made up of competing interest groups, where the media is produced, distributed and exhibited to the wishes of its consumers”. How can I apply this is in the exam? “A liberal pluralist approach to the media is now challenging the structured, marxist approach of the media. For example…” – State how consumers now take on the role of ‘Producer’ through mediums like Social Networking, Video sharing (Youtube, 4OD) as well as through the promotion of ‘The Inbetweeners’ through the e-media platform and through your own case study. Hyper-reality Definition: “The distinction between the real world and the media world is disappearing”. How can I apply this is in the exam? 2
  3. 3. - Discuss how Social networking has changed the media landscape through: 1) The way we communicate with one another 2) The way we are ‘informed’ (Katz) about what is going on in society. 3) How Convergence of other technologies allows us to consume different types of media (Film, music) more freely. Web 2.0 (1999 – Darcy DiNucci) Definition: A term used to describe the next generation web based communities, such as: - Social Networking - Blogs - “Wiki’s” How can I apply this is in the exam? - State how Social Networking and other web based communities such as forums within ‘The Inbetweeners’ website is changing the contemporary media landscape. - State how other established institutions like the BBC are adapting their news homepage to accommodate social networking applications. - Give specific examples of statistics that demonstrate this “next generation” – e.g How many people access Facebook, Myspace, Twitter. YOU SHOULD also be prepared to discuss the emergence of Web 3.0 (Markoff) which emphasize machine-facilitated understanding of information in order to provide a more productive and intuitive user experience. For example: Netflix can determine what you like in terms of consumption of certain genres, then go onto recommend other films/TV shows based on this consumption, as well as publicise this to your friends and family through convergence and synergy with social media products such as Facebook. Globalisation Definition: “The way society is inter-related and connected through trade, communication and cultural experiences”. 3
  4. 4. How can I apply this is in the exam? - State how the media landscape is no longer restricted by censorship and how products like Social networking are changing the way we and other institutions communicate and make money – Give examples from the case study (Statistics etc) to support this. Democratisation of Media Contents Definition: “The freedom of producing and consuming media content/products whenever and wherever you like. This moves away from the traditionally Marxist approach to Media PDME, whereby the Institutions are (or were dependent on how you look at) in control and we are restricted by their expectations in terms of scheduling and the content provided”. How can I apply this is in the exam? - Link to other ideologies such as Winer (1994) and Tapscott & Williams (2006). - Link to products whereby the consumer takes control and in the process could be denoted as being Prosumers. Miniaturisation Definition: “Technology is getting smaller in many cases, enabling portability and also giving the potential for more to fit in a smaller space” How can I apply this is in the exam? - Discuss how a huge product like Facebook has now been “miniaturised” or compressed to become compatible through other technology such as I-Phone and Blackberry - We enjoy consuming products on the go – Does your own individual case study appeal to “Early adopters” (below) Early Adopter Definition: “A consumer who buys a new technology early. They will own it before the majority of others “catch on” How can I apply this is in the exam? 4
  5. 5. - How “revolutionaries” like Mark Zuckerberg created a product that became popular amongst a few people before hundreds of millions of consumers “caught on” Analogue Definition: “The ‘old’ ways in which media has been distributed in the past – e.g through television, film, radio etc.” How can I apply this is in the exam? - Discuss who social networking has changed the media landscape from traditional products like this to converging technology like You tube and social networking access through mobile phone technology. Postmodernism Definition: See Hyper reality – According to Julian McDougall “Media reality is the new reality” and according to Strinati (An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture – 2005) “The mass media were once thought of as holding up a mirror to, and thereby reflecting, a wider social reality”. How can I apply this is in the exam? - Link to Wendy Helsby’s ideology and other key terms/theory such as Hegemonic equilibrium, where the consumption of media products, as well as producing media products, is providing a presentation of society. Gate keeping Definition: Quite  an  old-­‐fashioned  term  to   describe  the  way  in  which   certain  key  personnel  (news   editors,  newspaper  owners   mainly)  have  control  over  the   information  that  is  presented  to   audiences,  and  the  way  in  which   it  is  presented  (the  angle)   5
  6. 6. How can I apply these laws is in the exam? The dominant Media institutions of the past no longer have this control – or do they? Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) Definition: Whereby audiences can now personalise their TV viewing experience so they can watch what they want, when they want. Case Study examples: OD; Sky Ad Smart Sky Go; Sky + when you are NOT in the house; BBC iPlayer/4 – Government Law Data Protection Act (1998) Equal Opportunities Act (2004) How can I apply these laws is in the exam? - State how the Marxist ideology and approach to producing the media (control of the media across the platforms to manipulate the lower classes in society) implies that those in power can use and manipulate our personal information online to their benefit (Facebook etc) and other institutions. 6
