ExC-ELL

Expediting Reading
Comprehension across
Disciplines
-It's not only for ELLs!
Christa Daniel
Southeastern Randolph...
ExC-ELL

Margarita Calderón
"We have accumulated a
collection of schoolbased and instructional
features that are working
f...
ExC-ELL

ExC-ELL: Research-based and
Proven Outcomes!
ExC-ELL
…funded by the NY
Carnegie Corporation
…a professional
devel...
ExC-ELL

Why Involve ALL Teachers with ExC-ELL?

ExC-ELL!

ExC-ELL!

ExC-ELL!
ExC-ELL

ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc
ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc...
ExC-ELL

Alphabet Soup
ExC-ELL

ExC-ELL Parallels the CCSS
The CCSS call for basic changes in the way
all K-12 teachers have been teaching:
• Aca...
ExC-ELL

ALL students will read, discuss and write
in all subjects EVERY CLASS, EVERY DAY!
ExC-ELL strategies HELP!
ExC-ELL

The Big Question from Teachers:
What can ExC-ELL do for my students?
Prior to ExC-ELL:

Surface
Comprehension

De...
ExC-ELL

Vocabulary and Oracy
Development Takes Place:
Before Reading
Pre-teaching of vocabulary
During Reading
Teacher re...
ExC-ELL

How to Select Words to Teach
Choose words that are critically
important:
• to the text
• to the understanding of ...
ExC-ELL

Vocabulary TIERS
Tier 3
Content specific words
(highlighted in the text)

Tier 2
Academic process language
Transi...
ExC-ELL

Tier 2

Words in End Of Grade & End Of Course
Exams, the “high-stakes” testing.
Information Processing Words
• In...
ExC-ELL

Vocabulary Tiers:
Specificity & Sophistication
Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

knee

kneecap

patella

in all

total

sum...
ExC-ELL

Tier 2- The “Forgotten List”
of Vocabulary
• Academic Processing words
• Idioms
• Transition words and connectors...
ExC-ELL

ROUNDTABLE
Clear your desks.

Only one paper and pencil.
Each student writes one answer and passes the
paper to t...
ExC-ELL

A Queen’s Wish
One gray winter day the elderly queen
summoned all her grandchildren to the castle. “I
have been f...
ExC-ELL

Vocabulary Tiers for ELLs
A Queen’s Wish
Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Simple
Words

Process, Idioms,
Sophisticated

Co...
ExC-ELL

Pre-Teach
Step 1

Teacher says the word .

ExC-ELL, ExC-ELL, ExC-ELL

Teacher asks students to repeat
the word th...
ExC-ELL

Examples for Step #6
Popcorn Activity:
If you are studying for a test, you
need to do it persistently. What else
...
ExC-ELL

Expository Text
Text that Explains Facts and Concepts
A Toolkit for Successful Readers
•
•
•
•
•

Background Know...
ExC-ELL

ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc
ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc...
ExC-ELL

Before Reading Science, Math,
Social Studies, and Language Arts
• Build Background (content/concept)
**How is thi...
ExC-ELL

Modeling Comprehension
The ExC-ELL Teacher Read-Aloud

• Teacher and students have the same
text
• Teacher Reads ...
ExC-ELL

Video Clips of Partner Reading
Options 1 & 2
• What did you notice is different
between the two options for
partn...
ExC-ELL

Partner Reading
with Newcomers
Newcomer is sandwiched between two partners (preferably Option 1)

1. Newcomer fol...
ExC-ELL

Deepening Reading
Comprehension
• “Debriefing”
• Formulating Questions
• Graphic Organizers
• Cooperative Activit...
ExC-ELL

ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc
ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc...
ExC-ELL

Writing Goals:
• Understand the importance of writing to learn
across the content areas.

