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Loss And Grief

Review For Nursing Licensure Examination - Loss And Grief

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Loss And Grief

  1. 1. Grief and Loss
  2. 2. GRIEF AND LOSS <ul><li>Loss is a universal experience that occurs throughout life span </li></ul><ul><li>Grief is a form of sorrow involving feelings, thoughts, and behaviors caused by bereavement </li></ul>
  3. 3. GRIEF AND LOSS <ul><li>Responses to loss are strongly influenced by one’s cultural background </li></ul><ul><li>The grief process involves a sequence of affective, cognitive, and psychological states as a person responds to, and finally accepts a loss. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Loss and grieving <ul><li>LOSS= something valuable is gone </li></ul><ul><li>GRIEF= total response to emotional experience related to loss </li></ul><ul><li>BEREAVEMENT= Subjective response by loved-ones </li></ul><ul><li>MOURNING= behavioral response </li></ul>
  5. 5. GRIEF AND LOSS <ul><li>Stages of Grieving (Kubbler-Ross) </li></ul><ul><li>Denial- refuses to believe that the loss has occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Anger- the individual resists the loss and may “act out” feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining- the individual attempts to make a deal in an attempt to postpone the reality of loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression- overwhelming feeling of loneliness and withdrawal from others </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance- the individual comes to terms with loss, or impending loss, psychological reactions to loss to the loss cease, and the interaction to other people resumed . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Loss and grieving <ul><li>Stages of Grieving by Kubbler-Ross </li></ul><ul><li>DABDA </li></ul><ul><li>DENIAL= refusal to believe </li></ul><ul><li>ANGER= hostility </li></ul><ul><li>BARGAINING= feeling of guilt, fear of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSION= withdrawn behavior </li></ul><ul><li>ACCEPTANCE= comes to terms with loss </li></ul>
  7. 7. Loss and grieving Begins to plan like wills, prosthesis A Laments over what has happened D Feelings of guilt, punishment for sins B Retaliation A Refuses to believe that loss is happening D Behaviors Stages
  8. 8. Death and Dying (Kozier) Death as multiple meanings 65 and above Experiences peak of death anxiety 45-65 years Attitude is influenced by religion 18-45 Fears a lingering Death 12-18 years Death is INEVITABLE Understands own mortality 9-12 years Understands DEATH is FINAL but can be AVOIDED 5 to 9 years NO clear concept of Death It is Reversible , temporary sleep Infancy to 5 years old Beliefs AGE
  9. 9. Nursing responsibilities In Death and dying <ul><li>Nurses need to take time to analyze their own feelings about death before they can effectively help others with terminal illness </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nursing responsibilities In Death and dying <ul><li>The major goals for the dying clients are: </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain PHYSIOLOGIC and PSYCHOLOGIC support </li></ul><ul><li>To Achieve a dignified and peaceful death </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain personal control </li></ul>
  11. 11. Loss and Death RESPONSIBILITIES <ul><li>Provide Relief from loneliness, fear and depression </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients maintain sense of security </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients accept losses </li></ul><ul><li>Provide physical comfort </li></ul>
  12. 12. LOSS ,GRIEVING AND DEATH <ul><li>DEATH CONCEPTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-5 – IMMOBILITY AND INACTIVITY Wishes and unrelated action responsible for action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5-10 – final but can be avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9-12 – understands own mortality and fears death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 – 18 – fears and fantasizes avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18-45 – increased attitude awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45-65 – accepts mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above 65 – multiple meanings, encounters and fears </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Interventions <ul><li>D – SUPPORTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>A- PROVIDE STRUCTURE AND CONTINUITY </li></ul><ul><li>B – LISTEN AND ENCOURAGE </li></ul><ul><li>D- ALLOW EXPRESSION AND PROVIDE FOR SAFETY </li></ul><ul><li>A- ENCOURAGE PARTICIPATION </li></ul>
  14. 14. End
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Review For Nursing Licensure Examination - Loss And Grief

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