  7. 7. Ideologies - State how other Institutions are seeing the benefits associated to Social Networking as well monitoring their employees personal opinions and lives (See examples 1-2 below) a Jackie Cosh - “Social Networking has become an essential part of the contemporary working World” (The Times – 2nd April 2008) How can I apply this in the exam? In an introduction to whatever question you get, especially if it is around a “debate” style essay that requires you to argue for and/or against New Media Technologies belonging in society at the threat of existing Media institutions and our everyday lives. How can I apply this in the exam? - Pick out 2-3 verbal codes from the article that demonstrate the positives associated to social Networking – e.g “the site attracts 10 million users a week” – incorporating social networking within their site (from their point of view) will only increase the interest levels. Barack Obama - “Be careful what you post on Facebook” – Why? 7
  8. 8. (2008) “The prejudices of physical life are reflected – and sometimes reinforced – in the virtual life” (Page 158) How can I apply this is in the exam? - State how this is a negative associated to the medium of social networking from a consumer and Institution perspective, especially in the Broadcast and Print news – support this with notes made on the clips and texts we have analysed in class. Julia Angwin (2009) – ‘Stealing Myspace’ stated that Myspace and in particular social networking was “The defining drama of the digital era” How can I apply this is in the exam? - This could be a good ideology to apply in the exam in your introduction and comment on the deeper meanings (connotations) of the verbal code “drama” as to how Social Networking, were it to end tomorrow, would be remembered. - Link this quote to the video clip we watched of Tom Anderson (co-founder and President of Myspace) was interviewed by George Stromboulos where he thought Myspace had “changed popular culture” Jurgen Habermas (1991) - “Communication and the evolution of society” stated that the media in the future would “focus primarily on celebrity and trivia” How can I apply this is in the exam? - Link to Maslow’s ‘social climbers’ ideology and how society is fixated with the latest technology and the lifestyle of the “higher classes” (Karl Marx) – Twitter is a prime example of a media product that conforms to this idea. 8
  9. 9. De Sola Poole (1977) – “Technologies of Freedom” predicted that new media technologies would “..allow the flowering of a hundred voices” How can I apply this is in the exam? - This is another ideology you could use in an introduction to state how De Sola Poole was correct, however social networking has meant “hundreds of millions” of voices are now “flowering” – Link to user statistics on Facebook (or other social networking media products) and your own individual case study and other key terms like Liberal Pluralism and Web 2.0 (2004) Louis Althusser “Interpellation” How an individuals identity and self image is produced by the dominant ideologies in society – The media has the power (See Mediation) to control and represent as they wish. Product Placement and materialism have emerged as a result of this ideology. Noah Chomsky – Social Media “Erodes  normal  human  relations”  and  it  makes  people  “more  superficial”   “Global Village” (Marshall McLuhan – 1967) How society is connected through media products and a variety of platforms – for example Facebook and the medium of social networking has created a Global village. Bauman (1998) He predicted that NOT everyone is included in the New Media ‘Global Village’ (McLuhan – 1967) as there are “Winners & Losers” and as a result those losers are “left behind”. News Corporation – Key ideologies to consider: 9
  10. 10. News Corporation “dominates the planet” (Waters – 1995) and is thus an “aggressive global trailbalzer” (Blau – 2005). Dan Gillmor (2004) said we are “CITIZEN JOURNALISTS”. Irvine (2006) – in relation to Globalisation – stated that “modern media simply dissolve time, distance, place and local culture that once divided the globe”. Henry Jenkins (2006) Convergence - describes the (never expected amongst traditional media institutions) “cooperation between multiple media industries” in providing media consumers with the “kinds of entertainment experiences they want”. Jenkins (2006) also stated: • There is now a “migratory behaviour” amongst audiences as they search for these entertainment experiences. • In the World of convergence, “every consumer gets courted across multiple media platforms”. • Media consumers and producers now co-exist in a ‘Participatory Culture’ - “In this emerging media system, what might traditionally be understood as media producers and consumers are transformed into participants who are expected to interact with each other”. • “Everyone is a producer of Media” and “we can now communicate across geographical barriers” – Web 2.0. Lull (2006) “As technological and cultural landscapes evolve, the sense of belonging and community does not disappear, it changes shape”. Leadbetter (2006) Online Gaming - “It’s the players who create the content”. Leadbetter (2006) argues that the way we think and make sense of ‘knowledge’ is fundamentally shifting in the online age. 10
  11. 11. McMillin (2007) “’Global’ is often considered synonymous for a ‘site of cultural erosion and destruction’ and the ‘local’ as a site of pristine cultural ‘authenticity’ etc. Marshall McLuhan (1960) wrote – actually predicted – that Globalisation would come about as a result of society being “increasingly mediated”, whereby the media institutions control and dominance will inspire a wave of consumers to fight back and take control – see Dave Winer (1994) ideology. Plunkett (2008) argued that Traditional UK Gatekeepers are “ditching” their traditional, old methods and are going “straight to their audience via the web”. Robertson (1994) Defines Globalisation as “Both the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole”. Tapscott & Williams (2006) “As people individually and collectively program the web, they’re increasingly in command” and as a result Institutions are “going straight to their audience via the web”. Dave Winer (1994) “Once the users take control, they never give it back”. 11