• Discover the relation...
ExC-ELL

The Writing Process
• Writing is a recursive, not a linear process. It needs
to be taught explicitly and systemat...
ExC-ELL

Mini Lessons
• Mini lessons are necessary so students can
learn to master the writing elements.
• They should be ...
ExC-ELL

WRITEAROUND
Part 1
• Clear your desks.
• Each student has one paper and pencil.
• Each student writes one sentenc...
ExC-ELL

WRITEAROUND
Part 2
• Do a Read-Around-Aloud.
• Read the narrative you are
holding to your team.
• Select the one ...
ExC-ELL

WRITEAROUND
Part 3
• Give it a title.
• Edit as instructed, elaborate, add adjectives
and adverbs, more Tier 2 & ...
ExC-ELL

Revising: Cut and Grow
Students will need the following:
 their compositions
 a blank piece of paper (preferabl...
ExC-ELL

Revising – Cut and Grow
1. Cut your composition right after the previously
chosen sentence.
2. Glue it onto a col...
ExC-ELL

Editing: Ratiocination
This strategy explicitly teaches grammar within
the writing process. It is a systematic w...
ExC-ELL

Revising: Ratiocination
1. Circle all the first words of each
sentence.
2. Make a list of all the first words and...
ExC-ELL

More Examples of Ratiocination
Code
Circle

Rectangle

Make a list of every first
word.

Clue
“to be” verbs:
is, ...
ExC-ELL

ASSESSMENT & WRITING
• The ultimate proof – assessment at the
end of each week:
For instance:
•
Write one or two ...
ExC-ELL

Tear-ups
1. Get a colored sheet of paper.
2. Close your eyes and tear it up into
a shape of your choice.
3. Use y...
ExC-ELL
ExC-ELL

Interested in becoming trained in ExC-ELL??
Contact:

Charlotte "Nadja" Trez
ESL Consultant and Title III Directo...
ExC-ELL

Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
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Expediting Reading Comprehension Across Disciplines

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Expediting Reading Comprehension across Disciplines
-It's not only for ELLs!

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Expediting Reading Comprehension Across Disciplines

  1. 1. ExC-ELL Expediting Reading Comprehension across Disciplines -It's not only for ELLs! Christa Daniel Southeastern Randolph Middle School 6-8 Science, 9-12 Science Alyson ‘Mac’ McNamara Southeastern Randolph Middle School NBCT, K-12 EC, 6-8 ELA, 6-8 Math
  2. 2. ExC-ELL Margarita Calderón "We have accumulated a collection of schoolbased and instructional features that are working for all students." (Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K-5, 2011, p.1)
  3. 3. ExC-ELL ExC-ELL: Research-based and Proven Outcomes! ExC-ELL …funded by the NY Carnegie Corporation …a professional development program for teachers …5+ years of empirical testing of ExC-ELL …Shows great results!
  4. 4. ExC-ELL Why Involve ALL Teachers with ExC-ELL? ExC-ELL! ExC-ELL! ExC-ELL!
  5. 5. ExC-ELL ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners ExC-ELL
  6. 6. ExC-ELL Alphabet Soup
  7. 7. ExC-ELL ExC-ELL Parallels the CCSS The CCSS call for basic changes in the way all K-12 teachers have been teaching: • Academic vocabulary (e.g., tier 1, 2, 3 words). • Language (e.g., rich discourse, discussions, questions, answers). • Reading (e.g., text complexity, more informational than literary). • Writing from sources (e.g., texts they are reading). • Building knowledge in the disciplines by teaching reading, vocabulary and writing in science, social studies, and Inc. Margarita Calderón & Associates, language arts.
  8. 8. ExC-ELL ALL students will read, discuss and write in all subjects EVERY CLASS, EVERY DAY! ExC-ELL strategies HELP!
  9. 9. ExC-ELL The Big Question from Teachers: What can ExC-ELL do for my students? Prior to ExC-ELL: Surface Comprehension Deep Comprehension • low-level questions • With ExC-ELL: learn new vocabulary • rich discussions • critical comprehension lacks rich discussions •
  10. 10. ExC-ELL Vocabulary and Oracy Development Takes Place: Before Reading Pre-teaching of vocabulary During Reading Teacher read alouds Student peer reading After Reading Peer summaries Depth of word studies/grammar Class discussions
  11. 11. ExC-ELL How to Select Words to Teach Choose words that are critically important: • to the text • to the understanding of the concept • to the unit
  12. 12. ExC-ELL Vocabulary TIERS Tier 3 Content specific words (highlighted in the text) Tier 2 Academic process language Transition words Connectors Polysemous words Tier 1 Basic words usually taught by many teachers
  13. 13. ExC-ELL Tier 2 Words in End Of Grade & End Of Course Exams, the “high-stakes” testing. Information Processing Words • Infer • Implied • Convey
  14. 14. ExC-ELL Vocabulary Tiers: Specificity & Sophistication Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 knee kneecap patella in all total sum person character protagonist people population demographics
  15. 15. ExC-ELL Tier 2- The “Forgotten List” of Vocabulary • Academic Processing words • Idioms • Transition words and connectors • Phrasal Clusters • Sophisticated and Specific • Homophones
  16. 16. ExC-ELL ROUNDTABLE Clear your desks. Only one paper and pencil. Each student writes one answer and passes the paper to the right. Everyone must write an answer. Continue this process until the teacher calls time. Count the number of correct responses by your team. Delete repeated words and report your numbers. Round 2!
  17. 17. ExC-ELL A Queen’s Wish One gray winter day the elderly queen summoned all her grandchildren to the castle. “I have been fortunate to have lived a long life,” she said. “But in time your generation will rule the country. You must work persistently to help the people and take care of the land. “We will always work hard,” the children replied. “You must also be faithful to your brothers and sisters, no matter what,” the queen said.
  18. 18. ExC-ELL Vocabulary Tiers for ELLs A Queen’s Wish Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Simple Words Process, Idioms, Sophisticated Content Words, Key vocabulary wish in time summoned gray take care fortunate Queen replied generation castle no matter what persistently rule elderly faithful
  19. 19. ExC-ELL Pre-Teach Step 1 Teacher says the word . ExC-ELL, ExC-ELL, ExC-ELL Teacher asks students to repeat the word three times (whisper, high, low) ExC-ELL, ExC-ELL, ExC-ELL Say the word in context from the text. We will receive an overview of ExC-ELL today. Step 4 Teacher provides the definition of the word (dictionary) ExC-ELL is an acronym for Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners. Step 5 Provide the meaning in studentfriendly terms. ExC-ELL is a way to help ELLs learn to read and write in a quick and accurate way! Step 6 Student actively engages with the word to develop word/concept knowledge. Turn to your partner and discuss the acronym ExC-ELL. What do each of the letters stand for? Step 7 Highlight grammar, spelling, polysemy Note- this word is not to be confused with Excel, a popular program by Microsoft to make spreadsheets. Step 2 Step 3
  20. 20. ExC-ELL Examples for Step #6 Popcorn Activity: If you are studying for a test, you need to do it persistently. What else do you need to do persistently?
  21. 21. ExC-ELL Expository Text Text that Explains Facts and Concepts A Toolkit for Successful Readers • • • • • Background Knowledge Vocabulary Text Features Text Structure Reading Comprehension Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
  22. 22. ExC-ELL ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners ExC-ELL
  23. 23. ExC-ELL Before Reading Science, Math, Social Studies, and Language Arts • Build Background (content/concept) **How is this different from “front loading?” • Explicitly Pre-teach Key Words and Phrases • Set Content Objective for Reading/I can I will (we can and will) • Model Reading Comprehension Strategy
  24. 24. ExC-ELL Modeling Comprehension The ExC-ELL Teacher Read-Aloud • Teacher and students have the same text • Teacher Reads and Thinks Aloud • Explicitly Teach Reading Strategies • Student Practice Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
  25. 25. ExC-ELL Video Clips of Partner Reading Options 1 & 2 • What did you notice is different between the two options for partner reading? • How do you decide whether a student would use option 1 or option 2 for partner reading?
  26. 26. ExC-ELL Partner Reading with Newcomers Newcomer is sandwiched between two partners (preferably Option 1) 1. Newcomer follows along and listens to partner reading. 2. Newcomer chorally reads softly with each partner. 3. Newcomer echo reads after each partner reads their sentence. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
  27. 27. ExC-ELL Deepening Reading Comprehension • “Debriefing” • Formulating Questions • Graphic Organizers • Cooperative Activities Post Reading
  28. 28. ExC-ELL ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc ccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccssccsscc Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners ExC-ELL
  29. 29. ExC-ELL Writing Goals: • Understand the importance of writing to learn across the content areas. • Discover the relationship between standardsbased writing and literacy development and academic achievement. • Explore teaching strategies and techniques to assist students with writing.
  30. 30. ExC-ELL The Writing Process • Writing is a recursive, not a linear process. It needs to be taught explicitly and systematically in stages. • Vocabulary to use • Drafting • Revising • Editing • Final Draft/Publishing • Throughout the process, students should have explicit mini lessons and examples of features expected for that composition. • They should have opportunities to conference and get feedback from peers and teacher.
  31. 31. ExC-ELL Mini Lessons • Mini lessons are necessary so students can learn to master the writing elements. • They should be short and focus on one aspect of the writing they are about to begin. • They can be delivered in a small group or to the whole class. • Topics include what students need: subjectverb agreement, transitions, dialogue, combining sentences, etc. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
  32. 32. ExC-ELL WRITEAROUND Part 1 • Clear your desks. • Each student has one paper and pencil. • Each student writes one sentence and passes the paper to the right. • Read the narrative on the paper you received and write one sentence to go with that narrative. • Continue this process until the teacher calls time out. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
  33. 33. ExC-ELL WRITEAROUND Part 2 • Do a Read-Around-Aloud. • Read the narrative you are holding to your team. • Select the one you like best. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
  34. 34. ExC-ELL WRITEAROUND Part 3 • Give it a title. • Edit as instructed, elaborate, add adjectives and adverbs, more Tier 2 & 3 words. • Add a powerful ending or conclusion. • Prepare your volunteer to read it to the class. Help the volunteer practice reading with prosody! • 10 minutes to prepare; 1-2 minutes to read.
  35. 35. ExC-ELL Revising: Cut and Grow Students will need the following:  their compositions  a blank piece of paper (preferably pastel-colored) scissors tape • Students cut their compositions right after their unelaborated sentence and glue it onto the colored sheet of paper. • The elaborated sentences are written on the colored sheet. Once written, the students tape the rest of their composition onto the colored sheet. • Students reread their improved compositions.
  36. 36. ExC-ELL Revising – Cut and Grow 1. Cut your composition right after the previously chosen sentence. 2. Glue it onto a colored sheet of paper. 3. Write your elaborated sentences on the colored sheet. 4. Tape the rest of the composition to the colored sheet. 5. Reread the improved version.
  37. 37. ExC-ELL Editing: Ratiocination This strategy explicitly teaches grammar within the writing process. It is a systematic way for students to revisit their own papers. • The teacher directs the students to check their papers for a particular purpose, such as overuse of the “to be” verbs. • Teachers may need to do a mini-lesson before the particular skill is checked for. • Teachers should start by checking for one clue per paper and add more as the students learn the process. • Students should have colored markers, pencils, or crayons available for this activity. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. --Acts of Teaching, Joyce Armstrong Carroll
  38. 38. ExC-ELL Revising: Ratiocination 1. Circle all the first words of each sentence. 2. Make a list of all the first words and count how many times they are repeated. 3. Look for more interesting words or phrases to begin your sentences.  Note: This process can be done with verb tenses, transition words, adjectives, etc.
  39. 39. ExC-ELL More Examples of Ratiocination Code Circle Rectangle Make a list of every first word. Clue “to be” verbs: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been First word in every sentence. Substitute with sophisticated transition word or connector. Find Tier 1 word and substitute with Tier 2. Margarita Add more Tier 3 words. Calderón & Associates, Inc.
  40. 40. ExC-ELL ASSESSMENT & WRITING • The ultimate proof – assessment at the end of each week: For instance: • Write one or two paragraphs summarizing what you learned about _______________ using as many tier 2 and tier 3 words as you have learned. Use appropriate connectors, transition or signal words. Use compound sentences or different types of clauses.
  41. 41. ExC-ELL Tear-ups 1. Get a colored sheet of paper. 2. Close your eyes and tear it up into a shape of your choice. 3. Use your shapes to create a text about your content area. 4. Use your Tier 2 and 3 words in the story. Circle them as you incorporate them in the story.
  42. 42. ExC-ELL
  43. 43. ExC-ELL Interested in becoming trained in ExC-ELL?? Contact: Charlotte "Nadja" Trez ESL Consultant and Title III Director nadja.trez@dpi.nc.gov (919)807-3866 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
  44. 44. ExC-ELL Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

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